Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B12. Snake rivers. . .

The riverbed follows the path of a snake, fish, dragon, crab; the river arises from parts of the snake's body; the river is a snake.

Ewe, Lower Murray, Maroura, Aranda, Gundungurra, Maung, Mungurai, Forrest River, Kiwai, Rawang, Andamans, Chinese (Henan), Bulgarians, Macedonians, Ingush or Chechens, Georgians, Shors, Kets, Southern Selkups, Western Evenks, Baikal Evenks, Udege, Manchus, Northern Alaska Inupiate, Thompson, Flethead, Arapahoe, Tunic, Cocopa, Tsotsil, Chorti, Hikake, Boruca, Central Cuba, yaruro, shikuani, makiritare, lokono, sekoya, napo, carijona, baniva (?) , Boro, Ufaina, Siriano, Desana, Maue, Lower Amazon (Fr. Marajo), Huarochiri, Quechua Southern Peru, Chayahuita, Cashibo, Pyro, Kulina, Characterbet, Takana, Kamayura, Bororo, Suya, Apinaye, Ayoreo, Toba Pilaga.

West Africa. Ewe [the water that had flowed out of the old woman's cauldron turned into a snake, writhing to Volta; the water flowed behind the snake, became the Daya River]: Olderogge 1959:163.

Australia. Lower Murray [Ngurunderi swims down the Murray stream, chasing huge cod; wagging its tail, the cod expands the channel, the stream turns into a river; his wife's brother Nepele helps him harpoon cod; N. cuts it into small pieces, throws it into the water, turning it into different species of fish; the tail turns into cod]: Berndt, Berndt 1964:203; maroura [the snake makes a channel Murray, crawling from source to mouth]: Waterman 1987, No. 1050 (1): 47; northern aranda [the serpent crawls home, making streams and ravines; where he stayed, men dug larvae, discarded earth formed plains]: Waterman 1987, No. 1050 (2): 47; Mungurai [the snake rose from the ground, crawled, creating riverbeds]: Waterman 1987, No. 1050 (3): 47; Gundungurra [Marsupial cat chases The Gu-rang-ach creature is a half-snake; when it runs away, it leaves riverbeds and water beds behind it; the cat consistently sends four birds to dive to reach it; the first two cannot reach the bottom, The dive brings the cub Gu-rang-acha, the Cormorant brings large pieces of his own body; everyone eats them]: Waterman 1987, No. 1055:47; Maung (Fr. North Goulburn) [an orphan boy cries, a Rainbow Snake crawls to his cry, swallows people; men manage to kill the Rainbow with spears, they find the living swallowed in his stomach; where the Rainbow has crawled, Sandy Creek number two was formed, where the snake was killed, a large body of water appeared]: Kudinov 1980:107; Forrest River (Kimberley) [the rainbow serpent created all rivers, causes tides and floods]: Kaberry 1935:435.

Melanesia. Kiwai [while hunting dugongs, two young men pretend to be sick, stay at home, rape a hunter's wife named Naga; he makes a crocodile out of wood; the first three varieties of wood too light, unfit; the fourth makes a crocodile; N. climbs into it, swallows boats; crawling on land, draws furrows, creating rivers; his behavior determines the customs associated with murder enemies; crocodiles come from him]: Landtman 1977, No. 19:94-98.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Rawang [there was no water; bumblebees began to carry it from the "source of God" to the hollow, they still carry it; the crab took the water, let it flow; the earthworm made its way, and the insect kurneng (screams loudly) called for water; the goat was the first to drink, its horns twisted, then Rawang, its horns were straight and sharp, his forehead was gray, beautiful; after that everyone drank water]: LaPolla, Poa 2001:35.

Malaysia-Indonesia. The Andamans [a man harpooned a fish, it started rushing around, made riverbeds]: Man 1932:97; Radcliffe-Brown 1933:217.

