Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A1. The ancient sun.


Another sun — less powerful or less favourable to humans — existed before the present sun.

(Wed. Bantu-speaking Africa. Fioti [The Milky Way is the funeral path of a monstrous star that once shone brighter than the sun]: Pechuël-Loesche 1907:135).

Melanesia. Gazelle Peninsula (New Britain) [the man was angry in the Sun for always shining, preventing him from climbing the breadtree for fruit; at night he put a noose on the tree, caught the Sun behind leg, killed; he warned that another Sun would come to avenge him; so it happened; the man tried to hide in a hole, in the water, but the Sun killed him and all his relatives]: Meier 1909 in Luomala 1940:39.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Apatani: Elwin 1958a, No. 4 [Dacha-Untre quarreled with his son Ari-Untre, killed him with an arrow in the eye, his blood became fire, his bones became iron; the remaining eye became the Sun and was too hot. everything was on fire; Middo-Kojim's son and daughter died from the heat; MK shot the Sun and killed it, it became dark; a new, not so hot Sun appeared]: 38-39; (cf. Blackburn 2008 [Hintii Anii gave birth to forms — first earth and sky, then Sun and Moon; they were her eyes; evil spirits led by Giirii created the second Chanter Danyi sun and the second Chanter Pulo moon, became It's unbearably hot; Tamu's spirit shot the second sun and moon, only Danyi and Pulo left]: 154).

Caucasus — Asia Minor. Svanas [(zap. B. Nizharadze, 1889); before the Sun there was another star, it was on earth; God called him to heaven, the world remained in the dark; the Sun and the Month had one father, different mothers, a Month younger; God promised to do the light of the one who gets up earlier; The month put thorns on the bed, but fell asleep by morning; the sun slept well, got up early; The month woke up by lunchtime, his mother slapped him in the face with her hand stained in the dough, stains remain]: Virsaladze 1973, No. 4:48-49 (=Chikovani 1985, No. 154:325).

The coast is the Plateau. Shuswap: Boas 1895, No. I.2 [The old Sun burns everything; birds try to choose something new; Coyote tries to be the sun, but his tail is too long and he talks about what he sees from above; choose a bird with a red tail and wings]: 5 (=2002:67); Teit 1909a, No. 53 [people are dissatisfied with the sun, they appoint Coyote to be new; he sees women copulating, telling everyone; he approaches too much close to the ground; then the Woodpecker is made the sun; he lays an egg, the present sun emerges from it]: 738; Thompson [the daughter of the Sun marries man; does not come to her father when he asks her; man leaves her wife because she is hot; The sun does not want to take her daughter back; turns her into the present sun; this woman walks in the sky looking for her father; her two children are occasionally visible false suns]: Teit 1898, No. IX: 54-55 ; comox (catoltk) [Tar fish at night, his wife calls him home at dawn; one day he lingers, he melts in the sun; his two sons make a chain of arrows, climb into the sky, kill the Sun with arrows; the youngest becomes the Month, the eldest becomes the Sun]: Boas 1895, No. VIII.2:64-65 (=2002:180-181); clallam [see J4B motif, K27; two girls make a boy out of resin; he comes to life, takes one of they marry; melts in the sun; his two sons climb into heaven to take revenge on the Sun; marry his daughters; bring him a basket of berries, the Sun eats them, bursts; the younger brother becomes the Month and determines the regulations women and gestation periods; the elder becomes the Sun]: Gunther 1925:131-134.

The Midwest. Western Swamp Cree (northern Manitoba) [when the daughter of the old Sun shook her clothes out of goose down, it snowed on the ground; when his son hung willow bark nets, it rained on the ground; their father grew old and left; the children were arguing about who to keep the sun burning (the sister is older, but the brother is male); the sun did not rise in the morning; Keche Manitoo sent Wesukechak to find out what was going on; tells his brother to support sun fire (Pesim) and sister moons (Tippiskawepesim); as punishment for a quarrel, brother and sister will only see each other a few times a year]: Clay 1978:24-27; Northern Ojibwa (Sandy Lake) [father tells his son and daughter that now they will have to maintain the fire of the sun themselves; they fight for the right to be the sun, the sky is darkening; Visakajak in the guise of a Thunderbird flies to heaven; assigns his brother to be by the sun, by the sister by the moon; they will never meet, they will only be together in the sky for a few days a year]: Ray, Stevens 1971:26-27; meti [The sun is too close to the ground, its rays burn everything; First A real Young Man catches him in a hole, the world falls into darkness; he tries to catch the Month, but he is trapped in a tree now playing the role of the sun]: Erdoes, Ortiz 1984:166.

