Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

A46. The sun and moon come from the creature's eyes.


The sun and moon (Rigveda: only the sun) come from or are associated with the eyes of an anthropomorphic creature.

Chamorro, Gilbert Islands, Mangaia, Tibetans, Apatani, Meitei, Ede, Cham, Ancient India, Bondo, Juang, Maria, Pardhan, Bali, Nias, Ancient China, Chinese (Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan, Henan, Shandong), Miao (Hainan), Yao (Thailand), Kalmyks, Manchus, Ancient Japan, Upper Tanana.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Chamorro: Flood 2001 [zap. Adelbert von Chamisso; there were only Puntan and his sister Fu'uña; when he died, P. ordered to create a world out of it; his eyes became the sun and the moon, the chest became the sky, the heartbeat alternated between time of day and year, her back was earth, breadtree, tarot, coconuts grew on it; eyebrows were a rainbow; F. swam, sailed to the islands, became a rock, the rock crumbled into pieces, all people arose from them]: 2-4; Frazer 1939 [according to P. Murillo Velarde and Luis de Torres; Poontan lived in space, died telling his sisters to turn his chest and shoulders into heaven and earth, eyes into sun and moon, eyebrows into rainbows]: 140; Gilbert Islands: Grimble 1922 [the sky was lying on the ground; Na Arean (Spider, although anthropomorphic; Na - "Master") felt for a booming place with his staff, told Sand to connect with water, they gave birth to Na Atibu and Nei ("Lady") Teakea; their children Older, Woman In The Middle, Wave, Octopus, Ricky's Eel; the youngest Na Arean Junior, a trickster, was born last; after that, Na Arean the elder retired; NA Jr. gave reason and movement to the Deaf and Dumb Fools ( these are the children of Sand and Water); they slightly raised the sky, cut off the connection between it and the earth, Ricky raised the sky high, the earth fell; N. cut off R.'s legs (when they fell into the sea, they became eels), and R. himself was The Milky Way; to prevent the sky from falling, NA put four women on four sides of the world to hold it, they grew roots like trees; N. killed his father Na Atibu, turned his right eye into the sun, left to the moon, brain to stars, pieces of flesh into rocks and stones, bones into trees, including Samoa Tree, ancestor]: 91-96; Maude, Maude 1993, No. 3 [the sky was adjacent to the ground; Tarawa was dark and cramped; Nareau grew out of him; N. created the Riki eel, then several other creatures; told R. to raise the sky, who tore it off the ground, resting his tail, raising the sky with his head; the stingray cut the gap between the earth and the sky, to cut off the roots of the sky; when the sky rose, N. threw R., who fell on Tarawa Island, dividing it in half; N. turned Te Ikawai's right eye ("elder") into the sun, his left eye into the moon; then created it on Tarawa several women and a man], 6 [the sky was lying on the ground; Nareau felt for a booming place with his staff, made a hole, connected the Earth to Water, the Earth gave birth to children, including Ricky's eel; the youngest Nareu was the last to be born; he gave reason and movement to the Deaf and Dumb Fools; they raised the sky, Ricky raised it high; N. cut off R.'s legs (now an eel without legs), and R. himself was the Milky Way; N. killed his father Na Atibu, turned him the right eye in the sun, the left eye in the moon, the brain in the stars, the spine in the Tamoa tree, the body in the rocks, the right god in the North, the left eye in the South Solstice]: 28-29, 34-37; (cf. Tuvalu [sun and moon - Laukiti eyes]: Turner 1861:292 in Williamson 1933 (1): 117); Mangaia [Avaiki is like a coconut with a root, tiers inside it; the world is outside it, on its upper surface; at the base of the root - Te-aka-ia-roe ("root of existence"; roe is a worm, thread-worm); above him is the demon Breath of Life, on it Long-lived; these three form the root; at the lowest and narrowest part within Avaika itself the demon woman Varima-te-Takere ("the very beginning") sits crouching; from a piece of her right side she created the first Avatea (Vatea) man - Noon, half-human half-fish (vertically; more precisely, half-human- half-dolphin); his eyes are the sun and the moon; he climbed to the very top of Avaiki, just before leaving A. outside; his eyes come out of the hole every day and return there; from the other piece on the right side the great mother created her second son Tinirau (Countless); he is also half fish (like sprat); lives on a tier below Avatea, master of fish; from the left side of the foremother Tango (Support), then daughter Tumuteanaoa (Echo), then son Raka (Trouble, runs the winds); sixth, again from the right side, Tu-metua's favorite daughter (Stick-by-the Parent); they occupied tiers from top to bottom, Tu-metua is the lowest with his mother; Vatea married Dad (" foundation"), their first sons Tangaroa and Rongo (the first purely anthropomorphic creatures); Rangi and two other grandchildren Rongo pulled Mangaia out of the lower world, the ancestors of its inhabitants]: Gill 1876:1-11 (retelling in William 1933 (1): 11-14), 44 [Sun is right, Moon is Vatea's left eye].

