Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B1E. The creation of land and people. 21.-.23.34.-.36.

Extracting land from the ocean floor or from the lower world, creating a person from some material, and an antagonist's attempt to destroy human figures - successive episodes a single narrative.

Kachari, Oraons, Santals, Mundari, Birkhor, Sinhales, Siberian Tatars, Chulym Turks, Teleuts, Chelkans, Shors, Khakas, Baikal Buryats, Khalkha Mongols, Tundra Nenets, Southern Selkups, Western Yakuts, Central Yakuts.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Kachari [water is everywhere at first; Alow Ilaja tells crabs to dive to the bottom; they scrape silt into a heap until a mountain of earth shows above the water; by creating land, AI creates a man and a woman; their He made the bodies before nightfall, went to rest before he could put his breath into them; at this time, his five brothers found the figures, divided them into pieces, and hid these parts in different places in the forest; all the same It happened again the next day; on the third day, AI created two dogs, leaving them to guard the figures; when the brothers came, the dogs drove them away; these man and woman became the ancestors of humanity]: Soppitt 1885:32.

South Asia. Oraons [on the advice of the Old Mother, Dharmes created Kingfisher, who dived into the ocean, brought the seed of earth from the lower world; D. made the earth out of it; Sit advised to make human figures out of clay, but D.'s horse trampled on them, fearing that humans would harness it; S. advised dogs to drive the horse away; soon people inhabited the land]: Koonathan 1999:144 in Osada 2010; Birkhor [at first everywhere water, lotus on the water, the great spirit of Sing-bonga came to the surface at the core of the stem, told the Turtle to bring clay from the bottom; turtle: where will I leave the house? S.: take it with you (this is its shell); the water washed away the clay from the turtle's shell; The crab also could not bring it; the leech took it out by swallowing clay; S. squeezed out the clay from it, threw it in four directions, creating land; the land was moist and uneven, S. began to level it, but mountains remained in some places; threw seeds, forests appeared; then S. created a winged horse, and then sculpted the human figure and left it to dry; the horse came and trampled on it, fearing that the man would harness it; then S. made a dog and a new human figure; when the horse came again at night to trample on the man, the dog barked away; the figure dried up and S. her revived, but joints did not bend; S. took his life and made a new man with bent joints]: Roy 1925:398-402; mundari: Roy 1912 [at the beginning there is water everywhere; Sun god Sing-bonga sent the Turtle, Crab, Leech bring clay from the bottom; the Turtle and the Crab could not, the Leech brought it, S. created land out of it; the Swan laid an egg, a boy and a girl, the ancestors of people, hatched from it; the SB taught them how to make beer; After drinking, they got together; gave birth to three sons, they went across the country]: v-vi; Roy 1916:201-214 in Osada 2010 [the earth is covered with water, there are no stars in the sky; the Old Man ("Old One") created aquatic animals; told Crab bring earth from under the water; he dived to the bottom, but while he was rising, the ground was washed away from his claws; the same with the Turtle (the ground was washed away from the surface of the shell; the Earthworm swallows the earth, floats up, regurgitates in the palm of the Old Man; he makes the earth big, creates land and everything on it; sculpts a human figure out of clay; before he could put his soul into it, the Horse came, trampled on the figure; the Old Man tried again and This time, the Tiger drove the Horse away without letting it get close to the figure; the Old Man cursed the Horse, people would put iron in its mouth, sit on horseback, hit the rump; the Tiger was rewarded by making him strong, everyone would become be afraid]; van Exem 1982:24-29 in Osada 2010 [{apparently Mundari, because it coincides with the previous text}; first water alone, Haram first created aquatic creatures; told Crab to bring land from the bottom; he took land in claws, but while he was rising, the water washed it away; H. sent the Turtle, which put the earth on its shell, the water washed it away; sent the Worm; he swallowed the earth, regurgitated (disgorged) in H.'s hand; he enlarged it, created it land, animals and plants on it; he sculpted a human figure out of clay; before he had time to revive it, the Horse broke it; H. tried again, and this time the Tiger drove the Horse away, preventing it from approaching the figure; H. cursed the Horse, people will put iron in her mouth, sit on horseback, hit the rump; Tiger rewarded by making him strong, everyone will be afraid of him]; Osada 2010 [author's notes; text A: on the Ganges, at sea we let's create a land, a field; for this purpose they sent Mother Turtle and