China - Korea. Chinese (Henan, Wu. Zhengyang) [there were ten suns in the sky, and their heat kept people from living. A man named Yi, who was extremely powerful, shot nine of them, and the people healed well. One day, the Jade Lord began to sigh sadly. Sivanmu was asked what was going on, and he said that people were becoming more powerful, nine out of ten of his celestial lamps were shot at his palace. Sivanma was told not to worry, because the world has a catastrophe every 500 years. She went down to people and turned into an old beggar to test them and decide if the Jade Lord was worried for nothing. She was driven from everywhere. She decided that there were no good people left in the world and people deserved disaster. On the seashore, I met my brother and sister named Fusi and Nuiva, who lived without parents. Fusi felt sorry for the beggar and asked her to be a foster mother, and Nuiva brought her rice and fish. Then Sivanmu decided that people should not be completely extinct. F. and N. told me that disaster would soon begin: let them collect enough brushwood and rice and get on the boat. She allowed pets to be saved, but not humans. She then went to Mount Kunlun ("Burnt Dragon"), where a black dragon had been sleeping in the cave for five hundred years. Sivanma woke him up and told him to destroy humanity. He flew out of the cave, rushed into the clouds, swam in the Sky River (Milky Way), hit his tail and punched a hole in the Sky River, then returned to the cave and fell asleep again. As soon as Fusi and Nuiva got into the boat, it started raining; it did not stop for 49 days. They saw a man drowning nearby, felt sorry for him and, despite Sivanma's ban, saved him. They also saved a turtle and a dog. When they reached Mount Kunlun, they left a man to guard the boat, and took the harpoons themselves and, together with the turtle and the dog, climbed the mountain in search of a secluded place. The rescued man was dishonest, and as soon as they left, he sailed away in their boat. Brother and sister found a suitable cave and wanted to drag brushwood into it, but the dog, with its keen sense of smell, smelled evil spirits and said they should go inside and kill the monster, otherwise not only would they not be able to live in a cave, but they also say goodbye to life. Brother and sister went into the cave, saw the dragon sleeping and hit him with two harpoons. The black dragon crawled out of the cave in pain and rolled southeast. Where it rolled, a winding river with muddy waters formed - today's Yellow River. The dragon came to sea and died, and since then the law that catastrophes every five hundred years in the world has no longer been in effect. The brother and sister returned to the place where they left the boat, but did not find it, so they returned to the cave with the turtle and dog, hunting wild animals and fishing. Their clothes decayed, and they wore tree leaves in summer and animal skins in winter. Fusi once told N. that there were no other people left in the world, so they should marry, but N. refused. Then they asked the dog to judge them. Dog: Just as male and female flowers that grow from the same root on the same stem can set fruits, brother and sister can marry. N. still disagreed and invited F. to catch up with her, and if he succeeded, they would marry. They ran from dawn to dusk, but Fusi didn't catch his sister. Then the turtle advised F. not to run, but to hide behind the mountain. When N. ran by, F. jumped out and grabbed her. To this day, in many places, spouses are referred to as brother and sister. N. hated the turtle and ordered it to hide its shameless face and close her talkative mouth. Since then, turtles have been pulling their heads into their shells and not talking. Then she peed on the turtle and kicked it into the river. Since then, the turtle's shell has cracks and smells like urine]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001b, No. 9a: 14-15.

The Balkans. Bulgarians [the winding bed of the Lom River was formed because a huge snake crawled here]: Gura 1997:288; Macedonians [the winding course of the Vardar River was formed because here A huge snake crawled by]: Gura 1997:288.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Ingush or Chechens [seven brothers took out living water, hid it in a tower; in their absence, their mother Erte-Emil drank water, used it for washing, poured it into the yard, where they drank a rooster and lamb; after that, the brothers drove the dragon, who ran away and paved the valley of the Sunzha River; mother, rooster and lamb will live until Sunday, walking looking for sons]: Dalgat 1972:344-345; Georgians (Kakheti, Tianeti District) [a dragon nestled in the lake, devastated villages; a bull left in the sanctuary began to fight him; on the ninth day, he ripped open the dragon's belly with diamond horns; he brought down the mountain and went to Caspian Sea; the dragon was followed by the waters of the lake, forming the Arzeba River; its channel was winding, so the dragon wriggled as he left the bull]: Virsaladze 1973, No. 78:135-136.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Shors ("Kuznetsk foreigners") [see motif B3A; after the creation of the land, the rivers along which the taimen sailed were straight, and along which small fish were winding; perch pierced the channels through rocks]: Shtygashev 1894:6-7.