Northeast. Naskapi (escumene) [The sun is too hot; the old man cannot trap him; his son Tsekabek catches; it's getting dark; the rabbit, the birds, the mouse, the mole can't get close, gnaw the trap; the rabbit is burned; Tsekabek's mother crochets one eye for catching the Sun; his father puts owl eyes in Tsekabek and his wife; Tsekabek's son sets a trap for the Month , Tsekabek himself falls into it; his son turns him into a new sun]: Speck 1935a: 59-61.

Plains. Tonkawa [a young man fires an arrow at the arrogant Sun; it splits in two, the present sun and month emerge from the halves]: Gatschet MS in Newcomb, Campbell 2001:960.

Southeast USA. Chirokee [The Sunwoman hated people, sent diseases with her rays; the first ancestors placed snakes near her daughter's house, which she visited; the Sun died, her daughter became the new sun]: Mooney 1900:436.

Big Pool. The sun was too close to the ground and too hot; if not otherwise: The Rabbit kills it, makes a new sun out of the entrails of the old one. The Northern Payutes [Tavúu hunts rabbits, comes to the girl, sleeps with her; paints red eyes, hangs stones above the door; the girl's brothers come back, fear him; then they come in, take him away rabbit; he turns into a Rabbit himself, watches them fight to give him water; ties him by the hair, burns him in the house at night; the girl refuses to go with him; he pulls her finger on the anus, throws it in fire; The sun goes down before T. can get the rabbit he ran for; together with his younger brother (little Rabbit) they go east; the sun rises, arrows burn, T. fires instead of an arrow a fire drill breaks the Sun, throws bile into the sky, this is the new sun; it now walks not in the mountains, but across the sky; an avalanche of fire haunts brothers; they are not saved by stone, wood, they hide under a cactus that only burns thorns; T. sleeps at Vulture; swaps places with his son, Vulture holes his son's head at night; T. suggests shooting at each other one; Vulture misses, T. kills him; the old woman replies that she is weaving the basket to put in it those who killed the Sun; T. invites her to try on the basket, climb into it, rips open the old woman with a knife; other women they're weaving water baskets to have supplies when the Sun Killers come and we'll hide; Show me! They entered the house, he burned them; people were swaying on the branches of the tree; the brothers also began to swing, told the branches to fly into the sky, the swaying ones crashed; people built a house under the rock; T.: why? — Hide from the Sun's killers; - Show me; everyone came in, the rock collapsed, crushing everyone; the brothers turned into big and small rabbits]: Curtis 1976 (15): 143-147; northern payut: Powell 1971 [days are too short; Ta-woo (Little Rabbit) goes east to kill the Sun; his arrows burn in the air; he wets the latter with tears, it hits the Sun; T. gutts him, bile throws it into the sky, it turns into a new Sun, which is higher (so the day is longer); the Sun pursues T., only a thorny tree hides it from the heat; on the way home, T. exterminates Ants, Lice, Vultures and other enemies; some want the day to be always at home; T. objects because people should sleep with their wives and dream]: 227-229; Steward 1936, No. 10 (paviotso) [new sun from the gallbladder], 32 (Owens- Veli) [animal people compete to run with the people of the Sun; animals win, Coyote burns the Sun; it gets dark; the Duck sings, dawns]: 225-227, 411-415; panamint [while the Rabbit sleeps, the Sun counts his vertebrae; the Rabbit goes to kill him; asks different bushes how they burn; one replies that only his leaves are burning; under him the Rabbit digs a hole; the arrows fired into the Sun burn; The rabbit hits him with a fire drill; the earth heats up, the Rabbit hides in its hole; when the earth cools down, he makes a new sun out of his front heart, a month out of his bud; on the way home he kills various humans and animals]: Zigmond 1980, No. 72:233-236; Western Shoshones: Steward 1943:270 [The sun was too low; the Coyote people compete with the Sun's people on the run, win; Coyote burns The sun; its people throw the Sun's gallbladder high into the sky, it turns into a new sun], 277-278 [The rabbit turns the Sun's gallbladder into the new sun], 278-281 [the sky is too low, the sun is too hot; Rabbit and his brother kill the Sun; brother burns; Rabbit makes a month out of the Sun's gallbladder, a new sun from the old bladder; pushes the sky higher]; Smith 1993:97 —99 [new sun from bile, month from the gallbladder], 167-172 [sun from the gallbladder, month from the kidneys]; Steward 1966, No. 47 [terrestrial animals race against the Sun, stars, birds; win; Fox burns the Sun ; makes new things that rise higher]: 436; northern shoshones: Lowie 1909b, No. 8a [The sun is too hot; the rabbit shoots, the arrows burn; knocks down the Sun with a fire drill; people they rip open the Sun's belly, take out bile, make it a new sun; the Horned Toad puts it in the sky with its horns], 8b [starts like in (a); people make the Sun and the Month, put it in the sky]: 252-253.

