Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A43A. One leg is shod, the other is not.


The character runs away in a hurry and undergoes a metamorphosis, turning into a bird or going up to heaven. He's missing one leg, or one shoe on one leg, or one mitt.

Kumyks, Dargins, Bashkirs, Kazakhs (Eastern Kazakhstan), Russians of Tomsk Oblast, Altaians, Teleuts [Month; Cuckoo], Shors, Khakas, Ilimpic Evenks (Chirinda) [A month with one mitten], Japanese, central yupik, koyukon, ingalik, kuchin, khan, southern tutchoni, chipewayan.

Volga - Perm. The Bashkirs [the son of the water king Kekuk married an earthly princess; decided to see his parents and did not return; combing her hair, the abandoned wife decided to become a bird; she managed to braid only one braid; so the cuckoo has one wing tousled and lowered down]: Barag 1987, No. 109:97.

Turkestan. Kazakhs: Valikhanov 1984 [the groom arrived, his horse was lost, the bride's sister went in search, hurriedly put on one groom's boot and the other her own; it was spring, that's why the cuckoo's one leg is red, the other is blue, and that's why they shout, Aty jok k cake (note: "hoopoe, letters. 'nameless cuckoo '" {rather it is a folk etymology and there is no "ata zhok", and "at zhok" means "there is no horse"}]: 210; Potanin 1972, No. 9 (Tarbagatay, Mongolia) [the older sister got married; the youngest went to look her son-in-law's missing horse got lost herself; when she went in search, she put a black boot on one leg and her son-in-law's red boot on the other; everyone shouts "At jok (no horse) cuckoo!"] : 51 (=Potanin 1886, No. 14:18; =Kaskabasov et al. 1979, No. 9:40); Mongolian Kazakhs {in publications "Mongols", but clearly Turkic text}: Dähnhardt 1910 [older sister married, younger not; husband lost her horse, his wife's sister was sent to look for her; she got lost, became a cuckoo, still screams, At Jock ("no horse"); when she left, she put her black boot on one leg and a red boot on the other sister's husband's boot]: 526; Ikeda 1971, № 249D [(probably the same text as in Dähnhardt); the girl herds her horses, disappears alone, the girl is driven to look for her, she turns into a bird (cuckoo?) ; one leg is black (put on her boot), the other is red (put on her son-in-law's boot)]: 58; Russians (?) , g. Semipalatinsk, Tomsk Oblast [the cuckoo was a princess with one leg shod and the other barefoot when she ran]: Potanin 1883:777 (same text referring to Potanin 1864:123 c. Belova, Kabakova 2014, No. 244:173).