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans: Ogneva 1982c (bon mythology) [the sky emerges from the head of the goddess Lumo, the moon from the right eye, the sun from the left eye, the planet from her upper teeth; when she closes her eyes, night falls when day opens; thunder from her voice, rain from tears, wind from her nostrils, rivers from her veins, earth from her body]: 74; Tucci 1949:712 in Allen 2011 [the queen of snakes arose from emptiness; from the top of her head arose sky, sun and moon from eyes, thunder from voice, mountains from bones, etc.; according to another version, parts of the universe arose from a nine-headed female snake born from an egg]: 61; apatani: Blackburn 2008 [ Hintii Anii gave birth to forms - first the earth and sky, then the Sun and the Moon; they were her eyes; evil spirits led by Giirii created the second Chanter Danyi sun and the second Chanter Pulo moon, and it became incredibly hot; The Tamu spirit shot the second sun and moon, leaving only Danyi and Pulo]: 154; Elwin 1958a, No. 1 [at first, the Earth (Kujum-Chantu) was like a human being with a head, limbs and a huge fat belly; she decided that if she got up, everyone would fall and die, so she died voluntarily; her head became snowy peaks, her back bones became hills, her chest became the Apa Thani Valley, and her neck became the northern land of people tigin, buttocks - Assam's plain; because her buttocks are high in fat, Assam's soils are fertile; her eyes became the sun and moon; Kujum-Popi was born from her breath, sending the sun and moon to the sky], 1 [first Kenku was born, he is Wiyu (god, ancestor) in the shape of a ball of earth; she said she was Chantu, gave birth to Apo Tani, told him that he should give birth to people and she would die; he asked where they would live then people; she replied that her thighs would become earth, her eyes would become sun and moon, blood would become water]: 8, 37; meitei [Atiya Shidaba rubbed her right eye and the sun came out, rubbed her left eye - the moon came out]: Singh 1985 : 173.

Burma - Indochina. Ede [the head of the supreme deity Aedié symbolizes the heavenly dome, the frowning forehead - clouds, the breath - air, the genitals - fertility, the right eye - the sun, the left eye - the moon, hands - two the pillar on which the sky rests; his wife Heba (mother earth) gave birth to him a sun-woman and a son who died from a scolopendra bite; since then A. has settled in a large house on the upper tier of heaven]: Nikulin 1980:49; tyama [there were 12 suns and 12 moons, the sky was low and the earth was thin; goddess Atmyhekat tried to create living creatures, but it was too hot; then Saint Nymaisibaityadong (apparently Shiva, Tyamsk. Siwa) knocked down all the suns, the world became dark; Avlahuk (or simply Ku, i.e. Allah), born from dark chaos, was able to make the world brighter 60 years later; A. created Mohammat, who gave birth to Jebrail, the son of D. Ibrahim began to rule the world; Adam and Eve were cast down to earth; gave birth to children, starting the human race; when the ancestors died, everything disappeared, leaving only the tall Mosi tree; A. was born from it, created animals, demons and humans; sent his eldest daughter Po Nagar to rule the earthly world; PN arranged space in accordance with her body; the sun and moon were her eyes, Venus was her heart, and the Big Dipper legs, etc.; created the seeds of the human soul, taught people to cultivate the land; Yama, one of her assistants, taught how to grow rice, make medicine, make fire; in Mecca he married a fairy, their 50 sons went up to the mountains, 50 daughters began to live on the plain; by order of father, PN returned to heaven]: Atnashev 2001:106-107.

