Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A32. The figure on the lunar disk, A751.


On the lunar disk, you can see a figure or print of a creature or object. In statistical calculations, this motif also includes A32A - A32J motifs (a rabbit, a frog, a predatory beast, a person, a tree, etc. are visible on the moon).

West Africa. Tenda [woman has been pregnant for several years; complains that there is no one to harvest fruits for her; Tyara answers from the womb, comes out, immediately becomes a big boy; his grandmother does not tell him to go to hers village, where a bird takes people away; he attaches a bag of ash to it from behind, follows the trail; everyone hides, T. cuts off the bird's head, puts it in a bag; the chief says he killed the bird, but he cannot show his head (the heads of a rooster, goat, ram, cow do not fit); the leader sends T. to a granary (he has the shape of a deep vessel in the ground), pours molten bullets and hot oil on top; T. puts a pumpkin vessel; sends sorrel to search; T. calls sorrel, hears an answer, refuses to go (sorrel cannot answer, it is a trap); T. tells the Sun not to shine so that the oil does not melt; the moon does not grow up so that the hyena does not eat it by the goat; they refuse, T. hides them in a bag, it's a long night; T. tells everyone to hide, releases the Sun; Guinea fowl sticks out its head, now it is burned; The Turtle and the Snail didn't hide, now their bodies are hard, dry; when the sun went down, T. released the moon; the Monkey grabbed her; the moon shows the Monkey grabbing the moon to look at it]: Ferry 1983, #49:286 -295.

Sudan - East Africa. Lure [The month came to visit the Bat; he served him food on a luxurious carved tray; the Month asked for a tray, but the Bat replied that he would give him anything but this; but the Month took the tray and it is now visible on the lunar disk; bats have been hanging backwards to the moon ever since]: Knappert 1997:212.

Australia. Vaduman [He lived in a cave in the west for a month; he has 3 dogs and a kangaroo; when he died, his spirit became a month; dogs and kangaroos are moon spots]: Waterman 1987, No. 53:24.

Melanesia. Buin (Fr. Bougainville) [the moon shows the moon-man village: sleeping huts, work house, chief's house]: Thurnwald 1910:134.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Lucy [a huge ficus (Bung) grows on the moon, the branches of which are visible in the silhouette of the spots; in the middle of the tree there is a monkey without a head; whoever sees it will die before the deadline]: Parry 1932:493.

Burma - Indochina. The Viets [three brothers caught frogs; they hear them say that animals will soon gather to judge a man; the brothers let the frogs go, the elder goes to a meeting with the old frog, hides in a hollow; animals accuse each other of being guilty to man; only frogs man destroys innocently; the frog promises that there will be a flood; animals run away; the frog tells brothers make a raft; water floods the fire, brothers want to fry crab, swim to the Sun's house; the eldest fell in love with the daughter of the Sun, baked the crab to black; now visible in the sun with a black crab in his hands; raft descended on bare rocks; an older brother threw a tree trunk with two termites and two earthworms from the sky; termites and worms turn wood into soil, brothers plant rice; younger brother studies magic, meets an old woman, turns him into a beauty; the middle brother fell in love with the bride, took her younger brother on his magic horse; contrary to the warning, he galloped him, which caused the earth to catch fire, mountains and the sea formed, a horse and riders jumped to the moon, can now be seen there; a pumpkin has grown in the fire, brought one fruit; the ancestors of peoples came out of it; their skin is darker or lighter, depending on who smeared more with charcoal; some of their hair caught fire, became curly; taoi, vankieu, ede, sedang, banar, viet came out; the younger brother became the Spirit of the Earth, told everyone where to live and what to do (vietu - better lands), ascended to heaven]: Vietnamese tales 1992:174-182.