Western Siberia. Kety: Alekseenko 1976 [Es and Dotet drew riverbeds on the ground with their fingers; E. in the south, D. in the north]: 94; Nikolaev 1985 (Turukhansk region and the river. Pakulikha) [Hosyadam lived in the water as a fish; she had a son Chuutyp (noon); when H. came out of the water to breathe air, he warned her of the danger of playing an instrument; Alba once caught seven beavers and one fish, which he let go; then realized that it was H.; killed his son H., and Krasny Yar formed at the Osinovsky threshold (he turned red with C.'s blood); A. went to catch up with H.; walked on the ground and cut through rocks, and H., running away from A., cut through rocks under water; "cheeks" formed in this place; where H. last emerged, Black Island formed; H. reached the ocean, where A. lost its trail, and since then has been living far in the north]: 122; the southern Selkups [koshchar (mammoth fish) has been laying new riverbeds]: Grigorovsky 1882:49-51 in Golovnev 1995:509.

Eastern Siberia. Western Evenks (Kirensky) [big fish walked on the ground, made riverbeds, lake basins; froze in sea ice, returned in the spring, made the Cha River and died]: Pinegina, Konenkin 1952: 50; Western Evenks (Podkameno-Tunguska) [the land was very small, there was no place for deer to graze; the man complained about his mountain to a mammoth (heli); the mammoth wandered through the water and found a snake { jabdar), persuaded him to go and drain the land; the mammoth hammered its tusks into the bottom, began to turn clay, sand and stones from the bottom; the discarded stones and clay began to grow, turn into cliffs, mountains and plains; Snakes climbed behind the mammoth, leaving a trail; snake tracks became riverbeds (former Angarsk Evenks)]: Vasilevich 1959:174; Western Evenks (Bachinsky, Turukhansky Krai) [like Podkamennoye Tunguska Evenks]: Osharov in Vasilevich 1936, No. 14:280; Western Evenks (Yudukon River) [the land was flat, inhabited by a mammoth, a dyabdar snake and other animals; one-eyed, one-armed, one-legged the creature of the chulyugda began to pursue them; the mammoth and others fought with him; where the mammoth stepped, lakes and swamps formed; where he dug the ground with tusks, throwing clods - mountains; d., crawling, laid riverbeds; the heroes pushed C. into the abyss of the underworld, went into the ground themselves]: Anisimov 1951:195; Baikal Evenks (north of Transbaikalia, p. Chara, 1944) [fish lived in a huge lake; it could move on land, dig the ground with its nose; it would pass between the mountains - the river where it would dig a hole - a lake; went into the Ice Sea and froze into the ice, only the ridge was sticking out, it was made of bacon; It was enough for people for the winter; when they touched the meat, the fish shuddered; in the spring, the ice melted, the fish returned to the lakes and rivers; made the Cha River and died in it; since then, no new rivers have appeared]: Pinegina 2019:185; Baikal Evenks (Transbaikalia, West. A.A. Makarenko, 1913, REM archive 6-1-216) [Everything was by sea; Buga and Khyrga were chasing the beast. They lived in a boat and everyone went and went. "And when will it be over," asks each other. Another: "we must make the land of the dunna {Arabic dunya - "peace"}." One left, wait, says I'm three years old. He brought Mount Gudynychan, took out the middle of Gurrykachan (deer) from it and threw it into the sea - so the land became. He threw it in the other direction and became the other. They went to Dunna land. The land began to grow, grass, animals and birds appeared. Pike went to get water, where it will swim, where rivers and mountains form. Three pikes seem to hold the ground. On earth, you can see three gods with your eyes: Delacha (sun) gives light and warmth, Bega (month) gives light, Togi (fire) gives warmth and nutrition. The sun and the month stand in the sky, they do day and night. In the underground world of the dead, Buni is the owner of Hyrga. It's dark and there's no sun and no month. However, the dead live the same life there as people on earth. It's bad to see them]: Sam MS

