Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B1A. Three Worlds: Sharing the Universe .

Anthropomorphic characters agree to divide the tiers of the universe — heaven, earth and the lower world.

Fon, Sumer, Phoenicians, Lamotrek, Ifaluk, Tonga, Ancient Greece, central (?) Yakuts.

West Africa. Background [the eyes of the creator's female half are the moon Mawu, the male eyes are the sun Lisa; M. gave birth to twins - a boy Da Zodji and a girl Nyohwé Ananu, then So - androgyne, like his mother father; then again twins - boy Agbé and girl Naété; then son Agé; then son Gu (his body is made of stone, a sword instead of a head); then Djo (air, atmosphere); and the seventh son of Legba; Mawu -Lisa gathered children, divided the world; gave the first pair of twins all wealth and land; Sogbo left in the sky; gave the second pair of twins the sea; Agbe received animals and birds, Gu received the ability clear the forest; Joe got a space between earth and sky, thanks to him, the gods are invisible; Legba visits everyone, reports Mavu-Lisa about what is happening]: Herskovits, Herskovits 1958, No. 1:125-126.

Western Asia. Sumerians: Afanasyeva 1997 [(beginning of the story of the tree Huluppu, Inanna, Gilgamesh, Enkidu's descent into the underworld); when heaven separated from earth, when earth moved away from heaven, when He took the sky away when Enlil took his land, when Ereshkigal was given a gift to the underworld of marriage, when the Father sailed the underground world, when Enki swam the underground world... then, in those days, one a tree, the only tree, a huluppu tree (willow or poplar), planted on the bank of the Euphrates clean, it drinks the waters of the Euphrates, the south wind flies in forcefully, pulls out its roots, breaks its branches, the Euphrates He knocks him down with a wave; his wife, Ana submissive in words, goes, Enlilya is submissive in words, walks, takes a tree with her hand, brings it to Uruk, brings it to the garden, blooming Inanna brings it to the garden...; five years have passed, ten years have passed, the tree he grew up, his bark cannot be split, a snake who does not know spells in his roots, made a nest, Anzud-the bird brought out a chick in its branches, Lilith the Virgin built a house for herself in the middle of it; then I. asks for help his brother Utu, who does not answer; asks Gilgamesh; he girded himself, took a bronze ax, killed a snake, drove Anzud the bird away, the maiden Lilith destroyed her house; he split the branches to make Inanna's bed, from the roots made a magic drum from the branches of a wand]: 215-219; Kramer 1965 [after the sky was separated from the earth, the god of heaven Ahn raised the heavens and the air god Enlil lowered the earth]: 205-206; 2000 [the world was divided between An (sky), Enlil (earth, air) and Ereshkigal (Kur-underworld)]: 55; Phoenicians (Bible) [Al handed over land to Baal, Motu's underworld, Sea to Yamu]: Tsirkin 2004:41.

Micronesia—Polynesia. Lamotrek [at first the world is dark, the sky is close to the water; in the sea, the mother rock that gave birth to three gods; this is Saulal (in the lower world Ilal, lord of the sea and fish), Saur (Souiaur; Mr. Vodukha, responsible for the fruits of the breadfruit) and Alúelap, the upper, supreme deity, his wife Limarauarau - Sky]: Krämer 1937:143-146; Ifaluk [Aluelap created heaven, then earth and islands; y his brothers Saulan, Autran (according to another version, she is a woman, she created people) and Meta (“what”); Aluelap began to live in the sky, S. under water, Autran in the air, and M. in people's words; but more often M. is Aluelap's wife; C . lives in the lower world of Ilal, where there are no stars, only water; its inhabitants are mortal people living in waterproof houses; S. manages fish; for a person to die, Aluelap and S. must both agree to this; if one disagrees, the person continues to live; A. decides, reports S., and he tells Meta who (who?) extracts the soul from the body]: Burrow, Spiro 1957:209-211; Tonga [seaweed and mud floating on the water strayed to Totai Island in Bulota (paradise), split, built a rock, and four came out of it couple of spouses; their children shared the world; Vele-lahi and the Tangaloa brothers took the sky, Hikuleo took Bulotu and the whole earth, Hemoana took the sea, Lube land and forests; if Hikuleo came to earth with Bulotu, he will destroy it; so Tangaloa from the sky and Maui from the underworld are holding him on a rope]: Collocott 1924:275-276.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece [Zeus took the sky, the Poseidon Sea, Hades the underworld].

Eastern Siberia. Central (?) Yakuts [there was a war between three tribes — Üryung Aar Toyona (White Elderly Master), Uluu Toyona (Great Terrible Lord) and Arsan Duolai 'ya; the warring agreed to divide the universe into three worlds; the upper one was inhabited by the YuAT and UT tribes, the middle one by 35 tribes, including the Yakuts; the lower one was given to the AD tribes]: Ergis 1974:107-108 ; (cf. Central Yakuts (materials from 1741-1745, no place of recording, most likely Yakutsk) [“Ar-Tojon, Urung Tojon and Suga Tojon unanimously agreed to create heaven and earth and, as they say: Sir Tangara ödübita, Kuin, Cui, U, Kisi, bari Kamnür Kara ongnorbutag — “Earth, sky has begun. The sun, the month, water, man, and all those who drive are black are created.” Adsjarai bögo also created meteors because he wanted the whole world under his rule, like the previous ones, but Ar-Tojon and his brothers cursed him and plunged him into hell, Ödangnia, so he has become an enemy of the human race and animals and at times torments them with frost, snow and rain. The Yakuts have a story about this. He, Adsjarai bögo, only demanded sun and water for himself, which they wanted to give him if he caught a gleam — Dsergelgen, but since he could not do it, everything remained the old one. The world they created consisted first of a sky that was like a small ring and an earth that looked like Tellak {a horseskin rug in the shape of an oblong quadrangle}, but only she It was big. Later, it increased even significantly. According to the Yakuts, this world will stand for another two generations, 200 years, after which it will die from fire. Only two children — a boy and a girl — will be left, and the sky will be like a ring again and the earth will be like Tellak. The world will be given to these children and will expand again as it used to”]: Lindenau 1983:44-45).