South Asia. Marathi (Bombay) [the moon god took a deer out of compassion, it can be seen on the moon]: Enthoven 1924:50; Marathi (Ratnagiri County) [spots on the moon - tamarind, or the reflection of a deer drawn into the chariot of the moon god; or a pipal tree (Ficus religiosa) with a cow or two deer tied to its roots]: Enthoven 1924:51; (cf. Marathi (Thana County, SV outskirts of Bombay) [the stalked deer asked the Month to hide it, and when refused, hit him with his hoof, now spots on the moon]: Enthoven 1924:51); Jains (Bombay) [in The lower part of the moon god's chariot is an image of a deer visible in moon spots]: Enthoven 1924:50; Punjabi [spots on the moon - the spindle of the prophet's daughter]: Ullah 1959:166.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kalmyks: Basayev 2004, No. 9 [Dolan Burkhi (Big Dipper), Sar Mechin (Monkey - Pleiades), Alti Gasi (Polyarnaya) and other Stars lived on earth, with them the Sun and Moon, they were still children; they took the arshan from the sea, Araha ran up, put his finger, licked it, became immortal; the Moon indicated where to shoot, the arrows cut Arakha in half; the bottom went into the ground, the top swallows the moon once a year, the Sun three times a year years; Stars rose to heaven; gods chained Araha to an iron cart on the moon (dark spots)]: 41-43; Dušan 1976 [people did not die, did not care about anything, grew up until the age of 15 and remained at that age; they wanted to try old age; God fulfilled their wish, people began to live hundreds and thousands of years; wanted to die; began to die and be reborn young; the gods decided to make people immortal again, prepared the drink of immortality, left; it was drunk by the evil spirit of Araha, urinated in this place, ran away; the god of war left by the guard chased A.; the moon pointed to A. with his hand, the Sun with a nod of his head; the god of war threw a sword at A., cut it in half; the lower part disappeared into the ground, evil spirits and reptiles came out of it; the god of war chained the upper part to a cart on the moon (dark spots); A. promised to starve the moon three times a year, The sun is every three days {probably every three years}; A. does not have a back half, the swallowed stars come out of it]: 77-78; Chechens [Sun and Month are brothers, the mother of the Sun is Aza, the mother of the Month is Kinch; their evil sister Mauge ate all relatives in the sky, chases the Sun and the Month, causing eclipses; during an eclipse, you can see something like a black thread on the moon - a merry-go-round gun; a black spot in the middle The moons are the horse carried by the moon; when the horse's mouth expands, the summer is short, when it decreases, it is long and rainy]: Dalgat 1972:257; 2004:163-164; Ingush [Can be the sister of the sun and moons, chasing them across the sky to eat; during an eclipse, you can see something like a black thread on the moon - a guard's gun protecting the moon from Mauge; in the center of the moon there is a dark spot, it's a horse; if its the mouth is widened, the summer is short; if the mouth decreases, the summer is long and rainy]: Dalgat 1893:120 in Tankiev 1997:39.

Baltoscandia. Lithuanians [a team of bulls is visible on the moon]: Kerbelite 2001:112.

Volga - Perm. Bashkirs [Trout asks the Old Man how to escape from Pike - Move to a mountain river; Capercaillie to escape from the Berkut - Live not in the mountains, but in the forest; two Roe Deer run away from the Wolf ; The old man ties them with his backs - When one runs, let the other rest; the running Roe Deer jumped to the moon, the Wolf behind her; they always run there; the beast in front (double Roe Deer) has eight legs; (zap. 1963; fragment of the West at the end of the 19th century. Lossievsky)]: Barag 1987, No. 3:32-33; Nadrshina 1985, No. 2:9-10.

Turkestan. Yellow Uighurs [there is a monkey on the moon; there is also mangys; there is also a monkey in the sun]: Malov 1967, No. 50:35.

The coast is the Plateau. Cus [the hero makes himself a dog by filling the animal's skin with flint; dogs rise into the air when fighting; the flintlock dog wins]: Jacobs 1940, No. 25 [the ogre dog kills four by one brothers; the fifth makes a flint dog (taking the skin of a seal); fighting, the dogs rise into the air; the paw falls, then the giblets of an ordinary dog; the flint descends; the young man tells him to take the defeated into his mouth, go to the moon; he is visible on the moon, holding another dog's paw in his teeth], 3 [otter skin; both dogs can be seen on the moon]: 175-181, 241; Saint Clair 1909a, No. 12 [two people met; one has a dog (fisher-dog ), the other has a dog made of gravel cat skin; dogs began to fight, began to rise into the air, ended up on the moon; the gravel dog ate another's feet, only he (the dog who looks like a man) is visible on moon]: 40; upper coquill [Puma and Grizzly enemies; Grizzly killed Puma, but Puma's grandmother found a drop of blood, he has revived; five grizzlies take turns coming to Puma, offering to go down from under the roof; The cougar has prepared five bags of sharp flints; each time he asks the Grizzly to close his eyes, open his mouth to step there (the Grizzly hopes to swallow it), instead pours out flints, the Grizzly dies; the last one is a shaman, sees with his eyes closed; the Grizzly and the Puma fight, climb the mountain, then the moon; the moon shows a grizzly and a puma fighting]: Jacobs 2007:193-200.