The Great Southwest. Teva (San Juan) [Yellow Corn rejects grooms, gives birth to a boy from the sunlight; the grandmother tells him who his father is; he meets a Sun man; he tells his grandmother to cover him with a blanket, hit them with a stick; two come out of one young man; the sun bathes them in a spring, adorns them with parrot tail feathers, turquoise and quartz beads; the eldest becomes the summer Sun, walks slowly; the youngest is winter, walks fast]: Parsons 1926, No. 30:99-102.

Mesoamerica Tarasca [Cupantzieeri (Sol despojado de los cabellos {"The sun that was scalped off?} , or perhaps more precisely Apantzieeri (“ballplayer”) goes to play ball with Ahchuri-hirepe (La noche que apresura, “Fast Coming Night”), loses, sacrificed by him in Xacona (“House of the Night”); after his His son Sira-Tatáperi is born, and while hunting, he is going to shoot an iguana with a bow; she asks not to kill her, talks about his father's fate; S. finds, digs up his father's corpse, carries it on the back; on the way, a flock of quails (codornizes) takes off, he puts the corpse on the ground to shoot birds, the corpse turns into a deer with a tail and mane (crines a la cerviz), runs to the right, perhaps there where did those who later came from (Spaniards) later come from]: Relación 1989:259 (paraphrase and interpretation in Corona Núñez 1957:20-22 [by Seler, the name Sira-Tatáperi means “main root or a trunk from which people sprouted like side shoots”; in Cuitzeo, Michoacán, they still play with a burning, smoldering ball of dry root magey; the picture from the codex (fig.1) shows a ball court framed by stars and two players apparently playing with the sun]; German translation in Krickeberg 1928:169); Aztecs: Bierhorst 1992 [Codex Chimalpopoca; people of the first Sun are devoured jaguars, the second was blown away by the wind, turned into monkeys, the third was destroyed by the fiery rain, turned into turkeys, the fourth by the flood, turned into fish; every time the sun dies along with the earth and its inhabitants; (further on the creation of our world and the present sun)]: 142-144; tsotzil [Jesus, aka kox, planted cotton seeds, they turned into bees; told his two older brothers that he saw a hive in the tree; they climbed the tree, but shed only wax on the younger one; he sculpted gophers out of wax, they broke the roots, the tree fell, the brothers crashed {and turned into wild boars}; Kox I asked my mother for 6 cakes, built a pen, stuck cakes on the faces of the wild boars (piglets) that came, three wild boars ran away, tearing off their tails, which were wild; promises his mother (=St. Virgo) that he will be able to cultivate the field himself; turns sticks into workers; when he returns, the forest is intact again; {does he think wasps are to blame?} He tears wasps to pieces, so they have a narrow waist; finds two rabbits and two deer telling the trees to rise; he stretched out their ears, they are what they are now; the rabbit is the elder brother of a deer like how gopher is Aguti's older brother; Kosh teaches his mother to go to heaven - count to 9; he became the Sun, she became the Moon; there used to be another sun, Lusibel; it was not hot enough, the earth did not dry out , it was impossible to burn vegetation in the field]: Guiteras-Holmes 196:183-186; Celtal: Nash 1970 [The moon has three sons; the eldest is God the Father, the middle is God the Son, the youngest is Kosh (“younger”); the luminary is brighter everyone; when the eldest was in heaven, there was no night, he was constantly working; Kosh took him for honey, asked his mother for tortillas, two of them small; the elder climbed a tree, threw only wax down (the same word means excrement); the animal blew up the tree, the older brothers were frightened, fell with the tree; K. put one small tortilla to his older brother's face, he turned into a pig; the other to the face average, but he ran into the forest, became a wild boar; to feed the pig, K. decided to clear the milpe; in the morning the forest grew again; he sees the bird come and says he does not want the forest to be burned; but K. set fire to the site; went to where day meets heaven, began to walk and come back, now day alternates with night]: 198-200; mopan [the son of Adam and Eve's first men was placed in heaven and made by the Sun; the crown was too hot; seven years later he caused a flood, plunged into the water; when he returned, A. decided that in another seven years his son would kill people again with a flood; it is better to choose the Sun among three orphans raised by their grandmother Xkitza; the Sun was made by their middle brother Kin (the eldest is Xulab, the Morning Star; the youngest is T'up — Mars or Jupiter); returning in the evening, Kin complained that the earth monotonous, without mountains, valleys or seas; then they did it all at night and the Sun promised from now on to shine every day without aging]: Thompson 1930:119-120; lacandons: Boremanse 1986 [the sun created by the ancient by a deity, too high, is often overshadowed; Our Father creates a new sun]: 44-45; 1989:69; Bruce 1976:77 in Milbrath 1999:24; Milbrath 1999 [(by Christian Rätsch, K'ayum Ma'ax 1984:44-46 ); the world consists of seven disc-shaped tiers; from top to bottom: 1) “Wandering Deities” (planets); 2) the tier where Kak'och (“two monkeys”) lives; Hachäkyum put the sun here, but there was already a sun on this tier, What K. did for H., the heat of both is too strong, so the sun that illuminates our world was placed on a special tier; 3) the third tier is suspended from the second, T'uup (“The Kid”) lives here — arachnid monkey, lord of the sun {there is confusion in the text; apparently, this is the fourth tier — dedicated to our sun}; 5) the sky of vultures, suspended from the fourth tier; 6) the earth; 7) the underworld, where Sukunkyum is located, suspended from stone pillars on the ground]: 20; yukateki (Izamal) [the old sun (man) was tired of wearing the crown, it was too hot; the iguana couple found two eggs by the sea, buried in sand to warm them; the old sun caused a flood; the eggs were preserved, a boy and a girl came out of them; a girl slept at the bottom of a well (cenote), a boy in a tree; saw an iguana create valleys and mountains, trees, etc.; Iguana asked him to be the new sun; the boy became the sun, the girl became the moon; they dried the earth; while they were shining together, it was too hot; they decided that the sun would be during the day, the moon at night; when the moon is not visible, she sleeps at the bottom of the well]: Villar 1989:82; mocho [two var.; when leaving for the site, two older brothers beat the younger one; kill him; when they return home, they see him sitting by the hearth; on the next day they cut him into pieces, burn them; when they return, they find him at home again; the next day they throw him into a deep ravine; old man (250, note: Old Sun; ravine — lower world?) finds him, asks him to close his eyes; when he opens them, he sees an unfamiliar place around him; the old man tells him to say goodbye to his mother; his mother brings him tortillas, but they turn into coals; from her son comes radiance and heat; his brothers burn; he becomes the Sun]: Petrich 1985a: 241-256.

