Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A42A. A sun simulator falls from the sky .

Having risen to the sky, the character fails to play the role of the sun and as a result falls or is thrown to the ground.

Ancient Greece, bellakula, heiltsuk, kwakiutl, halkomelem, katlamet, chumash, eastern keres (Kochiti).

The Balkans. Ancient Greece ["Historical Library" by Diodorus of Sicily (1st century BC): "Many poets and historians say that young Phaeton, son of Helios, begged his father to give him his father for one day quadruple team. Helios agreed, and Phaeton drove four horses, but could not hold the reins, but the horses did not obey the young man, turned away from their usual path, and for the first time, wandering across the sky, burned him, forming the current circular Milky Way, and then, burning the earth in many places, burned vast spaces on it. Enraged by what was happening, Zeus struck Phaeton with lightning and brought the sun back on track. The phaeton, on the other hand, fell at the mouth of the river, which is now called Pad, and in the old days it was called Eridan. His sisters mourned Phaeton's death so sadly that, due to excessive sorrow, they even changed their nature into poplars" (trans. O.P. Tsybenko)]: Diod. Sic. V. 23. 2-3; [Ovid's Metamorphoses (Er Er): Phaeton came to the house of his father, the sun god; he promised to comply with his son's every request; Phaeton asked to be allowed to rule for one day father's chariot; the sun god was forced to agree and Phaeton set off at dawn; four horses pulled into a chariot rushed at great speed, frightened Phaeton could not do them held and dropped the reins; the horses rushed the chariot across the sky and descended so low that the earth began to blaze and the rivers evaporated; the Earth pleaded to Jupiter, who threw his perun, the chariot scattered, and the incinerated Phaeton fell into Eridan]: Ovid. Met. II. 1-366; [Myths attributed to Guy Julius Gigin, who lived at the turn of the eras, but most likely date back to the 1st and 2nd centuries: "Phaeton, son of the Sun and Clemena, secretly boarded his father's chariot and, rising too high above the ground, fell into the Eridan River in fear. When Jupiter struck him with lightning, everything started to burn. To seize the opportunity to exterminate the entire mortal family, Jupiter pretended to put out the fire. He streamed from everywhere and the entire mortal family died, except Pyrrhus and Deucalion. And Phaeton's sisters, who, despite his father's ban, harnessed horses for him, turned into poplar trees" (trans. D.O. Torshilova)]: Hyg. Fab. 152a; ["Phaeton, the son of Clemen, the son of the Sun, and the nymph Meropa, who is considered Oceanida, learned from his father's story that the Sun is his grandfather, obtained his chariot from that chariot, but made poor use of it. Because he was driving too close to the ground, everything caught fire from the proximity of the flame. Striked by lightning, he fell into the Pad River. The Greeks call this river Eridani and was the first to mention it by Ferekides. The Indus, on the other hand, caused the heat of the near sun to darken their blood and turned black" (trans. D.O. Torshilova)]: Hyg. Fab. 154; ["Astronomy" by Mark Manilius (1st century); on the Milky Way: "This light that cuts through the darkness of the night makes the human mind ask about the divine: maybe the building of the universe is splitting apart and in New light enters the resulting crack; what fears does a person feel when looking at damaged skies? Perhaps the sky closes, and where the edges of the hemispheres converge, a strange scar appears, a seam filled with air that has become dense, holding the foundations of the high heavens together. Or is it more true that in ancient times, the horses of the Sun raced the other way, along a different path? Over the centuries, have the scorched stars lost their color, and the dark blue sky was covered with ash? From ancient times, the story of Phaeton flying across the sky in his father's chariot has come down to us; looking enthusiastically at the unusual picture of heaven up close and rejoicing like a child, he drove the chariot forward, trying surpass his father, and lost his way, and the rebellious horses took an unusual path; unfit constellations could not withstand the heat of the lost fire and the weight of the chariot, which had lost management. Why is it strange that the heavens are burning and the Earth turned into a fire burning in every city? When the fragments of the scattered chariot scattered in different directions, the sky turned white. Today, the stars bear the traces of that ancient fire, showing the consequences of the disaster that occurred in the sky" (trans. E.M. Steerman)]: Manil. Astr. I. 716-749; [On Astrology by Lucian Samosatsky (2nd century): "Phaeton outlined the path of the Sun, but not quite correctly; he died, leaving his research unfinished. Those who do not know this consider Phaeton to be the son of Helios the Sun and tell a completely implausible myth about him: as if Phaeton came to Helios the Father asking him to drive a solar chariot, he gave and outlined the driving rules. Phaeton boarded the chariot, but due to his age and inexperience, he kept him too close to the ground, sometimes too far away from it, so that he killed people with cold or unbearable heat. Zeus struck him in anger for this with a great lightning bolt. The phaeton fell, and his sisters surrounded him and cried a great deal. This continued until they changed their image, and to this day they stand as black poplars and shed amber tears for Phaeton" (trans. N.N. Zalessky)]: Luc. De astr. 19.