Mother Crab; the Turtle put the ground on its shell, took the Crab with ticks, but when they rose, the water washed away the earth; they sent Mother Worm, Mother Leech, they drank the earth, spewed it out, urinating, land appeared; they created stone and wood to decorate the earth; they sculpted a human figure out of clay, left it to dry in the sun; they made a winged horse for beauty; a winged horse came from the east, came from the west, they trampled on the figure; they made a male dog named Chaura, a female dog Baura, put them on guard; they drove away a winged horse that came from the east, drove away the one that came from the west; text B is almost identical]; birkhor [at first there is water everywhere, lotus on the water, the great Sing-bonga spirit came to the surface at the core of the stem, told the Turtle bring clay from the bottom; turtle: where will I leave the house? S.: take it with you (this is its shell); the water washed away the clay from the turtle's shell; The crab also could not bring it; the leech took it out by swallowing clay; S. squeezed out the clay from it, threw it in four directions, creating land; the land was moist and uneven, S. began to level it, but mountains remained in some places; threw seeds, forests appeared; then S. created a winged horse, and then sculpted the human figure and left it to dry; the horse came and trampled on it, fearing that the man would harness it; then S. made a dog and a new human figure; when the horse came again at night to trample on the man, the dog barked away; the figure dried up and S. her revived, but joints did not bend; S. took his life and made a new man with bent joints]: Roy 1925:398-402; santals [first water, above it Thakur and his servant Jahered; Malinburi lived under with water; T. ordered her to make two human figures; she sculpted them from clay, brought them from the bottom of the sea, put them to dry in the sun; Sinsadom's horse flew in, smashed the figures with flapping its wings; M. made new ones figures, asked T. to revive them; T. sent her for souls, but M. brought not human souls, but bird souls; T. breathed life into them and they flew to heaven; these are the first swans, Hans and Hansini; they have no place to sit there was water everywhere; they asked T. to give them a place to live; Solehako fish, Katcom cancer, and the Lenden worm lived in the water; S. and K. could not lift the land; L. threw bits of land to the surface, but they sank to the bottom again; T. called Kachik the turtle, told it to lie motionless on the water; L. began to throw the earth on the turtle's shell, an island was formed; T. grew a Kadam tree and Syrom grass there; Hansa and Hansini made a nest of grass; Hansiner laid two eggs, the beast Raghopabu ate them; T. sent his servant J. to guard the eggs; they hatched a boy and a girl; the children grew up, T. created a cow for them and two calves; taught a young man to make a plow and plow the land, he started farming; Maranburu (big mountain) was the guardian of a young man and a girl; taught them how to make an intoxicating drink; they got drunk and got together; M. told them don't worry, let them be husband and wife; they have 7 sons and 7 daughters; they quarreled and began to live in different places; the father took his sons with him, and the mother of daughters; girls and boys met and began to live in pairs; their parents also reconciled and came to live with them; 7 clans went from 7 brothers and sisters]: Shrestha 2019:567-570; Sinhales [at the end of the Kalpa, rain floods the earth; Saman answers Vishnu, that only the asur king Rahu can revive the earth; R. asks V. to grow a lotus; descends its stem to the bottom, brings a handful of earth; V. puts it on water, creates land; Surya and Chandra came (sun and month) to illuminate the ground; S. and V. sculpted a brahmana, who sculpted a woman for himself, revived her]: Parker 1910, No. 1:47-49 (=Volkhonsky, Solntseva 1985, No. 1:28-29).

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Siberian Tatars (d. Atachka, Tarsky District, Omsk Region) [the supreme god Tenri sent his bird Swan (Ak Kosh) to get land from the bottom of the sea; when the land was formed, he settled Satan spirits (var.: Ishay or Yeshey) on it; they did not obey, he drove them into the forests; then he created the first humans out of clay; the swan became a sacred bird]: Urazaleev 2005:5; Chulym Turks [water is everywhere, a loon is floating; God: what do you eat? - Earth. - Where is it? - Underwater. - Get it, thank you. Loon brought the earth three times, it turned out to be a cake, God lay down on it; the devil grabbed his leg and threw it into the water; God was on land, a lot of land was formed; the devil grabbed the sleeping God by the legs, pulled him into the water, and the earth expands; dragged until it was dry all around; hell asked for half the earth; God refused; well, at least stick the stake; God allowed, damn stuck the stake and took out mosquitoes, midges; God plugged