Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A12H. A woman covers the sun. (.

Sun or moon eclipses are caused by a woman's attack.

Kabila, Latins, (Millingimbi, Murngin), Dobu, Bhils, Ancient Greece, Bulgarians, Russians (the place of recording is not a decree.), Nogais, Karachays, Balkarians, Ingush, Turks, Chuvash, Kazan Tatars, Khakas, Masateks, Cuicateques, Kogi.

North Africa. Kabila [the world's first mother was a great sorceress; she whipped the water in a wooden bowl with a sickle, the spray rose, the sun fell into the bowl, it became dark; people said to kill one of their loved ones this woman's children, give it to the Sun, it will return; it happened; and now there are old women in every village who can lower the sun or moon into a bowl of water, you must sacrifice a loved one by such an old woman baby; the shine in the center of the bowl of water is the sun; the teeth of the sickle with which the water was whipped are stars]: Frobenius 1921a, No. 7:75-76.

Southern Europe. Latins: Mart. Ep. IX. 29. 9-10 [“Medea” by Lucius Anney Seneca (1st century); Medea, casting spells: “I see Trivia agile horses here, /Not the ones she is round and clear, /She drives all night, but those on which ones, /Saddened her face, pulling a reason, /At the painful call of the Thessalian spells/Approaching the ground. Let your dim light up the darkness/Your dim light with a sad ray” (trans. C. Osherov); apparently, we are talking about a lunar eclipse]: Sen. Med. 786-793; [Mark Valery Martial's epigram (c. 40-104) to Philenida's death: “Who will now lower the moon to earth with Thessalian witchcraft, /Who can cheat as cleverly as you now?” (per. F. Petrovsky)]; Lasch 1900 [made a fuss during the eclipse to scare off demons]: 137.

Australia. Millingimbi [A month is the lazy husband of two wives; they were tired of getting food for him, they rushed with a digger and an ax, cut off pieces of fat from him; when there was not much left, he climbed on the tree, then into heaven, disappeared; later appeared again; every night the wives managed to cut off larger pieces; this is the cause of the lunar phases]: Wells 1965:18-21; murngin [Hulley & Roberts 1996:53 -56; the month of Ngalindi is a fat and lazy man; for his laziness (or for breaking prohibitions), his wives cut off pieces from him; he escapes by climbing a tall tree to follow the Sun, but dies because of his wounds; three days later he is resurrected, gets fat again; then his wives attack him again and everything happens again]: Hamacher 2011:130.

Melanesia. Dobu [women cause sun and moon eclipses by throwing coconut leaf cuttings through the cracks in the house]: Bromilow 1912:148 in Frazer 1939:258.

South Asia. Bhila [a woman from the basket caste sits between the earth and the stars and casts a shadow over the month and the sun; to prevent this from happening, the baskets are given alms]: Koppers 1948:284-285 (same in Koppers, Jungblut 1976:217-218).

The Balkans. Ancient Greece: Afanasiev 1994 (3) [the Greeks explained the eclipse of the sun and moon by abducting them from the sky; sorceresses reduced the stars to zemil, extinguished their flames; in such a kidnapping, they were mainly Thessalian witches are suspected; in Aristophanes's Clouds, Strepsiads, explaining to Socrates his remedy not to pay debts, advises him to acquire a Thessalian witch; she will hide the moon in a box , and then you can extend the month as long as you like]: 454; Aristoph. Nub. 749-755 [Strepsiad: “What if I'm a Thessalian sorcer/I hire and bring me out of heaven a month at night, /And put it tightly in a round chest, /Like a mirror, and guard it?” ; Socrates: “What are the benefits of this?” ; Strepsiad: “What are the benefits? /Until a month comes to heaven, /Lichway, I will not pay debts” (trans. A. Piotrovsky)]; Bulgarians [during the lunar eclipse, Bulgarians try to shoot away witches (magesnites) who, in their opinion, captured the moon]: Gura 1997: Afanasiev 1994 (3): 454.

Central Europe. Russians [lamentation: The Red Girl walked around the forest, spoke pain, collected herbs, pulled out roots, stole the Month, ate the Sun]: Afanasiev 1994 (3): 455.

