Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A24. First sunrise.

(.10.) .

The first ancestors live at dusk. When they are first exposed to the sun, they die, turn into animals, into spirits.

(Nama), Tenda, Massim, Maori, Ukrainians (Poltava), Asian Eskimos, Tagish, Inner Tlingit, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Southern Miwok, Cahuilla, Pima, Chirikahua, Hicarilla, Nahuatl Zap. Mexico, Huichol, Huasteca, Tepehua, Totonaki, Aztecs, Nahuat Puebla, Mixtecs, Chinantecs, Masatec, Zapotecs, Tzotzil, Tseltal, Juice, Mocho, Mom, Chuh, Jacaltecs, Canjobal, Quiche, Quecchi, Pipili, Shinka, Lenca, ( Sumu), Ihka, Inga, Lambayeque, Quechua and Aymara (all departments), chipaya, waura, mehinacu, yaulapiti, pilaga.

(Wed. SW Africa. Nama [wild animals were human, dancing, dragging passers-by to the abyss, dumping them, eating them; Haseb began to dance with them, the moon and stars came out of his chest, and the sun came out of his back; he threw cannibals into the abyss, ordered them to turn into antelopes of various species; indicated where plains and mountains would be, sweet bulbs would grow in the Velde]: Schmidt 2001:131-135 in Kotlyar 2009, No. 90:95).

West Africa. Tenda [woman has been pregnant for several years; complains that there is no one to harvest fruits for her; Tyara answers from the womb, comes out, immediately becomes a big boy; his grandmother does not tell him to go to hers village, where a bird takes people away; he attaches a bag of ash to it from behind, follows the trail; everyone hides, T. cuts off the bird's head, puts it in a bag; the chief says he killed the bird, but he cannot show his head (the heads of a rooster, goat, ram, cow do not fit); the leader sends T. to a granary that has the shape of a deep vessel in the ground, pours molten bullets and hot oil on top; T. puts a pumpkin vessel; sends sorrel to search; T. calls sorrel, hears an answer, refuses to go (sorrel cannot answer, it is a trap); T. tells the Sun not to shine so that the oil does not melt; the moon does not grow up so that the hyena does not eat it by the goat; they refuse, T. hides them in a bag, it's a long night; T. tells everyone to hide, releases the Sun; Guinea fowl sticks out its head, now it is burned; The turtle and The snail didn't hide, now their bodies are hard, dry; when the sun went down, T. released the moon; it was grabbed by the Monkey; the moon shows a Monkey grabbing the moon to look at it]: Ferry 1983, № 49:286-295.

Melanesia. Islands of Massim County [a woman saw fish in the sea, frolicked with it, she rubbed against her leg, a boy Dudugera was born from a tumor; playing with her peers, threw a spear at them; his mother sent him to to his father; the fish took it in his mouth, carried him east; D. warned his mother and relatives that when he climbed the breadtree and from there to heaven, they should hide under a rock; the rest were burned; so To moderate the heat of the sun, his mother went to the mountain near which D. was going up to heaven, threw lime into his eyes; he closed his eyes, the fever decreased]: Seligmann 1910:378 in Dixon 1916:112-113.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Maori [Tawhaki is a good fisherman, his wife's four brothers are bad; they attack him, he's barely alive, his wife finds him, saves him; he tells his people to go to the mountain, causes rain, the brothers' village wives are washed away by the flood; T. has Karihi's younger brother; their parents were stolen by Ponaturi creatures; they can't stand the light of the sun, sleep on the ground at night, hide under water for a day; the brothers find a mother, she says that P. killed their father; the brothers tell their mother to answer P. that it is still night; she says that the day has come when it is very bright; P. melted from the sunlight, only Salmon jumped into the water and became salmon; to T. The heavenly maiden Hapai came down, gave birth to him a daughter; he said something about his daughter that hurt her mother, she took her daughter, returned to heaven, saying that if he wanted to find her, let her cling to the vine firmly rooted in the ground, not swaying under the clouds; T. and K. come to their blind grandmother, steal her tarot roots; she tries to kill thieves, they restore her sight, she recognizes her grandchildren; she leads them to heavenly vines; K. grabs the swaying one, T. sends him home; he climbs the stable himself, turns into an old man, he is told to carry a Tesla, he quietly completes the half-finished boat; he is told carry firewood, he comes to his wife and daughter; H. and her brothers will guess who he is; he's back with H., becomes Thunder]: Reed 1999:58-74.

Central Europe. Ukrainians (Poltava) [the first people were very tall; they went to work 60 miles away; one such person found an ordinary person, brought it to his mother as a curiosity; the mother said that such people would live after them; The son says that if he knew, he would crush them all; when the sun appeared, they began to laugh, so the Lord turned them into stone; they lived like animals in holes; on Holy Evening, petrified ones come to life and they converge; they cannot be touched; one Cossack jokingly grabbed a stone woman by the chest, who blew his head off and petrified again]: Strizhevsky 1905, No. 1:118-119.