Amur - Sakhalin. Udege residents: Podmaskin 1991:54 [the Khor River was formed by pike, Bolshaya Ussuriyka by Kaluga] (LOIE archive. F. K-11. Op. 1, D. 250.L. 27), No. 6 [after the flood, the owner of the fish Sugzya sat on a sea serpent jerk (produces thunderstorm, wind, rain), began to drive him to the ground with a whip; the snake plowed the rivers flowing into the sea; river tributaries - traces from the whip S.]: 119; Manchus: Bäcker 1988, No. 3 [there was not enough water, Sungari was a stream; the heroic woman Silun Mama was the leader of the tribe; once a storm began, from the north a fire-breathing dragon flew; SM took its men to the White Mountains (Shanyan Alin); herons shouted to go east; people went after herons; a tiger met them at the cave, turned into a boy; the second the boy was brought by an eagle; SM took them, named them Nuowen and Ari (the elder, brought by an eagle); the brothers grew up saying that the North Sea Eagle God and the East Sea Tiger God sent them to create rivers and destroy the dragon; the brothers flooded the dragon's cave with water and threw stones, pierced the dragon with a spear; while fleeing, the dragon cut through the Sungari riverbed with its claws; the dragon's blood painted the earth red; A. died in battle, N. dragged the dragon, creating relief elements, lost his sight in battle; A.'s blood painted red mountains; SM went to look for brothers, saw deep rivers that did not exist at all; died; from her sister beat sacred spring]: 11-21; Wei et al. 2001, No. 3.2 [during the flood, snakes cut through gorges, and mammoths paved riverbeds with their horns; thanks to this, the water descended]: 195.

The Arctic. Northern Alaska Inupiate [during a flood, people gather at the top of the mountain; it is known that if you harpoon a bunch of grass (tussock) floating in the water, the water will subside; the bundle behaves like an animal not allowing him to get close; only the Crow can kayak and harpoon him; when the waters ran down, giant sea worms crossed the riverbeds, so those tortuous]: Cleveland 1980:62-65.

The coast is the Plateau. Thompson [fish are fighting the Okanagon Indians; sturgeon tries to escape from their pursuers, jumps from side to side; so the Columbia River winds in the upper reaches]: Teit 1898, no. XXVI: 77; flethead [The coyote carries live salmon across the mountain; stops ahead of time; the salmon jumps out, slides down the slope to form a river]: Clark 1966:85-86.

Plains. Arapahoe [see motif C3; the river overflows, the family flees to the mountain; the brother throws paint on four sides, the flood stops; fish, turtles, frogs who are on land turn into sources, rivers, lakes]: Dorsey, Kroeber 1903, No. 5:12.

Southeast USA. Tunic [(two options); a person quarrels with his mother-in-law; cuts off the tail of a sea serpent, lets it eat it instead of fish; the mother-in-law turns into a snake herself (more precisely, the snake crawls out of her navel, and the mother-in-law's body becomes small); son-in-law and daughter cut off the snake; the snake crawls, making one of the Mississippi ducts (bayou)]: Haas 1950, No. 11:87-89.

The Great Southwest. Cocopa [all girls are in love with the Coyote; the moon copulates with him when he bathes; then he becomes feathered, turns into an ogre eagle; devours parents, sisters; Sea Serpent Paves the Colorado Canyon, puts his back out of the water; when the Eagle is stuck in it, the Serpent drowns it; Coyote's friend pierces the Snake's testicle with a spear; from there water flows, fills the sea]: Crawford 1983, No. 2:37-57.

