Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A18. Solar boat.


The sun and/or moon make their day and/or night (underground, in the country below the horizon, over the mountain) boat trips.

Ancient Egypt, Sumer, Akkad, Kachins, Ancient Greece, Russians (Vologda) [only in heaven?] , Latvians, bellacula, sumu, kuna, embera, guahiro, yaruro, sikuani, bari, (tunebo), makiritare, arekuna, makushi, oyana, aparai, trio, siona and sekoya, kofan, chikuna, tatuyo, taibano, barasana, makuna, letuama, desana, mochika culture, kanamari, shipibo culture.

Western Asia. Sumer [a sunny god in a boat with an oar in it; protodynastic seal (VA 2952) from southern Mesopotamia]: Alaura, Bonechi 2012, fig. 6a; Akkad: Alaura, Bonechi 2012, fig. 5a- b [sunny god in a boat with an oar in it], 6b [image of Shamash on a fragment of a ceramic wagon model, Mashkan-Shapir, medium bronze].

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Kachin [it was 9 suns, very hot; Mathum-Matta killed seven, and the current Sun and Month are hidden behind the Himalayas; the Sun floats around the Himalayas in gold, the Month in the silver boat; when the boat Suns on our side, day; moon phases: A month sits and then gets up in his boat, sometimes sleeps]: Elwin 1958b, No. 24:59.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece ["From Songs to Nanno" by Mimnerm (late 7th century BC); about Helios: "He rushes quickly through the wave into a winged bed in a concave bed. /It is wonderfully made by Hephaestus's clever hand/From multicolored gold. He rushes from above the waters, /He rests in a sweet dream, from the Hesperides country/To the land of Ethiopians. Eos/Fast horses are waiting for him with his chariot, born at dusk. /Having risen, Hyperionov's son ascends his chariot..." (per. V.V. Veresaeva)]: Mimn. Fr. 5 (Gent. -Pr.) = 4 (Gasparov). 5-11; ["Gerioneid" Stesihor (c. 632-556 BC): "Hyperion's son {Helios} is already strong/He was going to climb the golden boat, /To visit it, descending by the Ocean, /To visit it the desertion of the black night reserved/Beside the mother, beside her wife, /Beside sweet children" (trans. N. Kazansky)]: SLG 17 = Fr. 3 (Kazansky); [{Helios describes Phaeton the path of the Sun from sunset to sunrise}; "Where sunset is al, there is a gift to his father/Hephaestus God gave a golden chute /Cross the crap of circular waters/And drive away The night whose holy darkness/Overshadowed the firma/From her black-horse chariot" (trans. M.L. Gasparova)]: Aesch. Fr. 69 (Radt) = 58 (Gasparov).

Central Europe. Russians (Vologda, Kadnikovsky Uyezd) [The sun floats in a boat]: Neustupov 1902:118.

Baltoscandia. Latvians [Daina: "I asked Saule {Sun} for a month:/- Where do you rest at night? /She answered Saula, crying:/- When should I rest? /I walk in a green grove during the day/I swim in a boat at night"]: Abyzov 1984, No. 18:18 (Russian translation), 19 (Latvian original); ["This is not true/As if Saule is walking:/Through the forest in a wagon, /By sea - in boat"]: Abyzov 1984, No. 355:180 (Russian translation), 181 (Latvian original); ["Saule has faded today, /I am upset with sorrow: /The ash shuttle drowned /With silver sails"]: Abyzov 1984, No. 365: 184 (Russian translation), 185 (Latvian original).

NW Coast. Bellacula [the supreme deity Eskuntem enters the sun, sails in it like a boat; she moves by herself, she has holes through which E. looks forward]: McIlwraith 1948 (1): 33.

Honduras vs Panama. Sumu [bright planet {apparently Venus} is the "wife of the Month"; she was the girl who was raised by the moon god Udo by his fingers to heaven; various celestial bodies travel across the sky in boats]: Conzemius 1932 : 126; kuna [sun; moon; spirits and demons as passengers and helmsman]: Gomez 1969:66; Keeler 1960:242-245; Nordenskiöld 1929:150; 1930:670, 674.