South Asia. Ancient India [Purusha is sacrificed by the gods by dismemberment; the mouth becomes brahmanas, the arms are kshatriyas, the hips are vaishyas, the legs are shudras, the spirit is the moon, the eye is the sun, lips - Indra and Agni, breath - wind, navel - airspace, head - sky, legs - earth, ear - cardinal points]: Rigveda, X, 90): Elizarenkova 1972:259-261, 403; Toporov 1982a: 351; bondo: Elwin 1950 (same as juang, maria) [Mahaprabhu spat, water turtle swallowed his saliva, conceived; her womb was swollen but there was no hole to give birth; M. cut it from behind, was born girl; she grew up, asked the turtle about her father, she sent her to M.; she wanted to lie down with him, he killed her; blood flowed, formed the earth; her left eye became the moon, the right sun; the bones became hills her hair turned into trees and grass; M. removed a boy and a girl from her womb; they gave birth to people]: 137-138; pardhan [after Lakshmanjati's death, Rama went to the forest and pulled out his eyes; they became by the sun and moon]: Elwin 1949, No. 10:65

Malaysia-Indonesia. Nias [(by Chatelin 1881:110); an ancestor without arms and legs killed (died?) ; the sun and moon came from his eyes; a tree grew out of his heart; gods arose from the buds at its top, humans came from his lower buds; see motif H41]: Dixon 1916:176, 177; Bali ["earth bump (one sod of earth) earth) is my {Shiva?} support, peace and sky are my body, the sun and moon are my eyes, the divine Rabut (something revered but uncertain) is the real reason for my appearance "]: Hooyakas 1974:149.