Mesoamerica Horned snakes. Zotzil: Guiteras-Holmes 1961 [changes direction]: 268; Laughlin 1977, No. 38 [man sees horns protruding from the rock; lightning hits the rock without harming a person; this serpent is his own he made ravines with horns]: 155-156; Laughlin 1977 [like the inhabitants of Sinacantan, the Chortis sacrifice the horned snake on May 3, Holy Cross Day, in connection with ceremonies around the spring; consider the horned serpent the incarnation of the god of the center of the earth, the master of the waters, carrying a pair of golden horns at both ends of his body; with these horns he dug riverbeds; the gods strike him (with lightning) for causing landslides]: 156; Laughlin, Karasik 1988:208-209; chorty [a female horned serpent makes its horn along a riverbed in a hurry to meet a male]: Fought 1972, No. 4:110-111.

Honduras-Panama. Hikake [at first there were no rivers, only lakes; the monster Nen swallowed those who tried to take water from them; three women and men who had drowned came to Tomam Segindo (the youngest son of the main god, controls dead in the west); he asked Brother Tomam Mayor to make rivers; TM sent his son Nompwinapu-u; he went down to Nen, hiding snakes under his clothes; at first he wanted to destroy all the lakes, but Viejito (the first Indian) asked to leave; Thunder threw his axes into the lake for 4 days; Nen tore off Nompwinapu-u's three toes, but he threw his snakes at him; after 4 days, rivers appeared; each has its own snake; if dies, the river dries up]: Chapman 1982, No. 13:77-78; boruca: Maroto 1979 [a woman became pregnant by a snake lover; gave him cheech when he stuck his head out of the hole; when she was supposed to give birth, her they threw them into the fire, gave birth to snakes, they were killed; the serpent crawled away, leaving a trail - a ravine through which a stream flows; var.: the snake crawled away]: 43-49.

The Antilles. Central Cuba [Amao is the first man, son of Huion 'a, a Sun man; Guanaroca is the first woman to be the daughter of Maroya (Moon); Amao is the son of A. and G.; A. the child in the mountains, he dies; A. hides the corpse in the fruit of the Guira, hangs it on a tree; G. finds the fruit, drops it, water gushes from it, floods the ground; fish and turtles appear; fish make the rivers of the Jagua region, from turtles - Majagua isthmus, from Guanaroca's salty tears - lake of the same name]: Borodatova 1992:158; Feijoo 1986:13-15.

Llanos. Yaruro [if not otherwise: the snake makes its way with its tongue]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990c, No. 9 [rain flooded the earth with a flood, people gathered on the mountain; the world serpent Poaná created mountains and riverbeds with his tongue rivers], 10 [the earth is flat at first; during the flood, Po Aná wriggled, creating irregularities in the terrain; the waters have descended], 11 [during the flood, the caimans hit their tails, create channels and reservoirs in the savannah], 31 [Poaná ; paved the riverbeds with his tongue], 66 [Po Ana paved the riverbeds with his tongue; swallowed his brother and sister, they were bald in his stomach; the brother opened the snake's belly with a knife, they went out and ran away]: 30, 30-31, 32, 54 -55, 94; guajibo [children find a snake, bring it home; it grows huge, turns into Tzavalivali (a mythical serpent that shamans turn to if they need to be cured or killed); swallows the father of the children; once inside, he guides T., who crawls to create rivers; when he crawls to a person's house, he cuts it, goes out; C. goes to live in the river]: Baquero 1989, No. 4:83; sikuani [fish]: Yepez 1984:13-16.

Southern Venezuela. Makiritare [rivers arise when a woman becomes an anaconda]: Civrieux 1980:51.

Guiana. Lokono: Goeje 1943, № b24 [water spirits lived on land in the form of snakes; people drove them away; they crawled into the water, laying riverbeds; so rivers wind], d24 [the child knocked over the beer vessel; beer formed streams and rivers; rays and octopuses turned into ponds and pools]: 45, 110; oyampi [snake]: Grenada 1982, No. 4:58.