Plains. The Comanches [see motif J44; Owl stalks young children; they ask Bison for help; he throws an owl on the moon; he is now visible there]: Barnard: 88-93 in Archer 2000:143-148; Saint Clair 1909b, No. 275-276.

The Great Southwest. Hicarilla [Son of the Month kills a dangerous flying fish; raises its heart with four arrows, throws it at the moon; her silhouette is visible on the disc]: Mooney 1898a: 209.

Mesoamerica Micah [see motive A23; people are going to choose the Sun, tell the young man that it is weak; it turns into the Sun, tells the old man to dig a well; at first it hangs low above the ground, it's hot, only the old man has water well; tells sister to run to the old man's house for the forgotten huarache; during this time he rose high; sister became the moon; spots - her brother's huarache]: Miller 1956, No. 3, 4:79-85, 86-97; jacaltecs [two the chiefs try unsuccessfully to hit the deer on the face of the moon with an arrow; the fool (simpleton) asks for permission to shoot, cuts off the leg of the deer with an arrow; it falls into the sea that was then boiling; the chiefs ask Vulture to reach his leg, he is scalded; the chiefs make him new eyes from the seeds of the miche tree, but he remains bald; the fool easily pulls out the deer's leg; everyone eats meat, he gets only bones; he grinds them, all animals emerge from the piston; then see motifs G3, G16, H18]: Montejo, Campbell 1993:100-101.

The Central Andes. North coast of Peru (images on mochica vessels) [monster with jaguar/fox features]: Disselhoff 1951, fig.4 [mochica I-III; relief on a vessel with a black surface; jaguar-like monster with stepped ridges on his head and tail ("requai beast"), bent over a naked man lying on his back with an erected fall; a conical cap on the man's head; an eight-pointed star nearby; the scene is placed inside a half-sickle, probably representing the moon; the shape of a vessel with a highlighted throat is unusual for a mocha; the exact origin is unknown, possibly found in one of the valleys north of Chicama]; Kutscher 1954, fig.44-48 [and other publications]; Misminai (dep. Cusco) [woman riding a horse (formerly probably a woman with a male llama); holding a newborn daughter in her arms]: Urton 1981:81.

Montagna. Ashaninka [Aroši and his brother Taanilireá left machetes on the plot, who cut down the forest themselves; the hummingbird stole A.'s silver necklace; to replace it, A. went up by the Month to take from a piece of it; Month swallowed it; A.'s legs in the womb of the Month are still visible (moon spots)]: Weiss 1975:268-269.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Yurakare [see motive J16; a pregnant woman goes to the Jaguars; they tell them to take out their poisonous ants and eat them; the mother of the Jaguars gives her pumpkin seeds to pretend to eat; The chief Jaguar, who has a second pair of eyes on the back of his head, notices the deception, kills the woman; the Jaguar mother finds the boy Tiree in the womb, hides her in a pot; he considers her his mother; hunts for a rodent Pakoy, she tells him the truth; T. kills all the Jaguars except the four-eyed; he asks the trees, the Sun, the Stars, the Moon to cover him; the moon covers, his silhouette is visible on the lunar disk]: Orbigny 1844:210- 212; chiriguano [a blue Yawa-Rowi jaguar (plomizo) devours the moon; it can be seen in the silhouette of moonspots]: Metraux 1932:158.

Chaco. Kaduveo [caduveo stole a horse, didn't know what to do with it; Ninigo (son of Go-noeno-hodi) bred a genipa, drew a rider on the moon; the image was not very similar, but Caduveo understood and now they have lots of horses]: Frič in Ribeiro 1950:34; (cf. toba [spots on the Month - a young man on horseback with an ax in his hand; (this is a common motive in the Old World; ideas about the Month and the Sun riding cannot be pre-European)].