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Altaians: Verbitsky 1893 [a girl named Cook wanted to drink, asked her daughter-in-law for water; she got angry and sent her to Satan; K. turned into a bird, fluttered into the hole above yurts; someone from the family tried to catch her, grabbed her leg, leaving only one shoe in his hand; therefore, the cuckoo has one leg red (naked) and the other black (in the shoe); the cuckoo does not nest She can, because she was not taught this in her maiden life; constantly says her former name]: 165; Garf, Kuchiyak 1978 [the hunter is missing; the wife is going to look for a new husband, her sister is going to look for the missing; the wife does not let her in, the sister turns into a bird; the sister manages to grab her right leg, a slipper falls off her foot; the sister finds her brother's bones, becomes a cuckoo, mourns her brother]: 124-126; Oinotkinova et al. 2011, No. 53 [ the craftswoman sister sews everything; her younger brother became a bird, flew to the valley, died of hunger; in May, her sister worked and sang; the wealthy mistress began to beat her, the girl turned into a bird, flew away through the chimney, one shoe remained in the mistress's hand; therefore, one leg of the bird was red and the other was yellow; when she found her brother's remains, she shouted, "Dry corpse, gray bone"], 54 [the cuckoo was an orphan child; she was scolded, she ran, she was grabbed by one leg, her shoes were pulled off, she climbed a tree, said she would become a cuckoo, flew away; sings, "Gray bone, gray larch, dry bone, dry larch, young bone, young larch" (Kök söök, kök tyt! Like söök, like tyt! Jash söök, Jash tyt!) ; contrast between the live/young and the death/dry]: 163-165 (var. on p. 446), 165 (var. on p. 446); Teleuts: Katash 1978 (same text as Verbitsky?) [girl Kuke (cuckoo) asked her daughter-in-law for a drink; she sent her to Satan; K. became a bird, flew into the upper hole of the yurt; someone grabbed her leg, but only pulled off her shoes; the cuckoo has one leg red, the other black]: 91; Tokmashev 1915 [the Creator's son Jajuchi is ill; he calls the shaman Babyrgan, who is useless, gets a horse; J., in the form of a simple traveler, meets him on the road; finds out that the shaman does not care about the sick in order to receive a reward; turns him into a flying squirrel; the same with a shaman named Kuikunek; turns him into a hawk, tells mice to play; the son dies; the sister of the deceased of grief turns into a cuckoo, still cries; when she flew out, the wife of her deceased brother grabbed her leg, ripping off her stocking; the cuckoo has one leg blue and the other (in a stocking) red]: 92-94; Funk 2005 [kam Kadylbash stole one of Ulgen's daughters from heaven as his bride; brought her to his house; she needed to change into the clothes worn by women; Kadylbash forbade those around him to look through the window while his daughter Ulgenia would not change clothes; when she had to wear her last stocking, someone looked out the window; Ulgen's daughter turned into a cuckoo and flew down the pipe; this now makes the cuckoos have one red leg, and the other blue (Alexander Anokhin's archival materials)]: 68; Shors [the woman fell ill, asked the children for water three times, they did not serve them, continued to play; one child came in and saw that his mother was turning into a bird , grabbed his legs, called his brother and sister, they cried, promised to bring water; the mother became a cuckoo, flew away; her son grabbed her leg, wanted to hold her, so the cuckoos have one red leg]: Arbachakova 2010, No. 16:301-303; Khakas: Alekseev 1980 (Kachins) [The cuckoo son began to ask his mother for water, she did not give it; he turned into a bird, cursed his mother, flew out of the yurt into the chimney; his mother managed to grab him by one leg with her shoes off; so the cuckoo has different colored paws]: 104; Troyakov 1995 [the little boy is dead; the sister has been crying for two years; Skinny's parents ask Skinny to take her; he turns her into a cuckoo ; mother manages to grab her leg, pull off her boot; Skinny weaved a boot out of grass on his bare foot; therefore, the cuckoo has one leg black and the other red; grieving for her brother, the Cuckoo did not eat; who will hear singing cuckoos on an empty stomach, the whole year will be insatiated; so you can't go to the forest in spring without eating]: 46.

Eastern Siberia. The Ilimpic Evenks (Chirinda, 2007) [a very big man lived on earth; he did not have a head, only shoulders; he hunted moose, ate them in the same place he caught them; once he met a simple as a hunter, fed him and went to bed; the hunter stole a mitten from a big man to show his comrades; a big man woke up and found him missing; angry, flew to the moon; there he can be seen, with one mitten and skis]: Duvakin 2013.

Japan. Japanese [(15 versions from southern Tohoku to the center of Kyushu); while her husband is away, the stepmother kills his stepson; when he returns, the father takes off his shoes and begins to take off his legs; when he learns that the son has allegedly gone to the mountains, the father She jumps to look for him, the leg remains on one leg; the father turns into a cuckoo, calls his son; one leg is black and the other is white]: Ikeda 1971, No. 249E: 58-59.

The Arctic. Central Yupik [the youngest of four brothers is lazy; does not hunt, stays at home with her sister; one day she wakes up feeling near him, drives him; the next evening she cuts off her chest, puts her chest down, puts him down fat and berries on top, invites him to eat it, since he wanted it; a ladder descends from the sky, she climbs it, turns into the Sun; the brother hurriedly puts one leg in his leg, pulls his sock over the other rushes after his sister, turns into a Month; still chases her; loses weight from hunger; sister feeds him from the plate in which her chest lies, the Month is getting fat again]: Nelson 1899:482.