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos [Tungaks steal the sun; animals advise who to send for it; Bear, Wolf rejected, Hare sent; he grabs the sun, the Tungaks chase him; the Hare gives the sun is paw, it splits; a smaller part turns into the moon; the Tungaks hide from the light underground]: Menovshchikov 1985, No. 26:61-62.

Subarctic. Tagish, inner tlingits [The raven turns into a pine needle, falls into the cup of the chief's daughter; she spits out the needle, but it is again in her mouth, swallowed; the chief's daughter gives birth to a boy; her father gives him the sun, a month, stars to play; the raven puts them in a box, takes them away; animal people do not give him fish; he opens the box, it becomes light; animal people turn into animals ]: Cruickshank 1992:42-43; tagish [as in Cruickshank; The raven turns into a needle, falls into the cup from which the daughter of the owner of the sun and the month drinks; she gets pregnant, gives birth to a boy, he cries and gets a month to play, throws it away; then gets and takes a bag of sun; opens it; when light comes, animal people turn into animals, everyone says who they will be]: McClelland 1987:254-257; (cf. Southern Tutchoni [a big fish swims in the lake; the raven asks it to swim to the shore, open its mouth - the birds want to see what's inside; flies in, eats its insides when it eats the heart, the fish dies; the raven tells the dead fish to come to the shore; people cut the carcass, something black flies out of there; unrecognized, the Raven comes and says that if a big whale is thrown to a large village, be war; people drive him away; he comes in the evening when children play ball with a bag full of fat; the Raven opens it, sees morning inside, cuts off a piece, dawn comes, the children are frightened; someone at the cliff Repeats Raven's words; he hits a rock, a little woman appears; the Raven tickles her almost to death, leaves; another woman on the shore says that the fish swallowed her son]: Workman 2000:117-119).

NW Coast. See motif A26; the world is dark; the chief/rich man keeps the sun; a raven or a young man wearing a crow skin; the daughter of a heavenly leader comes to a spring for a drink; a raven turns into a needle, a girl swallows it with water; gives birth to a boy; he cries until he gets the sun to play; kidnaps him, returns to earth; people fish, quarrel with the Raven; he opens the sun, the world is flooded with light, people disappear or change. The Tlingits [see motif A24; The raven steals the sun from the original owner; people fish in the dark; refuse to help the Raven get across the river or make too much noise; he opens his box; the sun soars to the sky; people become the animals from which their clothes were made (seals, sea otters jump into the sea, bear, marten go to land, etc.)]: Golder 1907c: 293; De Laguna 1972:855, 861-862; Swanton 1909, No. 1, 31:3-5, 83, 85-86 [The raven tells every bird what its habits will be]; haida [the young man's father lets him wear crow skin; he flies into the sky through a narrow passage, walls which they converge and then disperse; fir needle; spirit people disappear in the sunlight]: Barbeau 196:83-85; Tsimshian: Barbeau 1961 [spirit people fish; refuse to share with the Raven; he opens the sun]: 78-82; Barbeau, Beynon 1987 [the world is dark (gloomy), there is no sun; the chief came in and saw his wife and lover; he thought it was his nephew; he told his wife that he knew everything; she was shocked and soon died; the coffin was hung from a pole; the chief was surprised that the nephew showed no signs of grief; tells me to watch; people see a woodpecker flying up to the coffin every evening and flying away in the morning; they hear laughter from the coffin; the chief came to see for himself, but cadaveric worms fell on him; the woman gave birth in the coffin, the baby got out; when the coffin was opened, there was a decayed corpse; the chief ordered one of the sisters Take care of the baby as if it were his son; she has her own son of the same age; they grew up as brothers; the chief's son caught two ducks, took off their skins; wearing them, the young men learned to turn into ducks, to fly ; flew to a leader who had daylight; we had to fly between two mountains that converge and diverge; the brothers agreed that whoever flew would marry the leader's two daughters; they flew and descended on the lake in front of the chief's house; each of his daughters took one of the ducks that turned into men at night; both gave birth to a son; from the eldest Txamsen ("Smart"), from the youngest Lugabula (" Lazy"); at this time, the houses of the missing young men mourn their loss; two babies were seen on seaweed in the sea; chief: they came back; they grew up, one of them took the form of a crow so that steal the sun from the leader of heaven; flew to where the chief's daughter took water, turned into a needle, she swallowed it with water; it was the same Txamsen; the baby cries, wants a ball with light to play; one day he rolled the ball out of the house, became an adult man, then put on a crow's skin and took the ball away; saw spirit people fishing in the light of torches; they refused to share the fish, T. tore the ball, daytime light spread across the world, the sun appeared, the spirits were gone]: 1-5; Boas 1902 [see motif F65B; a boy who grew up in his mother's coffin wears a bird's (crow?) skin, flies to heaven; his friend in woodpecker skin is waiting for him at the aisle to heaven]: 10-16 [perfume people catch leaves with nets], 21-24; Garfield, Forest 1961 (b. Ness) [Chief Raven Upper River. Ness owns the sun, moon and stars; the raven asks fishermen for fish, they mock him, promise to give fish in exchange for daylight; the raven goes to the leader's daughter, turns into a garbage, and is thrown away with water; then in the hemlock needle, the girl swallows it; gives birth to a boy; the girl's mother suspects that the baby has feathers under her skin; the grown-up boy asks the moon to play, throws it to the sky, pretends that by accident; gets a box with the sun, gets stuck in the chimney, gathers all his strength, flies out; fishermen keep laughing at him; he opens the box, fishermen turn into all the animals they wore] : 78-79; heiltzuk [The raven gradually turns into a fish, a needle, a berry; the chief's wife throws this garbage away every time; finally, into a drop of fat, the woman swallows it with water; born the boy asks for a box with the sun to play; takes it away; several groups of fishermen refuse to share their catch with the Raven (they catch candlefish); he opens the box, people turn into frogs and waterfowl birds]: Boas 1916, No. 1:883.