NW Coast. Bellacula: Boas 1895, No. XXII.2 [1) Other boys mock a fatherless boy; he makes a chain of arrows, climbs into heaven, comes to his Sun Father (Snk); the Sun sends him instead of himself, warns not to go low; he goes down, the ground is burning; his father throws him down, he breaks, the pieces have turned into minks; 1) other boys mock the boy without a father; he warns you better not to do this: his father, the Sun (Snk), will burn them; he climbs into the sky by the eyelashes of the Sun (these are the sun's rays); his father trusts him to carry the sun, he descends over the village, some the trees are burning; returns to the ground; warns not to joke with him; but people decided to kill him; he went up to his father again, burned the ground; the mountain ram climbed into the cave, remained white; the bear lay his throat on stone, the rest of the skin turned black; the ermine hid under the stone, only the tip of the tail turned black; the sun threw his son to the ground, he became a mink]: 246-247 (=2002:508-509); 1898 [girl rejects grooms, goes to the Sun, immediately gives birth to a son named Totkoaya; he grows up quickly, wants to see his mother's parents; the Sun lowers his wife and son to the ground through his eyelashes (= rays); children They tease T. that he does not have a father; T. shoots at the sky, makes a chain of arrows, goes up to the Sun; asks him to let his torches be vilified; he tells only small ones to be lit in the morning and evening; T. lights everything immediately, the earth is burning, the water is boiling; the ermine climbed into the hole, the tip of the tail turned black; the mountain sheep hid in the cave, remained white; many animals turned black, but retained a lighter coat on their stomachs ; The Sun threw T. to the ground, turned him into a hole; caused a sea flood, people escaped to the mountain tops; the water descended, people settled on the ground again; the Sun taught how to use meat, skins, etc. different animals]: 95-97; McIlwraith 1948 (2) :424 [Mink comes to heaven asking the Sun to lend him his outfit; drives the solar boat so close to the ground that the sea begins to boil; (dumped to the ground?)] , 499-500 [father kicks daughter out of home; she comes to the Sun, spends the night with him, comes back; children tease her son because he does not have a father; mother advises him to shoot at the sky with a chain of arrows; father gives him the right to be the sun; wanting to destroy people, he descends closer to the ground, everything burns; his father breaks it into pieces, they turn into mosquitoes]; Heiltzuk: Boas 1895, no. XXI.2 [boy asks the mother about his father, she says he is far away; the boy is crying; a man named the Shooter gives him a bow and arrow; the boy shoots at the sky, makes a chain of arrows, climbs upstairs; the current wife of the Sun says he will come soon; the sun is happy with his son, wants to hand over his duties to him, tells him not to go down too quickly; the son does not listen, puts on the clothes of the sun, the rocks melt, the sea dries up, the shells turned black; The sun throws his son to the ground, turns him into a hole]: 234 (=2002:485); 1916, No. 6 [the boy makes a chain of arrows, climbs into the sky; the Sun adopts him; tells him not to play with the sun far from home , do not walk fast wearing a sun mask; he breaks prohibitions, the world lights up; the Sun hits him, turning him into a hole]: 885-886; 1928 [Minka asks the Archer to make a chain of arrows; the Sun gives his son its mask tells you to go slowly; Norka is going faster, the world lights up]: 3-7; Quakiutl: Boas 1895, No. XVIII.1.6-7 (Neveti Group, Tlatlasicoala Subgroup) [Norka wants the boat with women to capsize; dives, sealing the genitals with resin; the raccoon asks who can cure women; Mink is called to do so; removes the resin, copulating with each of the women; everyone becomes pregnant; with the son who gave birth to him, he sails away in the boat; pretends that his nose insert fell into the water, dives; the wife sees that Norka is not looking for an insert, but eats seals (Seehunde), swims away; he asks to throw his bow and arrows at him; shoots at the sky, makes a chain of arrows; comes to his father, the Sun; he asks him to carry the solar disk (this is a nose pendant) instead of him; tells him not to stray above and below, otherwise the earth will freeze or burn; The mink is descending, the sea is boiling, the forests are burning; the Sun has thrown it to the ground, turning it into a hole]: 172-173 (=2002:381-382); 1910, No. 12 [The sun fertilizes a woman with its ray, she gives birth to Mink; Blue Jay tells him he has no father; his mother explains that his father is the Sun; Mink shoots at the sky, a chain of arrows turns into a rope; Mink comes to his father; The sun says he is tired, wants to leave son for himself, tells him not to look straight down on the way; in the afternoon Norka watches, the world lights up; the sun drops Norka down, he falls into the water (turns into a hole?) ; since then, the rocks are cracked, there is no good forest on the mountains]: 123-127; Wallace, Whitaker 1981 [a woman conceives from the sun, gives birth to Nork, other children call him faultless; his mother says his the father is the Sun; his uncle makes him a bow and four arrows; the mink shoots from the hill into the sky, the first arrow pierces the sky, the others into each other's tail; the chain does not reach the ground, Mink attaches a bow to it; arrows and onions turn into a rope made from cedar bark; the Sun says he is old, invites Norka to replace him, gives him his mask, tells him not to go down too quickly to the ground; hearing people complain that the sun is not enough, Norka goes down, everything burns; the sun drops it to the ground, it falls into the water; so the mink swims well, like its mother is a sea lion]: 65-68.

