Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A25. Getting used to light .

When people go to earth (for the first time or after a global catastrophe) or when they are present at the first sunrise, they should not immediately look at the light.

(Wed. Mesoamerica Tocholabal [the gods decided to punish people; the mountains spewed fire, fire and ash covered the ground; then the flood began, some escaped in boats; after the flood, the gods sent the Dove to find out what earth; he remained pecking for the pebbles brought by the water, became overweight, did not return; the Vulture sent after him did not return either, began to peck at the corpses; the hummingbird began to drink nectar, but remembered the errand, returned ; The gods punished the pigeon by telling him to walk on hot coals, his paws turned red; the Vulture was forced to walk longer, his paws were burned and eradicated; for eating corpses, he has saltó el buche ( Goiter appeared?) ; animals hid from the disaster in the caves (wild pigs, rabbits, squirrels, monkeys); the gray-haired old woman turned into a mapache, who still has hands like humans]: Jiménez 1996:44).

The Antilles. Taino [in the province of Caanau (Caunana near Martir Danghiere) has Mount Canta (Cauta), with two caves, Cacibagiagua (Caxi Baxagua) and Amaiauna; most of the people who inhabit Cacibagiagua came from Hispaniola; people first went out and returned at night; fishermen who were unable to return to the caves before sunrise turned into trees (in Mexico, these trees are called xocotl); a man named Marocael ( machochael) arrived late and became a stone at the entrance to the cave; Guagugiona sent a man named Giadruuana to collect grass that is used for washing; he became a bird that sings like a nightingale in the morning]: Anghiera 1912 (1), dec.1, vol.9:168; Fouchard 1972:79-81; Pane 1932, chapter 1:186.

The Northern Andes. Ihka [when it was dark, the first woman had two beautiful children; she hid them in a cave, light came from there; people brought flutes, drums, began to play; the boy J'uí came out, his they tried to catch him, he soared into the sky, became the sun; his eyes that rose at that time turned into stones; his sister named Tíma was also lured by music; to prevent her from running away, they threw ash In her face; but she also rose to the sky, became the moon]: Chaves Mendoza, Francisco Zea 1977:62-63.

NW Amazon. Uitoto: Farabee 1922 [there was no sun or moon; monkeys came out of the hole in the ground, then some turned into humans]: 145; Girard 1958 [the first humans were no different from monkeys; Figueroni's mother cut off their tails at night, turned them into humans; stopped doing so at dawn, the rest became monkeys]: 78; Pereira 1980 (2) [it was night first; Caba sees tailed ones coming out of a hole in the ground people; cuts off their tails; those who came out after sunrise became monkeys]: 480; Rojas 1986:106-107 [the first humans came out of the ground, they were released by Jitoma (The Sun); they went out at night, the wasp cut off their tails; those who came out after sunrise were left with tails, turned into monkeys],? [people came out of the ground at night, had tails; the spider cut off their tails; after sunrise, they stopped cutting off, these people became monkeys], 115 [the first people came out of the ground, their tails were cut off; Those who came out after sunrise were not cut off, they became monkeys; Taife also wanted to go out, but did not crawl into the hole; other taife (evil spirits) came out; some people remained underground, their screams could be heard]; San Roman 1986 [those who come to earth turn into people at night, stay with tails during the day, they are monkeys]: 113, 115.

The Central Andes. Chipaya [people lived in the dark, hunted; there was only one way east in the dwellings; when the sun came out, everyone burned down except los de Ajtlata, who threw themselves into the water, survive the day eating water grass; they went out at night and so gradually got used to the sun, to the alternation of day and night]: Mesa, Gisbert 1966:489.

Chaco. After a global catastrophe, those who look straight into the distance turn into animals; blind eyes remain human. Chorote: Wilbert, Simoneau 1985, No. 18 [the sky began to fall, water flooded the earth; in a dream, the sky told her husband and wife to sit under the tala tree, taking fuel and seeds; the sky fell, the earth sank, and became dark; people failed; those who looked into the distance became nandu, iguanas, bakers, or birds; only this couple and children survived], 20 [the fire destroyed everything; when the hole was dug, the father and two daughters escaped; many people came out of the hole; the man and his daughters were the last to look into the distance, the other into bakers, the women into anteaters, jaguars and rabbits; the man and his daughters were the last to go out, covered his face with his hands, came back, went out again as a man; married daughters, people come from them], 21 [fire destroyed a village in the forest; one man dug a hole; when he went out, became a grayed bird; the other lived outside the village, escaped with five grandchildren; they came to the edge lands where the roots of the sky rest on it, and the roots of our earth rest on the lower earth; all young people have gone to the lower earth; the old man and his grandchildren are returning, there are many edible plants around], 22 [from the fire in Nora escaped brother and sister, got married; when they left, the man became serialized and the woman became an anteater]: 39, 41, 42-45, 45-46; matako: Palavecino 1964:288; toba (unless otherwise: oriental toba) Wilbert, Simoneau 1982b, No. 21 [after the world fire; if they hadn't closed their eyes, they turned], 38 [after the great darkness]: 71, 94; 1989a, No. Wilbert, Simoneau 1989a, No. 54 (Western Toba) [from fire people hid in an underground shelter; those who came out were not supposed to look around; the first ones who came out looked around and became birds, others remained human; the little red bird began to sing, a tree grew], 55 ( toba-pilaga) [the world fire started from the north, people took refuge in a deep cave; going out and looking around, the old woman became an anteater, the old man a jaguar, the swarthy woman a wild pig; husband and wife did not look around, people come from this couple], 56 [the old man warned of a world fire, ordered an underground shelter to be dug; after the fire, those who left were to cover their faces; those who looked around became animals; except for the shaman, husband and wife remained people], 57 [the old man dreamed that there would be a world fire, made an underground shelter, some people escaped in it; after the fire, mountains appeared on the ground; who went out looking on the sides, turned into animals; people saw a huge snake, the Father of the Serpents, it devoured animals that were human before leaving the hole; people killed two Serpent Fathers; people are in their twenties survivors], 58 [The Hawk and the Fox made an underground shelter, some of the people in it escaped, the rest were burned in the world fire; when they went out, people should not look up, they looked at them became animals; the girl with the necklace is bakers, the other is a deer, an old woman is an anteater, the other is a pig, the men are nandu], 59 [the world burned down, Novét picked one boy up in his boat; people hid from the fire in the deep the pit; those who went out should not have looked back; the young man looked, became a nandu, the girl became a deer, the old woman an anteater, one man a caiman, the other a jaguar; they came without looking back people remained in a certain place], 60 [Dapitchí sent a fire to the ground, told the shaman to hide the people in a deep hole; those who left after the fire should not look around for a while; those who looked turned into different animals, only the shaman and his family remained human], 61 (pilaga) [Yulo caught his wife with her lover; he put snake eggs in her honey, her stomach burst, and came out from there snakes; Yulo told his children to hide in a hole, returned to heaven, burned the earth; some other people hid in the same hole; those who went out looked around turned into animals; the old man and the old woman became anteaters; the girl became a bird and flew away; the Nisole bird sang until all the herbs and trees grew again], 62 [the world burned down; people hid in the hole; they were told to go out despite far ahead; one looked, became a howler monkey, so howler monkeys appeared]: 83-84, 85, 85-86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91-92, 93-94.