The Northern Andes. Kogi [The Suns are brothers; Sintán's ancestor moves to the highest tier of the sky the one who was too hot for our world]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985 (1): 226, (2), No. 4:32; chimila [Suns are sisters; the older two died before the youngest began to shine]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1945, No. 2:5; guajiro [The month steals the Sun's headdress that gives heat and becomes by the present sun, and the Sun by this month]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1986, No. 3, 7:27-28, 32-33

Southern Venezuela. Panare [the first sun created by Mareoka quickly went out; the darkness found the hunters in the forest, they could not return; M. tried to make a new sun, created the Sun Boy; when he He slept, it was dark, and when his father went hunting, he was not allowed to sleep; the boy grew up to become the Sun; and now is the night when he sleeps, the day is when he is awake]: Delgado 2004:128-129; want [current the sun was tiny like a firefly or “sheaf of light” from the heart (ijkwo ju) of the previous sun, but grew rapidly, feeding on what people gave it and continue to give it; ñamulie jañe (first person) killed the previous sun because, while sleepy, it stayed at noon; there was neither day nor night before; to kill the former Sun, ñamulie jañe rose to heaven; he pointed to a new one The sun's daily journey through the sky (jkyo), earth (jne) and the underworld (jne jkwa)]: Matusovsky 2010.