The coast is the Plateau. Halkomel [a woman replies to her son Skaíak that his father is the Sun; he comes to the Sun, is warmly received; when leaving, the Sun tells not to put a tree that gives many sparks in the fire; S. asks the trees, the cedar replies that it sparkles the most, S. puts it in the fire; the Sun's wife Thunder-Lightning opens her face, S. is incinerated; the Sun revives him; tells him to walk across the sky instead of herself; that three days all does the right thing; The Sun leaves him at home again, tells him not to climb under the roof; S. climbs, finds the woman's genitals there, copulates; when he goes down, finds the Sun's wife dead; The sun hits him with a club to death, throws to the ground; S. comes to life, returns to his mother]: Hill-Tout 1904b: 345-346; katlamet [the leader goes east to look for the Sun; sees a girl in the house; jewelry and tools are hung nearby , weapon; girl: This is my paternal grandmother's property, I will get everything when I grow up; an old woman comes in the evening, hangs a shining object; the chief marries a girl; when she wants to go home, mother-in-law allows him to choose any gift; but he wants only a shining object; it sticks to his body, makes him fall unconscious, and exterminate his relatives, villagers, on the way to his home; the old woman picks up the item, the person is left alone]: Boas 1901a, No. 3:26-33.

California. Chumash: Blackburn 1975, No. 18 [Momoy (Datura meteloides) tells her daughter not to stay long while swimming; she lingers, the Bear comes to her, first as a human, then a bear; when she becomes pregnant, he kills her; M. revives her grandson from a drop of blood; the boy hunts larger animals; his grandmother made him first a small bow, then a real bow; talks about the death of his mother; the young man kills the Bear with arrows; puts the corpse by the river as if the Bear is drinking; the grandmother is frightened, the grandson explains what is going on; the grandmother does not tell me to go over the hill; the young man walks, sees the village, stays there, takes his wife ; The Coyote makes him start losing (apparently the ball game is on the court), loses his property and his wife; decides to leave, Coyote goes with him; he flies north to Huasna (he may take the form of a fly) The coyote runs; then the road to heaven, the Coyote leads the young man; in the house of the Sun they are greeted by two daughters of the Sun wearing rattlesnake skirts; the guests were given a deer but told not to break their bones; the Coyote accidentally broke a bone legs; the daughter of the Sun threw her bones into the water, the deer came to life, but the leg was not enough; the Coyote is thirsty; there is blood, pus, snot, body fluid in four vessels; he does not drink, he is given sweet juice; and the young man drinks from each vessel; daughter of the Sun: when the father comes, there will be fog, wind, then he will throw stones into the house; brings dead people, Coyote eats them; Coyote asks the Sun to allow him to go across the sky instead of him; carries a torch too low, the earth burns; does not return for a long time; the Sun takes away his torch; the Coyote decides to return to earth; asks the cannibal eagle Slo? w lower him; he stretches his wing down; the Coyote runs on it, jumps ahead of time, crashes to the ground; comes to life; the grandson stays with the daughters of the Sun forever], 29 [Coyote's son marries a rich Rat; With her money, Coyote organizes a holiday, inviting even inhabitants of other worlds; Xoy descends from the fifth (uppermost) sky; Coyote wants to see the upper world; when K. rises, clings by his legs; frightened, stays in the first heaven; comes to the daughters of the Sun; the Sun returns home; Coyote asks him to be allowed to accompany him in the morning; asks him to carry his torch, almost drops, the Sun struggles to save the earth from fire; the Coyote asks the Eagle to bring him down to the ground; sitting on the Eagle, plucks his feathers to make wings for himself; the Eagle throws him off, he falls, breaks; the Sumivovo brothers and Six'Osus revive him]: 131-133, 198-201.

The Great Southwest. Western Ceres (Laguna) [Wolf and Coyote went east; Wolf stopped at the foot, Coyote climbed the mountain, came to the Sun's house in the morning; offers to perform the duties of the Sun; Sun puts him on the rainbow, sends the Maseewi and Uyuyewi twins to accompany Coyote, warns him not to go low, otherwise people will burn; when he gets to the top (i.e. at noon), the Coyote notices women on earth descends to them, halfway the earth lights up; the twins (again) turn the rainbow bulge upwards, returning the Coyote; at noon they ate; the twins tell their Sun Mother what happened; she tells the Coyote to feed on bugs and carrion from now on, tells him to be thrown to the ground; he lies motionless, then comes to life]: Boas 1928a: 31-33.