Western Amazon. Sekoya [water monster (>anaconda) builds river channels]: Cipolletti 1988, No. 37:176-177; napo [crab]: Mercier 1979:164-165; ufaina [four Imarikakana brothers came to her aunt (any older woman); in the morning she gave some water to wash her face, told her to take care of her, said she was collecting dew from the leaves; she herself went to her four ponds until dawn, swam and fish, I cooked and ate it, gave the brothers only manioc soup; Imarika Kayafiki found fish bone in the ash; followed my aunt, becoming chimbe, she guessed it; in the morning the brothers took the axes, went the other way returned to the ponds; my aunt told me to lay the log before breaking the pond, then a river would form; but the river did not form; that pond had all the fish, but there were no stingrays and anacondas; IF wanted to lower another pond, but noticed that there were only harmful creatures; the same in the third; in the latter, both creatures and fish; cut down a tree, it was also a snake; a river formed, it winds like a snake]: Hildebrand 1975, № IV^ 337-339 .

NW Amazon. Carijona [Tukučimobi (The Sun) spilled water to make a lake; balsa wood carved two catfish (or "whales"); chips turned into all types of fish; grew a Reventillos tree (Hura crepitans) , hoora exploding, seven Euphorbians), during the dry season, fish feed on its fruits; he turned into a fruit himself, let the fish swallow itself, went out through the gills; so he caught five; his brother Months tries to repeat trick, swallowed by sabalo fish; T. rips open the bellies of many fish, finds and revives his brother; he decides to harpoon the two biggest fish; T. orders to tie the tench to a mighty tree; The Month binds to common; fish dig a tree, swim to form the Caquetá River; the male swam along one bank, the female along the other, so there are many islands; T. throws stones trying to detain the fish; so it happened rapids; fish dragged the Month into the sea, swallowed by a sea turtle; T. catches the leg bone of the Month with a net; other bones scattered across the sky, became stars; both brothers went to heaven]: Schindler 1979, No. 1: 48-54; baniva? [At first there were no rivers, they were laid by the Great Serpent; the man's son was covered in boils; his father planted him on a branch above the water, blood dripped into the water, fish floated, and his father shot them with a bow; his Big Serpent swallowed]: Brüzzi 1994:64-65; bora [when the large anaconda was killed, it wriggled and fought, so winding rivers formed; all peoples came to eat it, the boron went to the main, central part; then peoples who spoke different languages scattered around the world]: Matusovsky 2008:36; ufaina [four brothers came to her aunt; in the morning she gave some water to wash, ordered her to take care of it, said , which collects dew from the leaves; she herself went to her four ponds until dawn, swam, caught fish, cooked and ate it, gave her brothers only manioc soup; Imarika Kayafiki found fish bone in the ash ; followed my aunt, becoming chimbe, she guessed it; in the morning the brothers took the axes, went the other way, returned to the ponds; the aunt told me to lay the log before breaking the pond, then a river would form; but the river did not form; there were all the fish in that pond, but there were no rays and anacondas; IF wanted to lower another pond, but noticed that there were only harmful creatures; the same in the third; in the latter, both creatures and fish; cut down a tree, it was also a snake; a river formed, it winds like a snake]: Hildebrand 1975, No. IV: 337-339; siriano [snake]: Ibanez 1978:183-184 in Urbina 1991:21; desana [rivers are snakes]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975:138.

Central Amazon. Maue [Ikuama invited his brother Okumaato, animals, fish to the party; O.'s people killed I.'s son because he improved their speaking style; I. buried his son's legs, and grew out of them liana timbo (fish poison); Anaconda's son found out that the fish people created the first water; he came to them, put a shaman's rattle on his stomach, water poured out of his stomach; Anaconda came; the murderer of son I. asked run (crawl) him without turning around, but he looked around, so the river winds; the fish jumped into the water; I. used timbo; the Jaguar brought his pregnant wife, the poison lost its strength; I. killed Jaguar, grew out of it Brazilian walnut (Bertholletia excelsa palm)]: Pereira 1954:97-98; 1980 (2): 714-717.