the hole; did dog; made a man; went after his soul, told the dog to protect the man; the devil asked to miss: I'll feed and shower it with black hair; the dog missed; the devil pierced the navel and did not care; God told the dog serve a person; since then, people have been ill]: Lukina 2004, No. 5.1:97-98; Teleuts [(Vice Missionary You. Postnikov in d. Myyuta, whose population was formed mainly from Bachat migrant teleuts - see below. Potanin 1883:130, note 2; Funk 2004:9); there was only water; Ulgen went down to create the earth; Yerlik volunteered to dive, brought earth from the bottom in his mouth; W. made the earth, it was all from turf; There was little land left between E.'s teeth; he spit it it out, a hummocked swampy place formed; W. scolded him; he asked for as much land as the end of his stick took; he fell into that the place he asked for; the swallow brought turf in his beak; W. scattered it; made the forest and everything on earth; created the human body from earth, bones from stones; a dog without hair; went to look for a soul for the man, left the dog as a watchman; E. appeared, promised to give the dog hair and soul to the man; the dog ate E.'s excrement, overgrown with hair; E. put a pipe in the man's ass, blew, thereby reviving him; W. came I wondered whether to exterminate people; the Frog persuaded them to leave them as they are]: Potanin 1883, No. 46a: 218-220; Chelkans (Lebedin Tatars, Otkushtö, 1863) ["At first it was just water and there was no land anywhere. Then God sent a white swan into the water and ordered him to bring water to heaven in its beak. But when he was diving, a little bit of earth stuck to his beak. The swan blew the ground off its beak, and it fell into the water with small specks of dust and began to swim on its surface. These specks of dust began to grow and expand, and from them became earth. But the ground was smooth and flat. Then God sent a second bird to earth to blow up the ground with its beak, and this made mountains and valleys on the earth. But the trait did not like the beautiful treeless land, and he created a mob with its swamps, where people can hardly live and are very poor. At first, God created a man who lived alone on earth. It was a man. One day, while he was sleeping, the devil touched his chest and a bone began to grow from his thigh, and as she got longer, she fell to the ground and a woman appeared out of it"]: Radlov 1989:211 (the swan diving episode mentioned in Dyrenkova 1929:123); Shors ("Kuznetsk foreigners") [first one water; God often spits on one place, saliva forms a heap, the devil Aina comes out of it, calls him a friend; God tells him to dive to get the ground, say, Help me, Lord! A. does not say, the earth is washed off his hands twice, but at the bottom he eats it; the third time he brought the earth, God dried it, scattered it, creating land; the earth in A.'s stomach began to grow; God cut it, cleaned it, cured A., went to bed; A. tried to turn the earth over, but only stretched it; begged for a piece of land at least the size of a crutch; fell down, and reptiles and insects, prickly plants came out of the hole, mountains and swamps appeared; God strengthened the land on three whales (ker-palyk); when they change places, earthquakes occur; God created man from clay, went after his soul, left the dog as a watchman; the devil Aina gave the dog hair, for which she let him approach the man, he spit in his mouth; so people have saliva and harkotin in their mouths; God revived the man, told the dog to be his servant]: Shtygashev 1894:1-8; Khakas (Kachins) [first there was a duck; having made another friend, she sent her to the bottom of the river for sand; she brings it three times and gives it first; the third time she left part of the sand in her mouth, this part became with stones; the first duck scattered the sand, crushed for nine days, the earth grew; mountains grew after the messenger duck spit stones out of its mouth; because of this, the first refuses to give it land; agrees to give it the ground is the size of a cane; the messenger pierces a hole in the ground, goes into it; the rest sends the swallow for the human soul, telling the dog to watch and bark at Erlik Khan; E. created winter, gave the dog a fur coat, spat on man; God poured his soul on man, made him a wife out of a rib; ordered him to eat red currants at sunrise but not at sunset; the wife broke the ban and ate, God wrote it down in a book; a woman with a child and a mare and a foal eat grass, a woman has crossed seven slides, a mare over one; God has decided that if people eat grass, they will eat it all; God gives the moon and sun to Erlick -khan; it's getting dark; God gathers the birds, tells them not to laugh if the Corncrake comes; the head of the birds, the Stork, laughed; the corncrake was offended and left; sent the Owl to overhear what the Corncrake was saying at home; Let Erlik Khan catch the echo of the rocks, his shadow, the tramp of a hundred horses; E. is forced to