California. Southern mivok [the plain in the valley is dark, cold, and in the foothills there is sun, moon, stars, women, food; Coyote goes there for exploration; when he returns, offers Chief Crane to buy the sun; he reluctantly agrees; but the sun is not sold, it is guarded by the Turtle; the Coyote turns into a branch, the Turtle throws it into the fire; it does not burn; when the Turtle falls asleep, the Coyote takes the sun away; tells him in the evening go underground through a hole in the sky to the west and rise from the east in the morning; as soon as the sun was like it is now, the First Humans became animals]: Merriam 1993:35-43; cahuilla [ after the first sunrise, people turn into trees, birds, animals; those who sought escape from the heat in the water into marine life; those who stayed close to the creator remained human]: Hooper 1920:323.

The Great Southwest. Lower pimas: Escalante, Estrada Fernandez 1993 [When the sun rose, the first humans died in the fire; we find their mummified remains in caves; they are taken out to stop too much long rain]: 152-153; Olsen Aguilera 2005 [2) When the first people, the "people of the night", came out, they were living in the dark; Tata Dios destroyed this world, they all burned down; Santa Maria Our Mother went to look for people; Tata dios also went, found a little]: 190-191; hicarilla: Opler 1938, No. IV.C [daybirds and animals play against the Bear and nocturnal birds led by the Owl in a game of chance (moccassin game); if if they win, there will be a day, and if they lose, eternal night; plantain cuckoo: We bet the sun will rise! owl: I bet it won't rise! ; the plantain cuckoo was the first to guess correctly; (further details about the course of the game); when the owls who were playing on the side of the owl began to lose, they ran because they did not want to see the sun rising; but the rays scorched them, therefore, the fur is yellowish in some places; and those who wanted the day to come chose their own colors, so they are variegated; the moccasins left after the game turned into stones, are now visible; the bear disappeared into the thickets, where it lives now; the snake disappeared into a crack in the rock, it was shot with bows; when it flew away, the owl hit the plantain cuckoo with smut, leaving a burn mark under the eyes; coyote: I bet there will be no stars at night! partridge: There's nothing you can do! (more on how the fox tricked the coyote's eyes with resin)]: 231-234; Mooney 1898a [people live in the dark in the lower world; Bear, Puma, Owl and other nocturnal animals want darkness, Magpie, Partridge and others are light; decide to play; those who want light win four times; first time Black Bear, then Brown, then Puma, Owl go into darkness; accordingly, the Morning Star, dawn, more light appear , Sun; The Sun tells people to go upstairs; they pour four hills to the cardinal points, each planting plants with fruits of the corresponding colors: black in the east, blue in the south, yellow in the west, colorful in the north; hills stop growing when two girls go picking berries; so boys don't grow up after first contact with women; feathers are too light to make stairs; four bison put their horns in; people come to the ground; the horns have since been crooked; the ground is covered with water, four winds of matching colors drain it]: 198-199; chiricahua: Opler 1942, No. 1a [birds they gamble against four-legged animals (moccassin game: under which moccasin there is a short stick, pebble, etc.); if birds win, there will be daylight in the world; the winners will kill the losers; the birds almost lost, but the turkey, who fell asleep, had 3 more sticks in stock and the birds won back what they had lost; when the animals had 2 sticks, the day dawned; the Coyote decided to go over to the side of the birds; the wren began to sing: day, day; the giant told him to be silent and poked his head, since then the wren has a black speck on his head; the wren flew up the rock and light poured through the crevice; animals lost the last stick and the birds began to kill them; the giant went away; the arrows of the birds did not harm him; the lizard, although among the animals, reported that the giant's heart was under the sole; shot at her, the giant fell dead; now there are white stones - his bones; the snake hid in a crack in the rock, it was not reached; the bear ran into the forest, where he now lives; he was in such a hurry that he put moccasins on the wrong leg, now clubfoot], 1b [the world is dark; birds choose to play against four-legged animals in moccasin game; winners will kill losers; insects on the birds' side; Coyote supports those who win; gopher out of the ground threw a wand under another moccasin if the birds guessed correctly; at first the birds lost, but then the plantain cuckoo began to guess, the birds played everything; someone hit him with smut, now he has there are red peppers on his face; then the four-legged ones began to win again; the turkey hid a few sticks, now they are in his paw; after that, the birds began to win finally; giant: it's time for me to leave, I I walk slowly; he went, hung (on a tree) his testicles and sat in their shade; when the four-legged lost their last stick, he sowed the day for the first time; those who were killed by the birds are no longer on the ground; the coyote went over to the side of the birds; the giant's arrows did not harm; the lizard decided to help, shot the giant in the sole where he had a heart; he died; the snake went into the crevice, the birds fired arrows at it; there are now many bears in the thickets where the bear disappeared]: 23-25, 25-27.