Ecuador. Colorado [the ancient sun ate a heavenly jaguar; he went down to eat people, their knees were chewing on rats; shamans dressed up the son of a single woman in the best clothes; he cries with shining tears that everyone would die and he will be the same; took to the sky on a mule; it was cloudy for three days, then too hot; shamans left only one eye to the Sun to reduce the heat; the Sun throws a jaguar waiting for him with his mouth open partridges, which he takes out of 12 snares; if he reaches the last one, he does not find partridges in it, cries]: Calazacon, Orazona 1982:14-24.

NW Amazon. Barasana [Manioc-stick Anaconda is the half-brother, the father of the current Sun, the son of the Ancient Sun and his wife Sky (no details)]: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, No. 6A: 287; okaina [the old Sun was weak, his father killed him; his mother buried the corpse, his arms and legs turned into axes and guns; the victim's younger brother took revenge and killed his father, became the new sun; his face burns brightly with anger]: Wavrin 1932:144; 1937:639; witoto [The sun kills Wife Moon, turned into a tree; his little brother becomes the new sun]: Girard 1958:76-77.

Central Amazon. Munduruku [Wakurumpö and Karuetauibö were killed by enemies; their heads on stakes said they should go to heaven; only shamanic but unaware of The boy noticed this, but they did not believe him; people painted Uruku's heads and decorated them with feathers; at noon, their heads began to rise with their wives; K. got up quickly, and V. slowly, because his wife pregnant; people started shooting, but only a boy who knocked out V.'s eyes was hit; V. becomes the Sun of the rainy season, ashamed of his ugliness; his wife Paravabia is the Moon; K.'s head becomes the Sun of the Clear heaven; K. and V. were both reborn as the wife of the present (former) Sun, are considered his sons]: Kruse 1952, No. 13:1002-1004; Murphy 1958, No. 15:85.

Eastern Amazon. A man kills the Cannibal Sun; one of the sons of the murdered person becomes the new sun. Hissing [The Sun had dark skin; in the morning he put on a crown of macaw feathers, day came; secretly killed, fried and ate people; they decided to kill him; one man climbed onto an anage palm tree and threw He killed the sun with a heavy bunch of fruits; the sun sank up to the neck into the ground, it became dark; the four sons of the Sun had light skin, the fifth youngest had dark skin; only he could withstand the heat, trying on his father's crown; became the current Sun]: Nimuendaju 1920:1010; juruna [Kuadê Sun had a trap hole in the rock; the man got caught, pretended to be dead; K. carried it in a basket of ants; that jerked when the ants began to eat their eyes; K.'s stick wanted to hit him, but K. did not tell him, said that the prey was dead; he hung the basket on a branch outside the house; the next day his son did not find anything in it; K. let chasing a stick, but she mistakenly chased the deer, killed him; K. found a man in a tree hollow, wounded him with a stick, missed it, covered the hole with a stone; at night tapirs, wild pigs, deer, monkeys, paki, The agouti gnawed stones, breaking his teeth, freed the man; the next time the young man cut his hair, painted his face so that K. would not recognize him; climbed onto a palm tree for nuts; threw off K. a small bunch; killed a big one; a stick K. became a boa constrictor; blood — spiders, ants, snakes, centipedes; they covered the entire ground, the young man had to jump on trees to go out into a clean place; darkness came; K.'s three sons, by decree of his mother, became try to wear his father's feather crown; only the youngest could withstand the fever; his mother told him to walk slower so that people could do their business; told him to rest at noon and before sunset]: Villas Boas, Villas Boas 1973:94-97.