Eastern Amazon. The Lower Amazon (Marajo Island) [Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira recorded in 1783: snakes first lived on the island; when the drought began, they crawled to the coast, laying winding riverbeds; rains they filled the channels, small rivers formed large ones]: Schaan 2010:197.

The Central Andes. Uarochiri (dep. Lima) [snakes]: Salomon, Urioste 1991, ch. 6:63; yauyo [west 1943 B. Variullas Gallardo; there was no water in the village of Piños; they asked for water at Lake Chalhuacocha ("the lake where Chalhua lives"), took a lot of irrigation; the lake, out of compassion for people, promised its daughter to someone who would lead canals to the villages of Pinhos and Huaquis; two snakes came out of the Chiclayo spring in the thunder and hail, one led a canal to Huaquiz, the other, faster, to Piños, descended into the lake, joined his daughter; people were living safely]: Dumezil, Duviols 1976:192-193; Quechua of southern Peru [Ucayali river = snake ( the data source is unclear)]: Valcarcel 1958:572.

Montagna - Jurua. Chayahuita [Kumpanama takes the large anaconda to a pond in the upper reaches of the Sillay River; cuts off her head, she turns into a whale living there; releases the headless body to Marañaon; the body crawls, writhing, so Rio Sillai menders]: García Tomas 1994 (3) :300; cashibo [crabs, fish, snakes]: Frank et al. 1990, No. 1:47-48; pyro [snake]: Alvárez 1960:64; kulina [fish]: Adams 1962, No. 10, 13, 14:111, 115-117; characterbet [after a world fire, the escaped couple has no water; the ant runs, breaking through riverbeds with its sting; the dragonfly urinates, and where it is lowers its tail, water appears, rivers]: Gray 1996:29.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Takana [rivers arise and snake body parts]: Hissink, Hahn 1961, No. 14:51-52.

Southern Amazon. Kamayura [a chain of lakes where fish jumped]: Münzel 1973:289; bororo [all the water is in the rock; people asked the Caracar hawks to punch a hole; they failed, the toucan pierced, the water poured in , washing everything away; the anaconda, crawling, formed the riverbed]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1983, No. 24:56-57.

Eastern Brazil. Suya [Hummingbird species owns water, does not give the Sun (Mbyut) and the Month (Mbydro); the Sun breaks the vessel, the water pours out, fills the sea; animals carry it across the land, creating lakes and rivers; Anaconda creeps, creating the winding Paranajuba River]: Frikel 1990:18-19; apinaye [big snakes have paved the channels of Tocantins and Aragwaia, small snakes have paved the beds of smaller rivers; rain has flooded the ground in a flood; people climbed trees; when the water came down, they could not get off, turned into nests of bees and termites; others climbed to the top of Serra Negra; a man and a woman cooked three huge pumpkins, they took cassava shoots, yams, seeds of other plants with them, covered the holes with wax; when the water slept, they cleared the area; people who descended from Serra Negra did not have cultivated plants; the boy killed a parrot, he has corn grains in his goiter; people went to where the parrot came from, found a plot of men and women, waited for the harvest]: Nimuendaju 1939:183 (=Wilbert 1978, No. 37:120).

Chaco. Ayoreo [fish; no details]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1989b, No. 66, 92 [two battleships lay riverbeds]: 117-118, 127; toba (western toba) [all fish were inside the bottle tree; foxes tells a person that he is not going to shoot fish with a bow: he will only fish with his hands; the man warned not to touch the large predatory dorado fish (Salminus brasiliensis); but the fox shot at the dorado, a tree burst, the stream of water with fish rushed to where the dorado was heading; when the fox died, its hair turned into mosquitoes; and it came to life a couple of days later]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1989a, No. 303:390-391.