return the sun and moon because he could not fulfill God's requests; God sent the Swallow to steal Erlik Khan's flint; she stole it On the way back, he meets Komar; he says that E. was sent to find out whose blood is sweeter, turns out to be human; the Swallow asks him to show his tongue, bites off; the mosquito only buzzes; E. pursues the Swallow, tears off her middle tail; she threw half the flint on the rock; the young man was watching the door to God; Erlik Khan came: what do I eat? God replies that old and old women, and the young man said that trees are rotten; next time: children are young willow branches; young people are dried and hardened trees; for the fourth time E. breaks into God; everything was explained, E. now eats everyone, and the young man was driven to the ground]: Katanov 1907, No. 582:522-527 (=196:154-156; quail in Troyakov 1995:6-7); Baikal Buryats (Balagansky) [=Khangalov 1960:8 -10; there is only water everywhere; Shibegani Burhan, Madari Burhan and Esege-Burhan saw an angata bird, it swam with 12 children; told it to dive, get black clay, red clay, sand ( hara-shoro, ulan-shoro, ilhe); she dived and took it out; they scattered black earth, red clay and sand on the water, created the land, grass and trees grew on it; then created man; from red clay body, bone stone, blood out of water; made a man and a woman, went to bed; whose candle will burn the next morning, in whose pot a flower will grow, will revive people and patronize them; Shibegani- Burhan woke up, saw that a candle was burning in front of Madari-Burkhan, a flower in his pot; changed, lay down again, was recognized as a winner; M.: now the people you were alive will also steal and to quarrel; after that, M. and E. went to heaven, and S. remained on earth, revived the two people they had done; the Burkhans made them covered with hair and the dog naked; Shibegani Burkhan rose to heaven, left the dog to guard; Shithir came, the dog began to bark, he seduced it, giving it hair and food, spat on people, left; Shibegani Burkhan returned, cursed the dog, telling it to gnaw bones and eat excrement; scraped off people's hair, leaving them on their heads, for people held their hands on their heads, so they were not spat on]: Gomboev 1890, No. 1c: 66-67; Mongols [(recorded by the missionary you. Postnikov from Khalkhas); water was everywhere, the Ochurmans lived in the sky; decided to make land, looked for a comrade, found Chagan-Shukuta; both went down to the water; the Frog that noticed them dived; O. sent ChSH find it in the water; he took out the Frog, put it belly up on the water; O. sat on it, told ChSH to dive, get the ground; he brought an armful of liquid earth from the bottom, said O., If it weren't for me, you wouldn't get it land; the earth immediately fell out of his hands, fell into the water; O. told him to dive again, take the land and carry it on his behalf; O. poured the land he had brought onto the Frog, the earth began to grow, both sat on it, fell asleep; Shulmus grabbed them to throw them into the water, but the earth grew faster than he ran to its edge; he left them; O. and ChS made a man, went looking for a soul, left the dog as a guard; promised find hair for the dog; The devil gave it wool, fed it, lit yarn, blew smoke into the man's nose, reviving him; O. and ChSH put a cup of water; on whoever side he would grow up in the cup, rule the earth; Sh. he also asked for land, got as much as at the end of his stick; stuck worms, snakes, reptiles in the ground, crawled out; the flower grew from O.'s side, but he dozed off and ChSH put it on his edge; O. said that now both people and animals will steal and enmity; went to heaven; he is a real god, and Ulgen was invented by the Kams (shamans)]: Potanin 1883, No. 46b: 220-223; the Mongols [there were water and air, on Buddha Ochirvani in the sky; he decided to create the earth, found Tsagan Shukhert's assistant White Umbrella; told him to turn a turtle swimming in the water over his stomach, dive, bring it from the bottom of the earth, think about it (O.), himself sat on a turtle; the CSH grabbed the ground, but felt that something was interfering; thought that O. should take the land; immediately a handful filled with earth, the CS surfaced; poured the earth on the turtle's stomach instead of a turtle land appeared; both celestials fell asleep; Shulmas went to the edge of the island to drown them, but as he ran to the edge, the earth expanded; O. and the CSH sculpted the people, O. ordered the CSH to make a guard, he sculpted the dog, O. and the CS went for intelligence for man and hair for the dog; Damn gave the dog hair, said that it would be fed by its owner, a man; lit a thread in front of the man's nose, he came to life from the smoke; O. and TS they argued which of them should rule living beings; decided who would have a flower in a cup of water first; O., but the CSH put it in its cup; O. said that now people would deceive each other , flew to heaven]: Skorodumova 2003:35-37.