NW Mexico. Yaki: Relatos Yaqui 1996:10-11 [los sures (first ancestors) lived in burrows in the village of Maglo, ate animals, fruits, roots; when padres came, refused to be baptized, hid in the woods, in earth, turning into birds, rabbits and other animals; their main animal was an ant], 12-17 [los sures (first ancestors) were small, if the food was raw, did not know fire, lived in holes; a speaker appeared tree; only one girl understood his speech; said that people would come to baptize them; they refused, went to sea, into the ground, became ants, bees, and other insects], 18-21 [about the same], 22-29 [about same], 31-35 [about the same]; Nahuatl Zap. Mexico [at first sunrise, lords turn into rocks, humans turn into raccoons]: Preuss 1968, No. 17:150; Huichol [when the sun rises for the first time, the sun approaches the ground, the first ancestors die from the heat]: Cordry 1952a [The sun rose for the first time; Turkey was the first to say it would be in the mountains (Shoé-pi-ton-ton), so the sun is ton; the sun wants a closer look at the earth, the first ancestors are dying from the heat; the boy told the Sun that he would go with him, but told him to rise; so five times before the fever subsides; a turkey was sacrificed to the Sun]: 500; Furst, Auguiano 1976 [Nawawé replied: to make it it is light, someone must turn into the sun; four people could not sacrifice themselves; a lonely orphan, the son of the goddess of earth and maize Utuanáka, threw himself into the fire (var.: into a lake that turned into a lake that turned into the moment of immersion in fire or blood); descended through five lower worlds, where dangerous animals, including a serpent encircling the ground with heads on both ends; Nakawé and Tutewarí (first shaman) they said he would come from a cave on a mountain in the east; everyone hurried there, argued about the name, Turkey said tau-tau-tau (sun - tau), became a satellite of the sun; the Sun was so tired in the lower world that it did not rise to the upper five tiers, and began to fall, dragging the sky with him; life is on the verge of death, many climbed into holes (since then these animals have been living in holes); T. put five palm trees (brazil trees) to support the sky - one in the center, four at the edges); with the help of Káuyumarie (a deer trickster) showed people how to make a chair where shamans and chiefs sit during rituals; sacrificed a child to use this blood The sun was eating]: 117-118.

