Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A40. Sun or Month are married to Toad/Frog .


Toad or Frog is the wife (or one of the wives) of the Sun or the Month. Traditions in italics are in which the frog jumps on the face (chest, back) of the Month and stays there; an asterisk indicates those that show that the frog can be seen on the lunar disk; traditions are highlighted in bold italics in which a frog or toad is the wife of the Sun.

Sanpual*, okanagon*, flathead*, twana*, puyallup*, ne persa*, clamat*, modoc*, tillamook (*?) , grovantr*, crow*, hidatsya*, mandan*, arapaho*, yurok*, karok*, hoopa*, yana (*?) , kuna, kogi, mayhuna, shuar, aguaruna.

The coast is the Plateau. Sanpual [The frog puts out all the lights but its own; the future Sun and Month enter her house; she jumps around the neck of the Month, says she is his wife; her tourniquet trying to tear it off, so her skin wrinkled]: Ray 1933, No. 4:136-137; Okanagon [Coyote is Krotiha's husband, leaves for a long time; she falls in love first with a sun-heated stone, then with a white root; gives her eldest son the name Warmed up The stone, the youngest is the White Root; one is white and the other is red; the Coyote comes and trains his sons (they are called his sons); people are going to choose who will be the Sun; the Coyote tries, spies on those who make love, detached; his sons do not want to leave the earth; the Frog is in love with the youngest; causing rain, it extinguishes all hearths except his own; the White Root comes to warm up, she jumps on his face; you can't tear it off; out of shame he becomes the Month; his brother becomes the Sun; if you kill a frog and put it against the sky, the Month and the Sun hide in the clouds because they fear that it will demand love from them]: Guie 1990:179-184; Flethead [Skomeltem gave birth to a son Amotken, the creator of heaven and earth; the first people he created were evil, he destroyed them by the flood; the second race destroyed by fire sent from the sky, the third by an epidemic; his mother asked him not to destroy the fourth; there was no sun; the Coyote was the first to try to be the sun, talked about everything he saw from above, he was stolen to the ground by the tail; the raven was black, gave little light; A. sent Spokani's own son to be the sun; people refused to give him a wife, he came to the frogs, alone volunteered to be his wife, jumped on him cheek; during the day, S. covers his face with a radiant cape; at night he takes it off, it is the Month; the spots are the frog on his cheek]: Clark 1966:66-68; Twana [The month is too hot; his brother becomes the sun Sun ; Marries the Frog for a month, because only she can carry the bag with his property; The frog is visible on the moon]: Elmendorf 1961, No. 5:37; puyallup [like a twan; marries the Frog's daughter; the Frog is visible with bag]: Clark 1953:144-146; tillamook [Sun and Month Brothers; A month older, married to a Frog; The frog makes the Sun regurgitate the frogs and lizards it has eaten, making it beautiful and bright]: Jacobs , Jacobs 1959, No. 38:147; ne perse [The sun is too hot; he has two wives, one of them is a Frog, he does not love her; Coyote calls advice; Frog asks her husband where to sit; In front of me; she jumps there, you can't rip it off; the screaming Sun becomes the Month and the former Month becomes the Sun; the Frog is visible in the Month]: Walker, Matthews 1998, No. 23:77; Klamath [The Frog is the Wife of the Month, seen in his disc, he carries it in his heart; when the Bear devours him during an eclipse, she revives it]: Gatschet 1890:xxxix; modoc [The month sends an Otter to marry one of the ten Frog Sisters, living across the lake; Veketas (the little green frog) is poor, others are adjoining it; the Month chooses her, because only she will be able to revive it from any small piece when the Bear is devour it; V. is now visible on the lunar disk; if the Sun is already rising and the Month is still visible in the west, the largemouth devour it, but the wife revives]: Curtin 1912:81-82.