The Northern Andes. Ambera [Buro-Poto was born from a tumor on a man's leg; he died; B. asked who killed his father; Jaguars (los viejos thought B. would hunt jaguars and die); killed everyone with arrows jaguars, a pregnant female remains, new from her; Snakes (the same with snakes); etc.; said that the father was killed by a snake, similar to cancer, but huge, lives in a pond, swallows whole people; B. put on a raft of firewood, made a fire in the monster's stomach, began to crumble the monster with a knife; killed an unborn cub, fried it, fed the others swallowed; swam out with a raft over the ass; killed the Moon; built the stairs, hand to the moon, there was a stain on it, the woodpecker cut off the stairs, B. fell into the sunset; the Sun took him on his underground journey along the river; there people who ate the smell, only B. ate, they asked make them anuses, died, B. revived them; crabs attacked, for underground people it was death, B. easily destroyed them; a few days later the Sun took it with it; a lot of food in a small basket; B. suck blood at night, kill women; they poured boiling water on it, it petrified, made corn grinders out of it]: Isaza Bravo 1987:128-130; guajiro: Wilbert, Simoneau 1986 (2), No. 76 [relatives a man dies, he grieves at his wife's grave; she comes on a horse, tells him not to meet her yet, they go together; their horse rushes through the darkness, over the sea; in a country overseas, a man lies in a hammock next to wife, puts his hand on the beer and corn porridge brought to her, falls asleep; waking up at noon sees a boa constrictor next to her, a prickly avocado under his head; a man walks along the road in a deserted place, a tree tells him go further; on the seashore he sees the Sun, he moves east, a fiery mirror in his hands, tells the person to move away so as not to burn; lets him drink from an inexhaustible vessel; tells him to go further west; women (these are forest turtles) tell a person to leave, he brings them misfortune; bird boys are afraid of him, they hide; the same are other locals; the lame (also a bird) sends them to the old man; this is the Sun, he invites you to his house; in the morning he goes to do his daytime work; in his absence, puloi, the spirit of man's wife, comes, eats him; when she returns, the Sun makes her regurgitate and revive the person, dazzles her; c Since then puloi, that is, enchanted places, are dark and silent; man wants to go home, the Sun tells his daughter Spider to take him away; when he reaches the great darkness, the Spider gives a ball of threads, tells him to follow him; The thread ends up unraveling in the cemetery from which the man traveled], 116 [the poor man lived only collecting fruit; the sun brought him bananas on his mule; the next time he sailed by boat, invited the man to sit in it; he wanted to help row, the Sun told him to sleep; brought him back to his wife in the morning; the next time he brought him corn seeds, melons, pumpkins, beans], 117 [the man climbed for battleship in a hole, ended up in the lower world; his wife followed him, the inhabitants of this world come from them; to extract the child, their women are ripped open; our world rests on their homes; man who came to the lower world and gave birth to its inhabitants, met a golden man wearing a golden hat on a golden mule; it was the Sun; a man asked to be brought to earth; the Sun ordered him to sit on a mule behind himself; then he planted himself on a piece of wood in the sea, the man sailed home]: 728-732, 837-838, 838-839; bari [living brother wanted to get seeds and plants owned by the dead in the underworld; deceased the brother invited the living into the mountain, opened the stones as a door; the dead (sibatyí) do not like the smell of the living; he ate the ogchirogbá fruit, then the smell disappeared; the brothers went to the big river; along it the Sun sails in a boat with his wife and children; cassava, yams, sweet potatoes, bananas, sugar cane, arrow cane grow in the world of the dead; the dead tells you to take everything from the old plots if he takes it alive from well-groomed ones, will not be able to return to earth; takes his brother to the ground with a load of seeds; told people that he could not take red reeds, he was only for sibatyí and for barsunchimba (those who die after deaths to heaven); they seem to be rolling a can across the sky {probably thunder}]: Villamañan 1975:12-13; (cf. tunebo [Sun rides]: Marquez 1980:653).