Caucasus — Asia Minor. Nogais: Aleinikov 1893 [the wind produces an Burr jacket (an old sorceress) living in the east; she is neither good nor evil; if it blows for less than three days, it purifies the air, if more, she is angry, even attacks the moon and the sun, blocking their light]: 5-6; Karachays: Dzhurtubayev 1991:78-79 [Aleinikov 1883, No. 5:157-162; the prince had a daughter Jelmouth; on the very first night a bucket of water disappeared and calf, all the cattle gradually disappeared; one of her brothers, Kyyynly (Goremyk), went to the Black Sea coast; found puppies in the caught fish and raised them; when he went home, he found only a sister and a blacksmith there; sister tears off one leg from his brother's horse, then the other, etc.; the mouse advises K. to run while J. sharpens his steel teeth; the mouse points J. three times in the other direction, the fourth time she runs on the right track; K. calls on their dogs, they tear J. apart, the head remains; one dog grabs its head by the hair, the other by the lower jaw, the head rises with them to the moon; once a year, dogs fall asleep, their heads devour moon, an eclipse occurs; at this time people are making noise to wake dogs; =2007:372-375; (briefly similar text in Potanin 1883:775-776)], 80 [Sysoev 1913:75-76; Gelmouth's head was cut off by a sledge Kyyynly, she is now trying to swallow the moon; if she succeeded, she would swallow the whole of humanity]; Jurtubayev 2007:367-370 [a daughter is born after eight sons; the youngest son demands that she be killed, having received a refusal, he leaves; herds the cattle of the elderly, defeats and kills the five-headed emegen, then emegensha, having received her parents' eyes that had previously been stored in mercury; goes to visit relatives; in the village only sister, she goes out to sharpen her teeth, brother runs, throws a whetstone (rock, sister gnaws), a knife (an iron rock, gnaws), an awl (ironwood) behind; the young man hides at the top; the crows refuse convey the message to adoptive parents, pigeons pass on; dogs come running, sister takes off, dogs behind her; yellowmouth girl causes eclipses of the moon and sun (dogs protect the stars)], 370-371 [son, When he sees his newborn sister, he tells her to be killed, her parents refuse, he leaves; helps the female leopard to give birth, she gives him one cub, the other he takes himself; they leave him by the hair; he comes to his native village, where the blacksmith says that the young man's sister ate everyone; the sister consistently eats the horse's legs, each time asking how many legs the horse had; the brother confirms that three, two, one; the sister tells me to knock on the pelvis, she goes to sharpen her teeth; the mouse takes to knock, gives an awl, a comb, a mirror, tells me to run; objects turn into a bone lock, an iron fence; the sister catches up; the brother burns hairs, leopards come running, clinging to her jaws; a girl rises into the sky, pounces on the sun and moon, leopards prevent her from swallowing them]; Chursin 1956 [the prince had a daughter Jelmage; since that night they became Calves go missing, then bulls and cows; this girl was giantess Emegena; one of J. Kiily left, settled on the Black Sea coast; went to visit his relatives; there were only J. and the blacksmith there; J. ate one, the other, third, fourth legs of the horse, the whole horse; each time she sharpened the blacksmith's teeth; the mouse told brother to run away; J. pursues, at the last moment her brother's dogs summoned from the house tore her to pieces; clutched her head, she rose with them to the moon; since then, the head has been trying to swallow the moon, and the dogs have tried to swallow it protect]: 153; Balkarians (western 1965) [The man has an adult son, then a daughter was born; when he saw her, the son asked his parents to destroy her, but they asked him to clean up himself; he helped the tiger; she gave him one tiger cub and the other he himself stole; when they grew up, they let them call them by a hair if necessary; the boy came to his native village, there was only one blacksmith; the dragon left him alive to sharpen her teeth; the dragon sister consistently gnaws off her brother's horse's legs and each time asks how many legs the horse he was riding had (three, two, one); gave a pelvis and told her brother to knock on it until she returned; the mouse tells him to run, taking an awl, a comb and a mirror, remains to hit the pelvis; the guy throws a mirror (sea), a comb (bone tower), an awl (iron fence); if the sister catches up again, ask permission to do two parts of the prayer; before praying, the guy burned her hairs; tigers rushed, tore the girl, but could not tear her cheek off; the dragon girl flew to heaven with the hunters; she wants to eat the moon and the sun, but hunters (i.e. tigers) interfere (eclipses of stars)]: Malkonduev 2017:125-127; Ingush [darkening of the moon {it is not clear whether eclipses or spots} reflect the witch's struggle with his brother, who rose for a month]: Malsagov 1983:356; Turks [bear causes eclipses in Turks]: 27; Mészáros 1906 [during an eclipse, a jade witch hides the sun or moon]: Georgieva 1983:61.