China - Korea. Ancient China [(Imperial Tai Ping Review encyclopedia, Interpretation of History" by Ma Su, Ren Fan, "Description of the Surprising"); the universe resembled an egg; Pangu was born in it ; he woke up, split the egg with an ax; light and clean rose up, became the sky, heavy and dirty, down, became earth; P. rested his head on the sky, grew up, raising the sky higher; when P. died, his sigh became wind and clouds, voice became thunder, left eye became sun, right eye became moon, torso with legs and arms became four countries of the world and five famous mountains, blood into rivers, veins in roads, flesh with soil, hair on the head and mustache with stars, skin and body hair with herbs, flowers, trees, teeth, bones, bone marrow with metals, precious stones, sweat with dew and rain; var: tears are rivers, sigh is wind, voice is thunder, eye gloss is lightning; when happy, the weather is good, when angry, heavy clouds]: Yuan Ke 1987, ch. II: 34-35; Chinese (Shaanxi) [In ancient times, space was a bunch of energy that revolved in emptiness until life was born in it one day. It was a giant that grew fast, tore the clot into two parts and one with its head, and stepped on the other with its feet, and while it grew fast, these pieces also grew, became thicker, and the distance between them was increasing. The upper piece turned into the sky, and the lower one into the ground. Because the giant was the oldest man, he was named Panga (Curled Up Ancient). This is how he lived, with the sky above his head and the ground under his feet, his breath became wind, his voice became thunder when he blinked, lightning flashed, and when he cried, tears formed rivers. After a few centuries, he grew old. To have offspring, he took two of his ribs, blew on them, and they became man and woman, gave birth to children and grandchildren, and so humanity was born. After Pangu died, his head turned into a mountain, his eyes into the sun and moon, and his body hair into trees]: Zhou Yang et al. 1996, no. 2a: 5; Chinese (Gansu, Wu. Jingning) [Once upon a time, heaven and earth were in the same chicken egg and everything was dark and dark. A giant named Pangu appeared, sleeping in this egg for several hundred years. One day he yawned, reached out, heard a rumble, and the egg split. He got out of the dark egg and stood as a pillar, and he was ninety thousand or so tall. He saw that there was nothing around him, stamped his foot angrily, and fragments of the shell fell down. He pushed away from them and rose into the void. The fragments of the egg turned into the ground, and the place where it stood turned into the sky. After heaven and earth separated from each other, the earth was white and white. When Pangu saw this, he became upset and cried. His tears became rain and his sobs became thunder. To this day, when thunder comes, raindrops fall from the sky. The air he breathed out turned into wind and clouds. In the end, he died from sobbing, and one of his eyes turned into the sun and the other into the moon. His body fell on eggshell fragments and turned into mountains, blood vessels into rivers, muscles into roads, hair on his head into trees, and bones and teeth into silver lying underground]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001, No. 2:3-4; Chinese (Sichuan): Zhou Yang et al. 1998b, No. 1 (wu. Fengtse) [there was no sky and earth in the world, only chaos, fog and darkness; King Pangu took his magic axe that cut through the mountains and separated the sky from the ground; cut chaos and dark fog in half; heavy half went down, and the lung went up; after 18 thousand years, the light half became heaven, and the heavy half became earth; the sky rose, the earth became thicker, King Pangu grew old; when he died, he sighed, and his sigh turned into wind and clouds, and cried out, and his voice turned into thunder, shed a few tears, and they turned to rain; after his death, his left eye turned to the sun and his right eye to the moon, limbs into mountain ranges, blood into rivers, muscles into fields, hair on his head into constellations, hair on his body into grass and trees, his corpse gave rise to all things in the world], 1a (y. Baxian) [at first there was no heaven and earth, they were created by King Pangu; he had a dragon head and the body of a snake; he grew very fast, a day according to Zhang; grew 18 thousand years, grew huge, and then he became create heaven and earth; first created earth and it was flat; then hastily created a sky that looked like a cauldron cover: curved upwards in the center and low at the edges, it covered the ground; when creating the sky, P. forgot to compare the dimensions, the sky came out small and the whole earth did not cover; P. squeezed the ground, and it fit in size, but it had folds; since then there have been mountains and gorges, but there are also plains; King Pangu stood on the ground with his legs wide apart, opened one eye and closed the other; his eyes were the sun and the moon; he sighed, and his sigh turned into wind and clouds, cried out, and his voice turned into thunder; sweat wiped off and it turned to rain, rain fell into the gorges on the ground, so rivers turned; P. threw a few hairs from his head and body on the ground, it turned into trees and grass, threw parasites living on his body and they turned into humans and wildlife]: 21, 21-22; Chinese (Shandong, Wu. Liangshan) [heaven and earth were not separated, there were no people; Pangu slept between heaven and earth; grew rapidly in his sleep, reaching ninety thousand in length and width; woke up, opened his eyes and saw darkness; I groped and came across an egg, broke it with one blow, the world changed; heaven and earth split; the squirrel turned into clear sky and white clouds, and the yolk into the ground; P. laughed, and his pores turned into stars, body hairs into forests and grass, eyes into sun and moon, eye sockets into oceans, arms, legs and head into five mountain peaks, bones into mountain