Llanos. Yaruro [The sun and its sister Moon sail across the sky each in their own boat]: Petrullo 1939:238; sicuani [Tapiriha carries a man, crosses lakes and rivers on the bottom; the Amazons trap her they kill; their name is Irboatowi, "People of the Earth's Penis"; twice a day, at noon and in the evening, they copulate with him; boys are killed, eaten; a man is found by a virgin; says that with every man women copulate while his penis is hard, then they kill him, eat it; his wife sends him home; three types of ducks take it successively, leave it in the water when it blows the winds; the tree tells him to go with their Mother Moon; her boat is her genitals, she tells him not to look; he watches, she whips it with her pubic hair; when she arrives, the Moon gives him a banana to bite off forever; tells him not to look at the new moon; it looks, turns into a nightjar]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1992, No. 85:327-328.

Southern Venezuela. Makusáni hunted in the forest, chased the frog, it galloped away, he got lost; the forest chicken (gallineta) looked like a pretty girl, invited her to her house, did not tell touch her; M. tried to get along with her, she became a chicken, flew away; M. came to the river; Otter (perro de agua) took him to his house, promised to take him home if he did not look forward or back; M. looked through his fingers, the Otter left him in the water; M. climbed the tree to sleep; Nuna (Month) saw his reflection, realized that he was not in the water, but in the tree when M. spat; brought him to heaven, gave as the wife of two daughters; sends for firewood, the wife admits that the father will eat him; he throws sand in her back, she thinks wasps, rushes to run, M. runs the other way, comes to Shi (the Sun); N. looking for M., S. says that this was not the case here, drives N. away with heat; M. marries one of Sh.'s two daughters; S. gives a wind gun, tells him not to look through it; M. looks, sees his house, mother; wife too I wanted to see, both were on the ground in M.'s house; M. hides his wife under the basket; when he left, her mother found her, began to beat her; M. reconciled them; all three returned to heaven at Sh.'s house, live there now]: Civrieux 1959:119-120 (=1980:119-120 {pagination is correct!}).

Guiana. Arekuna: Arellana 1988, No. 69 [On the Frog Creek, a man tries to catch a croak to eat it later, but the Waromá frog grabs it, drags it upstream, leaves it on an island in the middle of the river; he consistently asks various waterfowl (names only in Pemon) to transport him ashore; the first two say their boats are too small; the third has a huge snake with him, the man himself is afraid; the Duck replies that although her boat is big, it has many of her children; finally, the Sun picks him up, takes him downstream in the boat; the man does not know who is in the boat, sings "burn, sun, your son's hammock"; The sun directs its rays at him, the man almost burns; then the man asks the sun to wear a hat, the sky is covered with clouds; the Sun squeezes a person at the mouth of the river near Cayman; he sings, wants to grab a man's hand to dance together, but he breaks out, comes to the place where Quail (Coturnix coturnix) dance, but they flew away; then he came to the Guinea Pig, tried grab her hand, she escaped (everyone a person meets sings or repeats something, shouts); then the chikí birds also flew away; then the Monkeys (ran away); then cuchicuchi; then the Fox; then the Deer; finally met Makunaima, who drew a vulva and penis on the ground, M. sings something in connection with both organs; the man catches up with him three times, he breaks out three times; when he returned, the man sang everything songs I heard]: 172-175; Koch-Grünberg 1924, No. 13 [Kalapijéima tries to catch a frog sitting on a tall tree; she drags him to an island in the sea; leaves him under a tree, where vultures nest; they stain it with their excrement; it's cold; K. asks the Morning Star to give him fire, take it to heaven; he refuses, because K. gave cakes not to him, but to the Sun (dried them on sun); the same episode with the Month; The Sun takes him into its boat, tells his daughters to wash it, cut it; puts on a feather crown, a silver hat and ear jewelry made of beetle elytra, becomes hot; gives K. his daughter, tells her not to cheat on her; K. leaves the house of the Sun, falls in love with the daughter of the Vultures; in the morning he becomes old and ugly; if he stayed with the daughter of the Sun, he would be forever beautiful and young ; now people's youth and beauty are short-lived]: 51-53; tops [two brothers hunt frogs, kill them with a club; one decided to catch with his hands; the frog grabbed his hand, then his neck, dragged him swimming to island; there is a lonely tree where birds nest; a person spends two or three months there eating only clay, drinking water; boats sail by, ignoring requests for help; only the Sun takes a man into his boat, tells his daughter to smear his lips with pepper to regain strength; asks where he lives, the man pointed east; the sun took him there, he still lives there, he is healthy]: Soares Diniz 1971, No. 13:87-88; oyana [The toad drags the hunter to a rock in the middle of the river; the bird offers to move him ashore, but he is afraid to meet the Toad again; the Sun takes him into his boat, transports ashore, gives food]: Magaña 1987, No. 70:48; trio: Koelewijn, Riviere 1987, No. 9 [younger brother warns the elder not to catch the frog whose voice they hear in the forest; older tries to catch it, it becomes huge, takes him to a rock in the middle of the river; the evil spirits passing by, the Moon (Nunnë), Venus (Urutura) refuse to help; the Sun (Wei) sails in the boat, there is a lot of it grilled meat; he makes a ladder, brings the young man back to his mother]: 49-52; Magaña 1987, No. 20 [a man tries to catch a frog, it drags him to a rock in the middle of the river; Month, Urutula star, a bird tokoro, illness, wind refuse to take him with them under various pretexts; the Sun takes him to its boat, carries him ashore]: 135-136; aparai [Sun and Month each sail in their own boat; without details.]: Rauschert 1967, No. 29:199.