Subarctic. Koyukon [a girl rejects her suitors; someone comes to her at night; she ties a pen to his hair; in the morning she sees that she is the eldest of her four brothers; puts on her best clothes, goes up to east, becoming the Sun; her brother forgets to wear one moccasin, follows her sister, turns into a Month; people don't look at the Sun without wanting to dishonor her]: Chapman 1903, No. 5:183-184; inhalic [ a girl rejects her suitors; someone comes to her at night; she ties a feather to his hair; when she comes to kashim, she sees that it was her brother; puts on her best clothes, cuts off her breasts, puts them on a bowl with food, gives it to his brother; rises to the sky, becomes the sun; brother runs after it, becomes a Month; hurries to wear only one moccasin]: Chapman 1914, No. 4:21-22; Kuchin: Camsell 1915, No. 10 [the boy demands that people give the fattest deer to his father; they take them for themselves; the deer disappear; the father and son have a bag in which reindeer bones are overgrown with meat; the son flies through the chimney to the moon ; at the same time, one leg came off]: 254-255; McKennan 1965 [the uncle does not give the boy deer fat, throws his intestines at his feet; the boy flies to the moon through the chimney; one leg remains in chimney; the killed caribou come to life and run away, only the boy's father's meat remains intact; the boy is still visible on the moon; he holds a caribou shoulder blade and a caribou blood scar]: 146-147; Khan (Eagle): Schmitter 1910 [(=1985:37); boy demands caribou leader's meat; uncle brings plain meat, father brings needed meat; boy turns pieces of meat into large pieces; disappears at night; his left leg is found in chimney; it can be seen on the moon, his right leg is longer than his left leg; there is a bag of ordinary caribou meat in his right hand; at night, the caribou killed came to life, ran away; only the boy's parents do not starve to death]: 25; Smelcer 1992 [ the hunter kills a lot of caribou, but people don't give him meat; he flies to the moon; the old woman grabs his leg but can't hold him]: 129-130; Rooth 1971 [caribou meat turns alive caribou, those run away; the little boy knows that this will happen; cries, demands a piece of meat; when received, covers him with his skin; this piece remains; the boy tells his parents to eat little by little from him; gets up at midnight through the chimney to the moon; seen on the lunar disk ever since; his pants get stuck and remain in the chimney]: 268; southern tutchoni: Workman 2000:58-63 [during the migration, the old woman found baby Sha Kay Dadaya (S.); he has grown up; she tells him to take the dog because he cannot bring the rabbits caught alone; he asks if it is true to drag the dog with him; drags it by the rope, it dies; hang traps everywhere at rabbits - the old woman goes to look, sees that the traps are hung on the trees; she shows how to do it; now S. catches a lot of rabbits, but hides them, brings them home to eat enough; hunts caribou with the husband of an old woman's daughter (hereinafter M.); sings all night; says that there will be a war; tells them to pour water into birch bark vessels, they themselves fly to the other side of the lake; they do not believe him, the children laugh at him, because they fly to the other side of the lake. he is small; he burns M.'s arrow, tells him to follow the arrow; he comes to a fallen tree, where his whole arrow is under the den tree; S. and M. kill the bear, feed the hungry; S. and M. resettle the old woman away; magically kills a lot of caribou (knocks trees in their direction, turns into magpies, etc.); distributes fat to everyone, says that there is not enough caribou fat that followed the leader; cries, but no one does not confess; he goes to the old woman; it snows heavily at night, all people are frozen; in the plague, old woman S. flies out through the chimney; she grabs his S. leg, his leg comes off; now on the moon you can see a man with with her leg torn off; the old woman complains that he left her; he raises her to the moon; you can see holding her hand there], 71-75 [during the migration, the old woman found a baby; he grew up, but not taller than 1 m; following rabbits, asks if the dog should be dragged with her; drags it by the rope, it dies; the old woman tells us to hang traps on rabbits everywhere - she goes to look, sees that the traps are hung on the trees; she shows how to do it; says that his uncles are killed, his sisters are gone; he comes to the camp, pretends to fall from weakness at every step, hides an arrow every time; approaches the old man if he wants kill him; he kills him and everyone but his sisters with arrows; brings them to an old woman; he magically kills many caribou; the fat from one caribou is gone; he is insulted; at night, the meat turns into animals again they run away; people starve to death, the old woman, her daughters and their husbands remain; the boy flies out through the plague hole; the old woman grabs him by the leg, she breaks off; now he is visible on the moon, one leg cut off; one day he came to an old woman, sang her moon song; it was sung during lunar eclipses]; chipewayan [see motive E9; a man warns his wife not to leave fingerprints on beaver fat; when he enters and takes off his greaves from one leg, he notices prints on fat; runs out of the house, rises to the moon; he can be seen there with his dog and greed on one leg]: Birket-Smith 1930:88-89; Lowie 1912 [ the beaver hunter has accumulated a lot of beaver fat, does not tell others to touch it; taking off his greaves, he saw one man put his finger in fat; angry, he rose to the moon; seen there with the lowered greaves and a dog sitting on his lap]: 184.