Mesoamerica Huasteci [the ground was flat; at the first sunrise, the ancestors threw themselves upside down into the ground, creating valleys and mountains; since then they have been living underground; at the beginning of the solar era, they kidnapped people and pets (dogs, cows, chickens, horses, pigs, donkeys); later, a hero brought people and animals to the ground and closed the lower world; the first ancestors still come to earth in the form of winds, stealing the souls of young women (Huastec self-name) and thus causing illness]: Ariel de Vidas 2002:536-537; tepehua [died from the heat]: Williams García 1972:65-66; mountain totonaki: Harvey, Kelly 1969 [in animals, stones, trees, grain graters, pots]: 671; Ichon 1969 [in animals]: 58; coastal Totonaks [ancestors live in a dark cold world; only the sky's serpent, the Milky Way, shines; its mouth is open; A lizard finds a hot stone, cooks food on it; four birds manage to break a stone, get a shining egg; animals bring it to the spring; an orphan girl finds an egg, brings it home; it three times returns to the source; on the fourth, the girl grabs him with her teeth, it bursts, she swallows it; after nine days she gives birth to twin sons; born first stronger; the girl dies, her grandmother leaves babies on the branches of the mageian, they do not die; puts an anon on a tree, whose fruits are like women's breasts; babies feed on honey like hummingbirds; the old woman is happy to bring them home; the Great Serpent shines poorly, feeds on young girls; brothers heat stones in the temazcal, throw it in its mouth; it gets completely dark, many people turn into stones and idols; brothers send a green fly to check if he is dead whether the snake; it flies into the mouth, flies out of the anus is dead; the Green Tree (the deity of the forest, Kihuecolo) explains to the brothers how to get corn; tells the old woman to ask for a basket of corn; ants and rodents (tusas) carry grain through a hole in the bottom of the basket; thus, the brothers get more corn; the elder carves 24 sticks, they turn into axes and machetes, and animals help cut down forests on seven mountains; the brothers set fire to the felled goods, tell their grandmother to hide in the temazcal; she does not hide, suffocates from smoke; after seven days the corn is ripe, the cobs are huge; the corn god tells me to place it inside the mountain Tahin; K. explains to the elder that corn will survive when the world of darkness ends; the elder tells the animals that he will become the Sun; they should not show his younger brother the way he is gone; the youngest spends time at the holidays; explains to numerous mistresses that he will be the sun; the elder tells the animals to make a fire, jumps into it from the mountain, flies east; his uncle comes later, when the coals are almost extinguished, follows him; the younger brother finds one ash, the animals show him the way to the west; the old man predicts that three will soon appear in the sky; he is considered to be a madman, thrown to the ground; he turns into a dog, says he will guide the souls of the dead, leading them to the Sun on his trail; the Morning Star rises, all ancestors (tutu na cu) die; the dog takes their souls are to the Sun, which judges them; tells the good ones to repopulate the earth; the brothers' grandmother becomes an assistant to midwives and female healers; half good souls turn into animals; the best are hummingbirds and woodpecker, the worst are tecolote, owl, oruga, comadreja, jaguar, fox, coyote, cockroach, tlaconete; after sunset, the Month rises; he carries the souls of all his mistresses; protects everything related to women; corn is hidden in the mountain; people turn into ants (hormiga ariera), notice that a brightly colored bird drops grain (end)]: Münch 1993:37-40; coastal totonaki (Tahin) [there was no sun; women wash clothes, the Month stains them with red paint to wash them again; they guard clothes, find out that the Sun will rise; the Month pretends to be the Sun; Jews cook wood to burn Our Lord, who must become the Sun; they live in darkness, they do not want light; the child runs, they kill him, cut him to pieces, bury him; on the fourth night he becomes the Sun; the Month is in a hurry, but does not become the Sun; the Month is still in a hurry and crosses (the path) of the Sun; another var: a rich old man has many mistresses; they say that he will be the Sun, but he is an orphan living with his grandmother; when the Sun was at its zenith, drops of its blood fell to the ground, from which various plants appeared; the Sun leaves a dog behind it; the Month asked her where the owner had gone; the dog pointed out the opposite direction; The Month hit her, she became dumb; The month goes to where the ash is now cold; when the Sun rose, people turned into stones, idols, some hid in pyramids]: Williams García 1979:121-122; Aztecs [when the sun has risen for the first time, many ancestors are dying from the heat]: Sahagun in Launey 1980:189; Aztecs: Romero 1969:162-163 [Mendieta (retelling fray André s de Olmos): God Citlalatónac (Citlaltónac) and goddess Citlacue were in the sky; the goddess gave birth to a dagger, it was thrown from the sky, it fell to Chicomóstoc ("seven caves"), 1600 came out of it gods; they sent Tlótli ("falcon") to their mother to give them the opportunity to create people for their needs; the goddess replied that if the gods were the right way, they would stay with her (in heaven) , and since they do not deserve it and want to be served on earth, let Mr. Mictlan Tecutli give them the bone and ashes of those who died during the flood; the gods chose one of the messengers to MT them named Xólotl; after receiving bone and ash and fearing that MT would change his mind, S. ran; MT chased after him, S. fell, the bone (it was the bone of the hand, una braza) broke into large and small pieces, so there are big and small among people; having collected what he could, S. came to the gods; what he had brought was put in a vessel, all the gods extracted blood from various parts of their bodies (for example, during sacrifices they still do), irrigated the contents with it, a boy appeared on the fourth day; they did the same again, a girl appeared; S. fed them with thistle juice (leche de cardo)..; people served the gods; but there was no sun; the gods met in Teotihuacan; they could not guess where the sun would rise, so they had to sacrifice themselves; when they rose, the Sun said it would stand still until all the gods were gone will sacrifice themselves; Citli shot the Sun three times, but the arrows returned and killed himself; then the gods decided to die; S. killed them by opening his chest, then killed himself], 165-166 [Sahagún: (at the first appearance of the sun), the wind of Ehécatl began