Western Amazon. Siona, sekoya [sun; a demon sitting next to him wipes his mirror (eclipses)]: Vickers 1989:167; kofan [koehe Chiga (Sun God) is sailing in a boat; she is set in motion Puifa, cannibal boy]: Calífano, Gonzalo 1995, 25, 72-73 (No. 9).

NW Amazon. Yukuna [the hero falls underground; the Sun's boat sails by; the burnt daughter of Kojopana and Lu'uina are her team; the Sun is too hot; The month follows, takes the hero to his boat; unhappy that the hero kills flies - members of his crew, but continues to help the hero; he returns to earth]: Jacopin 1981:79-80; tatuyo [in the underworld, the Sun floats on the river with west to east]: Bidou 1972:49-50; taibano [the earth is a plate, above it is a vault of heaven, supported by four mountains; the axis of peace is the Moloka River, passes through the Gates of the Waters, where the sun is born; at the opposite end are the upper reaches of the Fish River (Wai Ya on Tucano, Pirá-Paraná on lingua geral); the Sun floats across the sky in its boat out of light; the dead go to the underworld of diseases, are reborn in few ancestors; in their world, the Sun floats along the River of Sorrow, Bojori Riaga; four Ayawaroa brothers arranged the world, the world is their little; their father became the sky, in Maloka it is symbolized by a clay pot]: Correa 1980-1981:79; Barasana [Manioc-stick Anaconda (MA) is a half-brother, the father of the current Sun, the son of the Ancient Sun and his wife Sky; Mako, his younger brother, is single; after being a tapir for a while, he left traces; suggested that MA dig a tapir trap hole, MA fell into the underworld on a tree by the river; the Month, the Morning Star, the striped water snake, the big and small otters (they are rowers of the Sun) swim in silence, or they say that the Sun ("MA's mother's son") swims after them; Sun grebe (Heliornis fulica) takes it but leaves it in the water when it blows the winds; the Sun takes it into its boat; tells him to dive for a deck with fish; MA says it's just an anaconda; while the Sun is diving on its own, the Monkeys, the Squirrel, the Otters (they're the Sun's rowers) tell them to remove the substance from the Sun's bag, the Sun was going to burn them MA; plugging the anaconda's mouth and anus , The Sun raised it, poured out fish of all known species; the speckled cooking pot is a poisonous snake; MA only pretended to eat this fish extracted from the anaconda; the Sun releases clouds of fire, MA every time turns into a spider, hides; he releases the substance that he took out of the Sun's bag, and a feather crown lights up, he recognizes him as a brother; see motif K1]: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, No. 6A: 287-293; macuna: Århem et al. 2004 [the younger brother is single, wants an older wife; creates a huge tree with a parrot nest, invites brother to climb in to make feather hats for holiday; throws away the thin tree on which the brother climbed, goes to live with his wife; the eldest upstairs is starving; asks the anaconda for help; the anaconda replies that he will climb to eat it, but he asks him to climb tail forward, descends the anaconda, escapes; then his younger brother pushes him into a hole, he falls into the lower world, taking the form of cotton wool, finds himself on a tree branch above the river; looks human again; Different types of ducks swim in the river; each replies that her boat is too small, the next one will take it; the last duck is the Sun, its boat is like fire; the sailors there are Howler Monkeys and Squirrels; the Sun lights the river , the older brother turns into a spider, does not burn, the Sun recognizes its virtues; sailed to the wife of the Sun; while the Sun is gone, man does everything wrong (collects coca by leaves, cuts trees into the site, and does not allow the ax to do it himself, eats mojojoy from a palm tree - these are the workers of the Sun); the Sun's wife considers it necessary to send it to earth; Tapiriha tells him to turn into a tick, carries it, delivers in few animals; while she sleeps, Tintin copulates with her; she checks all penises to find the culprit; on the advice of others, Tintin sprinkles ash on her penis, not found; man removes animals from their bodies hunters' arrows, which he can easily see; they also think he cures them for diseases; at the beginning of summer, everyone went for flying ants, man realized that he was on a familiar land; children recognize him, say that the mother is pregnant with an uncle; a person creates a pond with fish, sends a younger brother with other people to collect poisoned fish, burns them in a pond with force received from the Sun]: 521-528; Trupp 1977:83; letuama [deer or monkey as helmsman]: Palma 1984:97-98; desana: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975:138; chikuna [{clearly an excerpt from a myth that has not been fully preserved}; a lonely young man is fishing; The sun swims up, takes it into his boat; the young man does not feel the heat, but realizes who is with him; they are already sailing across the sky; the sun is fishing for pirarucu, baking with its heat; they stop eating; the Sun asks why the young man eats so little, hits him on the back of the head, the young man belches a lot of cockroaches; this was the reason why he could eat little; the Sun collected bones and scales, made fish from them again, she sailed away]: Nimuendaju 1952:142.