Volga - Perm. Chuvashi: Ashmarin 1982 [Ghouls have a hole under her arms; she rises to heaven on a reel, buzzes, turns into an old woman, eats the moon, then goes to eat people; if anyone sees her eats the moon, you have to throw ash on the window pane, then W. lets go of the moon]: 50; Egorov 1995 [the orphan, driven by her stepmother, asked to go to the moon when she was surrounded by the spirits sent by her stepmother; the moon raised her to herself, along with a rocker arm and buckets (moon spots); stepmother, turning into an old woman Vupăr, tries to eat the moon from time to time (eclipse)]: 120; Zolotnitsky 1874 [moon — cow or cheese, which a witch eats during an eclipse]: 18; Kazan Tatars [riddle: “The Albanians closed the sky, it swallowed the sun, the earth hid, and, without opening its mouth, sucked it” (cloud, rain, earth)]: Makhmutov 2013, No. 223:61.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Khakasy: Butanayev 2003 [a witch rises to the moon, wanting the night star to die; she soars into the sky along the white silk thread “ah chibek”, which stretches in the form of a ray from those stuck in the threshold of the yurt was sewn or scissors; she lets her hair loose and covers the star; people were making noise at that time, shooting guns, twisted dogs ears to screech and bells rang]: 47; Patachakov in Alekseev 1980 [during an eclipse, the spirit of darkness grabs the sun or moon to deprive people of light; people tugged the ears of dogs and made noise]: 89.

Mesoamerica Masateki [the cannibal woman had the fire; all the animals came to her party, only the rabbit refused; the month was more stupid than the sun and was eaten at the festival; the dog stole the bones, gave it to the sun; the head of the month was in a pot; the animals tried to force the woman to dance; she did not want to, she was afraid that the month would be stolen from her; but the possum amused her so much that she started dancing and the dog took the pot away with a month; and the opossum reached the fire and carried away the fire on its tail; since then his tail is bald; the month and the sun are brothers; the sun has revived the months, but a piece of bone is gone, so the moon is pale; before the month was brighter than the sun, and now the sun is brighter; the cannibal chases the sun for a month; sometimes she catches, but the sun is slowly getting away from her]: Portal 1986:56-57; cuicateques [the old woman found two eggs, put them in a vessel, from which the Sun and Moon were born; every day she went to feed the deer corn porridge, told the twins to stay at home; called the deer the father of twins; when she returned, the house was full mess; once sent them to feed their father themselves — call him, Kundo, Kundo! ; they called, the deer came, they killed him, the Moon took her right eye, the Sun took his left eye; fire was needed to cook the meat; they sent a fox to the old woman; she set fire to her tail, ran away; so that the tail would not burn, the fox placed fire in the stone {obviously in the flint}, the twins cut fire out of it; brought the old woman roasted venison, and made a scarecrow out of the skin, filling it with wasps and other stinging insects; old woman she ate, and by the river, the frogs told her that she ate deer liver; the twins told the old woman to pour sand on the frog's ass, so it was rough; the black vulture also told the old woman that she ate deer; she accused the twins of killing their father; went to check it out for herself; the deer did not respond; she went to the scarecrow and hit him with a stick — why she did not answer; insects bit her; she returned home and promised the twins call their uncle; this is a jaguar; they dug a trap hole, the jaguar fell into it; then the old woman called the twins' aunt, an eagle with two heads; they made a cage, the eagle sat on top, they grabbed her by paws (and killed); the old woman called another uncle; this is an aquatic animal with a shell, but big; the twins ran, met Thunder, asked them to hide them behind her cheek; Thunder replied to the beast that his teeth hurt and his cheek swollen; the beast tried to get into Thunder's mouth, but the Sun asked to hit, Thunder smashed the beast to pieces; while Thunder was working, the twins opened three vessels in his house: water, wind and hail; The soaked Thunder came back, closed the vessels and drove the twins away: that's why your aunt kicked you out; they found honey, the Sun ate a little, and told the moon to eat more, she was thirsty; the Sun gave water only after how they changed their eyes; the Sun did not tell them to drink everything, but the Moon drank everything; the Sun told them to regurgitate some of the water, otherwise it would not be on earth; the moon regurgitated, but the dirty water stained her face, so she was wearing it stains; the woman has a chest; the Sun gave her ripe cherimoyi and said that there are many of them in the forest; she left, and he asked the rat to gnaw through the chest; the woman hears and asks, Sun: don't worry; the same with the woodpecker; agouti gnawed, a wheel with a rope in the chest, the Sun and the Moon rose to heaven, agouti followed; asks what to do; Sun: cut the rope above you; Aguti fell, buried in the ground; the woman managed spanking the moon; so when the moon looks like a sickle, women have periods; woman to the Sun: remember me when I cover your face with my underskirt]: Weitlaner 1977:56-62 (=Bartolom&# 233; 1984:6-9).

The Northern Andes. Kogi [during initiation, young men copulate with old women for the first time; for the Sun it was Selda-Bauku; then the Sun took and rejected the Toad, the Snake; married the Moon; jealous S. tries to eat the moon every month; along with two other old women, he attacks the Sun; the Sun and Moon are protected by two guards, one in front, the other behind; if S. eats the moon, he will descend to earth, will devour people]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985 (2), No. 4:33-34.