to kill all the gods; Xólotl did not want to die, rushed to run, hid in a cornfield, became a double cob (pie de maiz que tiene dos cañas ), this cob is called sholotl; he was identified, he rushed into the cacti thickets (maguey), pretended to be a double-stemmed magician, called mexólotl; then he threw himself into the water, became an ax&# fish 243; lotl; he was caught and killed there]; Nahuat: Argueta et al. 1986 [the sun should have appeared; whoever gave life to the animals told them to wash themselves and put on their clothes; two animals fled into the cave, they said they didn't want heat, they got used to the cold; the Iguana wore clothes of beautiful colors; when it dawned, the Battleship put on the fabric along with the machine frame; Toucan and the Red Bird (pajaro rojo) began to speak about the Primavera and Trumpeter birds, that they were dirty, did not change their clothes; the snail did not wash itself, only moistened itself; the lizard came in dirty clothes, disappeared into the grass in shame; the angel told everyone to go and meet the sun; but Our Father only liked singing Primavera and Clarín; as whoever dressed stayed]: 7-19; Taggart 1983 (northern Puebla) [in animals]: 89-91, 101-103; mixteks: Maarten Jansen 1982 in Byland, Pohl 1994 (Apoala) [newuhu are people in the past who turned into stones at the first sunrise; this may be depicted in the Vindobonense Codex (23-24), where at the birth of the sun two small nyuhu figures are present]: 114-115; Dyk 1959 [when the sun first rose, music started playing, it got hot, people buried in holes and died, they were pagans; left without owners, their dogs became coyotes; wolves told the lizards to make their shirts, but the lizards put everything off until tomorrow, so their backs became stiff]: 3-5; Furst 1977:183; chinantecs [in monkeys]: Merrifield 1967 (West 1958) [St. Peter says that the sun will soon rise for the first time; some climbed trees and became monkeys; others turned their backs and turned into stones; others tried to hide in the ground, where they found treasures; believers remained human]: 195-197; Weitlaner 197:226; Masateks [at the first sunrise, ancient people hid in water, caves, climbed trees (and became animals)]: Incháustegui 1977: 70; Zapotecs: De La Fuente 1949 [buried in the ground]: 347; Parsons 1932a, No. 1 [two orphans Sun boy and Moon girl live at Sus Ley ("barren woman"); they hunt, but she gives everything to her to Gol Gisa' old husband; he lives in the forest, does nothing; St. Anton always helps children with advice; twins kill GG, let SL eat his heart under the guise of a deer's heart, stuff his scarecrow with stinging insects; when SL touches her husband, insects fly out; she and her brother Ros (a worm living in the mud) wants to burn the children in the steam bath; they run away, strangle SL with smoke in her house, pick up her loom parts, ring, jug, comb; Ros turns into a snake, chases twins; they throw the objects they take, they turn into different mountains; they throw hot stones down R.'s throat, he dies; the sister grabs the bright right, and the brother grabs R.'s left, dim eye; the sister is thirsty; brother makes a hole of water; offers in exchange for the rabbit's bright eye; lets his sister approach the water when she puts her eyes on the ground; God assigns the boy to become the sun, the girl to become the moon; when they have risen, everyone rebengulal ("los idolos", first ancestors) buried in the ground]: 281-283 (=1936:222, 324-327); tsotsil [demons, monkeys, Jews who inhabited the first world die from the heat after sunrise]: Gossen 1989:445; Celtal [the first people do not have joints, treat stones with their feet or make stones whistle; after the sun rises, live stones boil, people die; a saint does ( new people have movable joints; people can now walk and work]: Hermitte 1970:23; mocho [when the sun rose, all kings (reyes) went to the mountains, a new world of Adam and Eve arose]: Petrich 1985b: 165; mom [Jews died from the heat]: Siegal 1943:124; canhobal (chooh, jacaltecs): La Farge 1947:64-65 [Spanish died from the heat] (=La Farge, Byers 1931:113); Peñalosa 1995b [was night; the god Yalan Na said to St. Virgo, that if she is not afraid of dawn, Kapnales (traditional enemies associated with lacandons) will die; the sun rose and Kapnales died]: 161; quiche [the surface of the earth was wet and muddy; when the sun first rose, it quickly dried the earth; it was very hot, the current sun was only a reflection of it; after sunrise, Tohil, Avilish and Hakavitz turned into stones along with divine creatures puma, jagur, rattlesnake, snide and white monsters; we would not be alive if this did not happen]: Popol-Vuh 1959:96-97; Maya Yucatana: Morley, Brainerd 1983 [Modern North Yucatan Indians believe that there were three more before our world, each destroyed by the flood, ours will also die in the flood; the first world was inhabited by dwarfs who built standing in the ruins of the city; they lived in the dark, petrified at the first sunrise; the second world was inhabited by dzolob, "offenders"; the third world was already inhabited by the Maya, their descendants live in ours, the fourth]: 466-467; Thompson 1965a : 24; Tozzer 1907:153; Kekchi [see K16 motif; when the Sun and Moon first rise to the sky, 400 humans and animals become stars]: Becker-Donner 197:124; Dieseldorff 1925:4-5; Gordon 1915:120-121; (cf. Thompson 1970:344, =1977:412 [the old woman said that the skulls in a cave near Kopan belonged to people who lived before sunrise; when the sun came out, they stayed in caves; during the day they made pottery, and they went to earth at night]); juice: Sulvarán López 2007 [at first there was no sun and moon, the sky was white; at that time all churches were built; when the last one was being built in Franciusco Leó n, the sun rose, people rushed to escape the heat, turned into jaguars, wild pigs, deer and other wild animals; the stones hardened, so it became more difficult to cultivate the land and build structures]: 35; Relatos Zoques 1997 [Müngana'n (thundermen) were ordinary people in the twilight world; when the first dawn began, they grabbed their possessions (axes, hats, vessels), fled into the woods, became Mü ngana'n; when there is heavy fog, they walk through the forest and cut down trees from time to time with one or two blows, even though trees don't actually fall]: 59; pipili [many people die of fear]: Schultze- Jena 1935, No. 21:97; shinka ["grandmother Moon" was created before Earth; God also created a Sun man; there were many bad and strange creatures in the darkness, and when the Sun appeared, they hid under earth; at first, the Sun burned trees while going to rest; then the Creator placed it far from the ground to shine from afar]: López Ramírez 2007:108-109.