The Central Andes. Peru's North Coast (mochica vessel paintings) [apparently a female moon and possibly at least one more star (reasoning in Benson 1988:126-132; Quilter 1990:52); two cormorant as rowers]: Benson 1985:126; Cordy-Collins, Stern 1977 [and other publications].

Montagna - Jurua. Kanamari [The Sun and the Moon are boating]: Reesink 1989:127; shipibo: Eakin, Lauriault, Boonstra 1986 [The sun floats in a boat across the sky, then through the underworld; he has two vultures as rowers]: 37; Gebhaert-Sayer 1987 [at night, the sun boat sails underground from west to east]: 51, 371-372 [(No. 23); returning home, the hunter climbed into the hole for the battleship and saw its light at the end; came to the river; in the evening I wanted to return, but the hole closed; before dawn I heard voices passing by in the boat, he was not taken; there were four people in the second boat, including the Morning Star; in the big The Sun came to the boat; three people were aft and on the bow, the first had their faces burned, the second had their backs; at noon they stopped to rest, made a fire; the Sun asks a person to catch fish on the lake; he meets people sailing in boats returns empty-handed; the Sun explains that they were fish, throw a harpoon at them; after hesitation, a person does so, each of them turns into fish; the Sun's satellites they eat and drink huge portions; while a person sleeps, the Sun removes his intestines, they float on the water; now man also eats and drinks a lot; the Sun squeezes a person outside his house; they wonder that he is so voracious, drunk, he told me everything, he has a fever, he lay down in the sun, died]: 371-372; Roe 1991a [a man grabs the battleship by the tail, he drags him to the lower world; standing by the river , he sees boats going upstream, asks him to take him with them; Yantan Huistin (the bright star in the east is Regulus or Venus), many other stars say he will freeze with them; Sun takes him into his boat; he is planted on his bow to burn only his back; a member of the Sun's crew sitting aft has his face burned; at noon, the swimmers stop for lunch; the other stop is in nadir; The sun takes out a person's entrails so that he can eat more; man sees his guts swimming, turning into aquatic plants; without entrails, he is now able to eat and drink as much how much the Sun; after bringing a person to earth, the Sun forbids him to talk about what happened; people are surprised that he can drink so much without getting drunk; he explains why; soon dies in the sun]: 23- 25.