Montagna — Jurua. Amouesha: Santos-Granero 1991, No. 3 [During the ancient Yompor Pret sun, women gave birth to rotten trees, lizards, or hairy monkeys; the priest ordered to raise brother and sister in a special house; when she went to get water, the sister found two flowers, hid them on her body, became pregnant; the priest admitted that this was the will of the supreme god, not from his brother; the mother of the Jaguars Patonell killed her; the twins from her womb threw themselves into the water, they were raised by fish (catfish, Loricariidae); they play, no one can catch them; the lizard said he would catch, but he was ridiculed; he left, the priest told Call him back, he agreed for the fifth time; the twins were caught, but they did not grow up; P. said she would raise them, she had a lot of meat; they always dirty themselves, P. washes them; tells her not to touch her cassava beer ; every time they find them drunk, they say that their sister bee is preparing the drink; one day P.'s sons returned without prey, offered to cook the twins; they gave P. a drink themselves, cooked it, scattered parts of it bodies in different places; hid under the roof; body parts respond to jaguars from different sides, tell them to eat brew like twins; brothers shouted to them what they were eating; Puma and Ocelot did not eat, understood; jaguars found the mother's head in the cauldron; they set fire to the house, the twins jumped across the lake, made a bridge of vines; the jaguars walked along it, they brought it down, one pregnant jaguariha escaped; the twins became adults, went up to heaven, brother became the Sun, sister became the Moon], 3a [excerpt: the sister went to get water, Patonell ate it, the twins jumped into the water; became the Sun and Moon]: 54-59; machigenga [the ancient Sun shone faintly (the name of this the sun means “who moves fast and often”)]: Pereira 19881:23; character: Barriales 1970 [The sun and its brother lived on earth, burned everything; people managed to kill one, the other ran to heaven]: 59; Calífano 1995, No. 7 [it was two suns and it was too hot; two birds cut off one head, hung it on a tree; the head turned into bees and honey]: 184; Gray 1996 [there were two suns, man and woman; The man was huge and walked so close to the ground that everything was burning; a man named Manco hit him with an arrow in the eye, he disappeared; our current sun is a woman] :59.

Southern Amazon. Nambiquara [the battleship undermined the earth; the ancient sun and moon (uncharacterized) collapsed along with part of the sky; the old man became the new sun, the old woman became the moon]: Pereira 1974a: 49-50; Iranian woman [young man goes to look for a wife; climbs a tree above the river; Mae-do-sol (Euchroma gigantea) takes his reflection for his own, wonders how beautiful she is; the young man says she is ugly ; she takes him to her place, gives him a chicha of excrement; he leaves; asks Mae-da-Agua (aquatic perfume with a fish tail, long hair, two horns) to transport him across the river; M. intends to fry it and eat; the young man gives their children manioc starch, who teach him to jump off their father's back in the middle of the river, swim fast to the shore; the father turns the children into jati s; the young man comes to the village of the Sun; He is old, weak, gives little light and little meat; the young man copulates with two wives of the Sun; they hide him in palm leaves; they kill his old husband with a pestle, make the young man a new sun; at first he is too hot; he distributes meat to all villagers; his wives' brothers are happy]: Pereira 1985, No. 4:49-55; paresi [The Evening Star was the sun then; married to two sisters Enoaré went to the woods; in at this time, the clouds covered the “sun”; both wives ran into the forest to see if the husband had turned into something during the eclipse; he became a fig tree, the younger sister a forest spirit; the eldest ran to her mother, who turned into a Dusicyon thous wolf; the eldest was left alone, made all kinds of bees out of latex]: Pereira 1987, No. 109:594-595.

The Southern Cone. South Tehuelches [former Heller (distorted. Elal) was afraid that his son (with the same name), vulnerable only to the heel, would deprive him of power; chased him, he rode away on a magic horse; threw arrows behind him, creating obstacles — mountains, rivers, valleys; father fell exhausted, died; mother advised her son to marry the daughter of the Sun; turned into a swan, brought him to the Sun; 1) he changed his daughter and maid's clothes, but Heller found out who the bride was; 2 ) kill a guanaco who killed people with a glance (crept up quietly, hit an arrow in the heart); 3) get a ring from a nandu egg, the contents of which are deadly poisonous (wearing guanaco skin, broke the egg, splashes skinned); father-in-law grew old, died, Heller inherited the world, lives in the sun]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1984b, No. 27:45-46; selknam [at first the sun was Kranakhátaix, too strong, almost shining round the clock; Kwányip decided to rectify the situation, the sun was Kran, the son of the former sun; it is not known where he went; the Moon (Kra) is the wife of the Sun]: Gusinde 1937, No. 5a: 599-600; (English translation in Wilbert 1975a, No. 14:45-46); Yagans [Taruwalëm was evil, hated everyone, decided to burn the land; the sea was boiling, the whole world burned down, the mountain peaks have since been bald; women who held power at that time, rushed at him; he escaped, ran to heaven, now there is a star; after the overthrow of women's rule, his son Lëm also rose to heaven (the current sun); Kéšpix (the souls of ancient people) are gone far to the west, where they have fun playing kálaka ball; once T. came there, lit everything; wanted to reduce the fever, but couldn't; when he left, this place cooled down; so the whole world first burned down, then cooled down ]: Gusinde 1931:1144-1145 (English translation in Wilbert 1977, No. 1:17-18).