Honduras - Panama. Lenka: Carias et al. 1988:63-64 [the first humans live in the moonlight; wear wax hats; when the sun comes, it gets hot, the wax melts, people hide in caves, die], 65 [ The first race of cannibals dies from the heat of the rising sun]; Chapman 1986 (1) [the first humans lived under the moonlight; lost one eye, died from the heat when the sun appeared]: 22; (cf. Sumu [Sun-Uhubaput and his younger brother Udu came to earth in the guise of karate skin disease; men and women abused them, denied food and drink; they were abused several times killed, but they immediately revived; they fired arrows at men, turning everyone into an animal, bird, fish of a certain kind; when they entered their homes, they took the form of handsome men; the women rushed to them, but they they were rejected and also turned into animals, except for two light-skinned beauties whom they decided to make their wives; they began to dance on the fire, reached out to the sky with their fingertips; at first, Udu could not rise, and Uhubaput rose, became the sun; Udu rose after him, became a month]: Houwald, Rener 1984:58-59).

The Northern Andes. Ihka: Chaves Mendoza, Francisco Zea 1977 [when it was dark, the first woman had two beautiful children; she hid them in a cave, light came from there; people brought flutes, drums, and began to play; the boy J'uí went out, they tried to catch him, he soared into the sky, became the sun; those who looked up at him turned into stones; his sister named Tíma was also lured by music; to did not run away, they threw ash in her face; but she also rose to the sky, became the moon]: 62-63; Lucena Salmoral 1969 [the woman's son radiated light, she hid it from people; people lured the woman out of her cave by playing on flutes and drums, she lost consciousness; they entered the cave, the boy soared into the air, became the sun in the sky; those who were somewhere at that time and began to look at the miracle were petrified; on the rocks now images of J'uí (the Sun) are visible; the same with Tima, sister Sun, she became the Moon; but people managed to throw ash at her, her light faded]: 228-229; inga [at the first sunrise, some of the ancestors petrified, others became "star stones", others rose to the sky (and became constellations)]: Levinsohn 1976a: 113.

(Wed. Western Amazon. Napo: Mercier 1979:106 [at first it was only the Month; but he met his sister, his light faded; God turned the inhabitants of a world where the Sun did not yet exist into birds and animals], (cf. 180-181 [( partly Hebrew.); The snake, poisonous insects come to the mother of the deity; she turns them into a snake, insects; the Horse comes to eat leaves, drink water from the baby; the mother turns her into a horse, hers the meat is inedible; Tapir comes, dried the baby's diapers with his breath; his mother blessed him, making his meat edible]).