ranges, and sweat into rivers; when P. was angry, then he began to breathe intermittently, and his breath turned to wind and rain; sometimes he would stretch out his legs and clap his hands; this is the cause of thunder and lightning, as well as the earthquake]: Zhou Yang et al. 2007, no. 1:3; miao (Hainan, wu. Lingshui) [heaven and earth were not separated and were in chaos, like an egg surrounded by clouds; one day there was a sound of a splitting shell, a giant jumped out of the egg; the clouds against which it rested his head went upstairs and became the sky, and the clouds under his feet thickened below and turned into earth; this giant Pan-huang (August Pan {gu}) grew up to one zhang every day, and the sky it rose one zhang, and the earth thickened by one zhang; when heaven and earth formed, the world was still dark; Pan-huang pulled out his left eye, threw it into the sky, that turned into the sun; pulled out the right one, threw it into the sky and it turned into the moon; pulled out his teeth and made them constellations; separated day and night; tore out his hair, which covered heaven and earth, scattered them in all sides, they turned into forests; one of his fist turned into a mountain, the other into a mountain range; his bones turned into stones, his flesh into soil, his blood into rivers, and only his heart was left; it rose above the sky and became the spirit that ruled heaven and earth; later, the spirit of Panh Huang married Heavenly Immortal; they had five immortal maidens who were married to people from Deng, Jiang, Li, Zhao and Huang; this is how five Miao families appeared; Pan-huang lived 560 years and was buried in the Southern Mountains (Nanshan) after his death; the Miao people consider Pan-Huang their ancestor; New Year and other holidays, sacrifices are made to him]: Zhou 2002, No. 1:3; yao (Thailand) [5-6 thousand years ago, the flood destroyed everything; god Piang Ko Huung remained; when he died, his body plunged into the depth of the waters, his shining eyes glowed in the water; "3 stars" ("Three clear") placed his eyes on the sky, they became the sun and moon]: Kacha-Ananda 1997:268; Chinese (Henan, Jiyuan City) [K to the east of Mount Wangu is another one, on the slope of which is the Pangu Monastery. Pangu was born there. P. had neither a father nor a mother; he was born inside a huge chicken egg, and after being formed, he slept there for eighteen thousand years. When I woke up, I felt that his body seemed to be connected. He straightened his arms and legs, the egg crumbled. From P.'s movements, chaos began to fluctuate, the lung rose up, turned into a sky, the heavy one fell, became earth, and there was a small crack between heaven and earth. P. saw that the sky was too close, put his hands on the sky with his hands, began to push him up, growing one zhang every day, and the sky was also one zhang taller. It's been like this for another 18,000 years. P. grew by 90,000 or, and the sky rose by ninety-thousand. Hence the saying about the "nine-layer sky". From fatigue, P. became sweaty, exhausted and died. Before I died, I thought that heaven and earth were not enough; there must be sun and moon, mountains and rivers, people and animals. But he had already fallen from fatigue and couldn't create them. Before he died, he said he was leaving his body to the world. When he died, one eye turned into the sun, the other into the moon, his breath into wind and clouds, his voice into thunder, his arms and legs into mountains, his bones into ores, his blood into rivers, his hair into flowers, herbs and trees, his soul - into humans, livestock, birds, animals, insects and fish. The egg shell from which P. came out ended up under the mountain and turned into a shining, smooth folded stone. The carcasses made from it do not allow water to pass through. To honor P., a monastery was built on this site. Option (y. Tongbo): When heaven and earth were not yet separated, P. existed dressed and shod in clouds. Once a ball blocked his way, he split it with an ax. Air came out of the balloon and it began to descend. P. stood on him, fell asleep, and when he woke up several tens of thousands of years later, he found that his cloud clothes and shoes had disappeared, the balloon had turned into the ground, and the sky appeared above the ground. P. became the first person]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001b, No. 1:3-4.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kalmyks [the world came from Manzashirin (Manchushri bodysatva); trees from his blood vessels, fire from his body heat, earth from flesh, shores (mountains?) - from bones, water - from blood, grass - from hair, sun and moon - from eyes, seven stars (Big Dipper?) from teeth, other luminaries (Milky Way?) from the spine]: Zhiteysky, p. 67 in Harva 1933:76.

Amur - Sakhalin. The Manchus [it is dark on earth; the daughter of a heavenly god asks her father to build the land, but he refuses; she goes down herself, her father forbids her to go back; she has pulled out her left eye, threw it into the sky, it became the sun; the right one was the moon; threw a pearl necklace, it became stars; she turned into a mountain herself; her silhouette resembles the top of an eyeless female figure]: Bäcker 1988, No. 1:5- 8.

Japan. Ancient Japan [see chapters 1-8:38-49; after returning from the afterlife, Izanagi discards all objects that were with them and have now become unclean, from which different gods arise; when washed the left eye, the sun goddess Amaterasu appeared, and when the right eye was the moon god Tsukuyomi; when the nose was pollinated, the god Susanoo appeared]: Kojiki 1994, ch. 9:49-51; (in Nihon shoki 1997 (1), scroll 1, 5:121 - 122 These deities are Izanaga's children, born by Izanami).

Subarctic. Upper tanana [anthropomorphic creature marked by many celestial objects; Ursa Major - tail; Castor and Pollux - left ear; Chapel - right ear; sun and moon - eyes]: Cannon 1914:32-36, table 2.3, fig.2.2, 2.3.