Plains. Grovantre [The Sun and the Moon are brothers; the Sun prefers Frogs because they do not squint at him; the Month prefers girls; becoming a porcupine, it lures one of the two sisters into a tree, from there to heaven; the mother of the Sun and the Month wants to know which daughter-in-law crunches and champs more while chewing meat; the wife of the Month wins with good teeth; The frog tries to nibble on the coals, black saliva flows, the Frog described; the offended Sun throws her in the face of the Month, she sticks to it; the Sun takes the wife of the Month and her son; a woman with a child descends from heaven on a rope; the rope is short, The sun throws a stone at his wife; a woman falls, breaks, her son remains alive; she ruins an old woman's garden; she catches a boy, he lives with her; kills women who turn into snakes; one crawls into his anus kills him; the month sends cold rain, driving out the snake; the young man and his mother come to life]: Kroeber 1907b, No. 21:90-94; crowe [see motive J18; The month says that the best girls are frogs, the Sun is what hidatsa; three sisters see a porcupine in a tree, ask the youngest to get it; chasing a porcupine, the girl finds herself in the sky, the Sun marries her; the Month marries a frog; wives compete to see who is better eats; The frog chews coals as if it were chewing on meat; the month throws it away, it jumps on his back and stays there]: Lowie 1918:52-57; hidatsa [The Sun and the Month are brothers; The month marries a girl, The Sun on Toad; woman eats thin chunks quietly, Toad eats chomping, fat; A month laughs at her, she jumps on his back, stays there]: Beckwith 1938:117-130; Lowie 1942:2; mandan [A month wants to be married the girl, the Sun is a Toad, because she does not wrinkle her eyes when she looks at him; the month turns into a porcupine, climbs a tree; the youngest of two girls climbs after him, ends up in the sky; mother-in-law wants to know which daughters-in-law chews louder; Toad has no teeth, she can't chew meat, she chews coal; A month laughs at her, she jumps on his back, she can still see]: Bowers 1950:200-201; arpahoe: Dorsey 1903 [Month wants to marry a woman, the Sun is on the frog, because she doesn't blink when she looks at him; the month has become a porcupine, one of the two girls climbed a tree for him, ends up in the sky; the Sun brought a toad or a frog I saw that the girl is better; the girl works hard, crunches loudly for food, old people like her teeth; the frog is lounging, she has no teeth, crunches coals; the frog jumped on the chest of the Month and stayed there; the wife of the Month gave birth to a boy; the Month does not tell her to dig up rhizomes with withered stems; she dug up, making a hole in the sky, saw her camp, began to descend a rope of tendons, holding behind the baby; The month killed her by throwing a stone, her son survived, sucks her chest; the old woman at night picked him up, called him a Star; the boy notices that the old woman leaves food for someone, kills the beast with with sparkling eyes, gives his grandmother his horns to make spoons, she replies, This is your grandfather; the young man grew up, left, kills snakes; one crawled into his anus, then into his skull, left a skeleton; he caused a fever Sun, the snake crawled out, he grabbed it, she gave him her skin for his spear; he became the Morning Star]: 212-228; Dorsey, Kroeber 1903:134:321-239.

California. Yurok [Frog, Grizzly Wives of the Month]: Kroeber 1976, No. D3:246-248; Karok: Kroeber, Gifford 1980, No. F9 [The Sun is beautiful; The Rattlesnake, the Grizzly, the Frog are Wives of the Month, seen on his disc] , V7 [The sun throws his wife Frog into the fire; goes overseas to marry another; he feels sorry for the Frog, he returns to her]: 60-61, 277; Lang 1994 [The frog jumps from mountain to mountain while it gets to the house of the Month; she is the best wife of the Month, seen on his disc; Grizzly and Rattlesnake sit on the other side of his house]: 49-54; chupa [The Month has ten wives in the west and ten in the east; his wife is the Frog visible on his body; protects him from cougars and rattlesnakes that cause lunar eclipses]: Goddard 1904, No. 11:196; Yana [Marten throws the Month first, then his wife the Frog]: Sapir 1910, No. 13 : 235.

Honduras-Panama. Kuna [Mother Toad, the moon is the wife and enemy of the Sun, fighting it]: Réverte 1962:63

The Northern Andes. Kogi [the greedy and lustful Toad is the Sun's first wife; he throws her to the ground, she breaks her coccyx; toads sing, causing rain to darken the sun]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985 (2), No. 4:33.

Western Amazon. Maihuna [The frog magically grows crops on its Sun Husband's property; then disappears]: Bellier 1991b, No. 20:249; shuar [The Sun had many frog wives; one laughed, but it only worked out how, how; the other put too many beans to cook; when the brew flowed over the edge, she inadvertently broke the pot; the third did not finish weeding for her husband's arrival; he made the tree high to the sky, climbed it and stayed in the sky]: Wavrin 1937:635; Aguaruna: Chumap Lucía, García-Rendueles 1979, No. 13 [Tak ásh (Frog) and Yá mpan (Star) is the wife of the Sun; the Y chakra is well processed, and the lazy T. pulls out of the ground not cassava tubers, but entire plants; Y. goes to the dance with her husband, asks to cook a few beans; T. sprinkles a lot of beans, she shimmers over the edge of the pot; the next day Y. sends T. to dance, gives her her outfit, goes to heaven herself; T. pretends to be Y., but falls off a log, crossing the ravine; The sun turns her into a frog; throws its spears and rays in different directions, finds out that his wife and children are in heaven; children recognize their father's spear; the Sun stays with Y.], 13a [five beans grow in field Y., T. goes for beans, uproots them; offended Y. goes to heaven; T. in her clothes goes to dance, but falls off a log into a ravine, the Sun turns her into a frog; throws her spears and rays to find Y.; finds out that in the sky, she became the wife of Thunder (Fox); kills Thunder with a spear; Thunder's lungs turn into lightning, her liver into thunder; the Sun's children Fox and Marten (i.e. mustelidae) eat them, become lightning themselves and thunder]: 159-173, 175-191.