Central Andes. If not otherwise: the first ancestors lived in the moonlight; they turn into stones, die at the first sunrise (skeletons in ancient crypts). The Lambayeque Valley [fish were people, lived in lake villages, ate fish, drank fish blood; left their homes only after sunset; when the Sun became the king of the sky, he ordered Pisces to live on earth; appeared to them as a whale, but they attacked him and did not recognize his authority; the Sun destroyed their homes, turned them into fish, told them to die from the heat or at the sight of the moon and stars; since then, fish have died if they pulled out of the water]: Barandiaran 1938 in Toro Montalvo 1990a: 31-32; Caruas (dep. Ancash): Stein 1987:251; Vikos (dep. Ancash): Ortiz Rescaniere 1973:37-38; Huanca (Jauja, dep. Junin) [One day, many demons appeared in the world, led by Huari-vilca; then five suns rose, demons fled, everything burned down where they were; the Incas revered the Sun, but also built a temple for Uari-fork]: Cieza de Leon 1976, ch. 33 (LXXXIV): 116; Wanaspampa village (dep. Huancavelica) [machu (pagans) survive famine, flood, earthquake sent to destroy them; then four suns (tahua intis) burn the earth; the rest are destroyed by the flood]: Galindo 1990:219; Mine (dep. Huancavelica) [there were two Incas in the pagan world; the wife of the upper one was Lake Titicaca, the lower wife was Mother Sea; three suns appeared, taming the arrogance of the pagans]: Ortiz Rescaniere 1987:197; Risua, Andamarca [God has decided to punish the Gentiles, sends a fiery flood; some are saved; then God tells two suns to shine at the same time; pagans and Incarry are dying]: Ortiz Rescaniere 1980:138- 139; Incas: Betanzos 1924:32-33; Quechua (dep. Cusco): Allen (Sonko) 1984 [machu (ancient) lived before humans; only the moon shone; they had round houses - chulps; Dios Taita created the sun; machu died from the heat; on moonlit nights you can hear how they work in their fields; machu help grow potatoes but cause diseases]: 155; 1989 [Machukuna (Ancient, = Ñawpakuna) were giants who lived in the moonlight; Taitanchis said the sun should rise; M. hid in their huts and are dry; on clear moonlit nights, their bones come to life, they visit each other and work in the fields, which are the same as our fields]: 54-55; 1995; 92; Condori, Gow 1982 (Kispicanchis): 26; Mishkin 1940 (Kispicanchis): 234-236; Nuñez del Prado 1974 (Paucartambo) [Roal created the moon and earth, animals, plants, people Ñawpa Machu; they were stronger and wiser today, they are also called Jews; there was no sun; the Nyavpa quarreled with R.; Christ and the saints began to persecute them, but they won and killed him; R. sent a woodpecker, a dove, a hummingbird to them; each time Nyavpa refused to appear, although R. threatened to fill them with fire; the Nyawpa began to build stone dwellings on the mountainsides, but the houses fell apart; when it rained fiery, the Nyavpa could not hide in them; skeletons in The ruins are dead Nyawpas; the dead became evil spirits]: 239-242; Gow in Randall 1982 (Paukartambo) [the ancients (nyavpa machu) inhabited the mountains in the old era; lived under the moonlight, could make the stones move, raze the mountains with a sling; Chief Apu Rowal asked if they needed the strength of the apu, but the Nyavpa arrogantly refused; then he created the sun, the nyavpa turned into stones; some fled to the jungle under forest cover; these events are reproduced every year by the Vairi Chuncho ritual dance, when dancers dance in Forest Indian costumes]: 46; Urbano 1993 (Paucartambo , Acamayo, Paruro): 289-290; Keara (dep. La Paz): Chapin 196:28; Aymara (Huancane) [pagans lived in a dark world; when the sun, moon and stars rose, the earth was burning, pagans hid in caves; at night it is now audible as they sing, scream, cry; the Creator brought Manco Capac and Mama Okllo out of Lake. Titicaca; MK taught men to work, MO women; Europeans came, killed people; the Creator will punish them by telling the sun to set; but the moon will remain; pagans will come out of the mountains]: Coaquira 1982:76-77; Aymara ( Chukuito) [gentil machu giants lived in a world illuminated by the moon, lived in chulps (burial towers); when the sun rose, they burned down, their bones are found in ruins and caves]: Palacios 1982:43-44; Aymara (Kakachaka, dep. Oruro): Arnold, Dios Yapita Moya 1994, No. 1:17-21; Dillon, Abercrombie 1988:56; Aymara [chulps had their own (pets) animals; deer their goat, vicuna a llama, whiskacha a donkey, sea pig cow, fox dog, wild cat león, condor chicken, Caracara birds their scribes; chulps thought Inti Tala (Father Sun) would rise from the west and made doors in the eastern wall, but he went up from the east and the chulps burned down]: Arnold, Díos Yapita Moya 1998:57-59; aymara (Salar de Uyuni) [west 1984; ancient people who lived in chulps learned that the sun should rise from the west and did the entrances are from the east; but the sun rose from the east and they burned; only one couple escaped in the water, their descendants are modern chipayas]: Lecoq 1984:65; chipaya: Mesa, Gisbert 1966 [people lived in the dark, they hunted; the dwellings had only one way to the east; when the sun came out, everyone burned down, except los de Ajtlata, who threw themselves into the water, survived the day eating water grass; at night they went out and so on gradually got used to the sun, to the alternation of day and night]: 489; Metraux 1935a [1) at first people lived in darkness; they were horrified at the first sunrise; 2) first the sun rose from the west; people decided to do houses facing east; the sun rose from the east and they died on the doorstep of their homes (chipaya dwellings are oriented eastward, like chulps); a man and woman who threw themselves into the water escaped from they are chipaya]: 64-66 (=1935b: 395-397); Quechua yura (Southern Bolivia) [the first people (chulps) lived in the moonlight, grew stones in the fields; their master was the god of the moon; when our god appeared Tyusninchis (the sun), he destroyed the chulps with a fiery rain]: Rasnake 1988:143.

Southern Amazon. Waura (about the same among the Vaura related Arawak groups of the upper reaches of Shingu, Mehinaku and Yaulapiti) [it was dark, yeropoho lived on earth, and people lived in termite mounds; heroes Vaura managed to send the sun to heaven (without details); after learning about this, they tried to escape by wearing "clothes" and turning into animals and sacred wind instruments; at sunrise, most threw itself into the water, led by three flutes - Kavoká, Eyusi (=stingray), Talapi kuma (bassoon fish); those who did not have time to hide themselves became monsters and spirits; they are depicted costumes and masks]: Barcelos Neto 2001:148-154.

Chaco. Pilaga [people living in the dark could not extinguish it after the sun rose and went west; one night they returned to kill the people of the day; they raided back in the afternoon; in the light of the sun, the night people saw nothing and were exterminated]: Idoyaga Molina 1996:142-153.