Western Siberia. Tundra Nenets: Labanauskas 1995 [a red-throated loon and a dog swam in the water; the loon dived, brought blades of grass; the dog asked her to make the ground; the loon grew dry from many blades of grass land; the dog met two people in copper clothes, who offered it to have an owner; made two copper idols, promised to return in seven days, told her not to give idols to anyone who came earlier; the third day a black man came, blew on idols, they turned into people, he called them owners of the dog; people in copper clothes came back, said that now the dog's owners would be mortal; if they (two in copper clothes) made the dog owners, people would not die]: 13-15; Lar 2001 (Yamal) [Num and Nga are sons of old woman Puhutz; Nga asks for food, P. says let Num first will make the earth; tells her to build a plague where she will live underground with the old man Wesoko (Iri-Vesoko); Num tells Gagara to dive, she brings sand from the bottom first, then silt, and grass for the third time ; Num sculpts the earth, throws it into the water; it is unstable at first; Num puts it on a whale, the earth trembles again; throws a stone of copper, iron and transparent stone behind the ground; the earth freezes; for his mother, Num does red earth, puts a plague; Nga wants land for herself, brothers fight for a long time; reconcile; Num rolls a ball, throws, the sun comes up; Nga gets a moon; Num sculpts a naked man, he wants to eat; Nga does hairy people, they fight, Num advises to send them underground; brothers fight, Numu has to agree for them both to breathe life into man; it was warm, man and dog walked naked; Nga gave the dog had warm skin, for which she let him see the man, Nga spat on him, sent him illness; the man began to hunt, dress in the skin of a dog; Num told the dog to eat feces, to be a servant; taught man shamanize; went to heaven, gave Nga the underworld]: 188-205; Lehtisalo 1998 (Forest Nenets) [Num made a man from a piece of land, then a naked Dog; ordered to protect a person, left himself; Nga told the Dog that it was cold because she was naked; gave her hair for permission to eat a man; Num came back, told the Dog to eat human feces; made a man and a woman, gave advice on how to live]: 9-10; Nenyang 1997 (Taimyr Nenets) [Loon and Dog swam on the water; the loon dived, on the third day brought a blade of grass from the bottom; at the request of the Dog, continued to dive, assembled the island, he grew up; the man in iron mittens and bacaries made a man and a woman, went for souls, telling the Dog to protect the creation; a man with a black face came, revived the dolls, left; the first man returned, said that now people they will get sick; people inhabited the land, began to build a stepped house; a man in iron gauntlets and bacars hit with mittens, people were scattered, they spoke different languages]: 21-23; Southern Selkups [recorded by I.N. Gemuev, 1980, an informant shamanil when he was young; "The Earth was the first to sink. God sent a loon, it didn't get anything. Gogol (porya) took out sand. This is our land. God let the snake go, then the bird, the speckles. And earlier - to a hoof. And the speckle frightened the hoof. The hoof began to bite at him, which is why the grouse only has a little white meat, the rest is black. And he let everyone go ahead - he let people go. People got into a fight, he let the snake go to disperse them. He let the dogs go, as he let a naked man go. She's freezing - damn it. - What happened? I'm freezing. Got the hell out of her skin. Now we are sick - we cough. God sent - made a man out of clay, he sits like a man. And the hell spit, I spit. This is what we are rooting for]: Baulo, Tuchkova 2016, No. 4, fragment 3.

Eastern Siberia. Western Yakuts (Turukhansky Krai) [the mother of God created the white-nosed loon and the long-nosed merganser (i.e. duck), sent them to the bottom of the ground; the merganser was the first to emerge and give the land they had brought; then a loon, which, although the earth was in her beak, said that it did not reach the bottom; the Mother of God cursed the loon, saying that she had given her a "holy name" and hoped for it, but she did not live up to expectations; doomed the loon to live on the water and eat rubbish; the merganser was given agility; then the Mother of God made two men and a woman out of sand]: Tretyakov 1871:421 (quoted in Napolsky 1991:151, citing Tretyakov 1871:207); central (?) Yakuts (no place of recording) [the world consisted of water; God (B.) claimed that the devil (D.) would not be able to reach from the bottom of the sea; D. decided to go down to defeat B. in arguing; three years later he emerged, but saw that the land he had taken from the bottom in both fists was washed away by water; B. noticed that D. had a grain of land under one claw, which he had stolen unnoticed; B. to mock D. that he could not reach the promised land; D. dived again; taking advantage of this time, B. created a bed-sized land from the stolen grain, lay down on it to rest and fell asleep; when D. he emerged from the water and saw B.'s prank, he gave out a terrible scream, which crumbled in all directions the earth he had taken in his mouth from the bottom of the sea; it formed mountains, irregularities, and generally unsuitable for humans places; then D. sent a bunch of his servants, and everyone together began to pull the land on which B. lay with their iron claws in order to sink it; instead, the land stretched in all directions and formed the present earth; God began to create animals and plants. The devil, imitating him, also began to do such things. God got everything that was useful to man, and the devil had everything that was harmful or useless. When God created everything on earth and man, the devil created fish and blasphemed God's creation by saying that they could not live and stay in the water element. From this blasphemy, God justified himself by the fact that fish cannot live in the air. Realizing that humans and animals cannot live without water, God blessed water and fish, so it became possible for humans to eat fish]: Kulakovsky 1979:14-15.