Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B28E. The month is a world organizer.


month (alone or together with the Sun) turns the original “wrong” world into the one in which people now live.

Makah, Puget Sound, Puyallup, Upper Chehalis, Kerdalen, Sumu, Siona, Sekoya, Mayhuna, Koreguahe, Ashaninka, Siriono.

NW Coast. Makah [the Sun and Moon brothers descend from the sky, summon all creatures, turn them into animals and plants; the thief chief was made a seal to fish himself now; the fisherman with the jail was made into a great blue heron; a fisherman who stole a shell necklace into a kingfisher; two burners into a crow and a crow; the son of Blue Jay, who did not want to be either a bird or a fish, in a hole; a fat man in a cedar, an old man into fir; an eternally dissatisfied man in crab apple tree (with acidic fruits); a thin man with stiff muscles into alder; this is how these two created a world for people (turning creatures so that people could make bows and arrows, oars, steam roofs, use for firewood to have berries, etc.)]: Swan 1869 in Dall 1884:108 and Edmonds, Clark 1998:12-14.

The coast is the Plateau. Puget Sound [two sisters dig the roots of a fern, stay overnight on the prairie; one wants a white star as her husband, the other a red star; when they wake up, they are in the sky; the white star is an old man, red is young; husbands do not tell me to dig deep roots; the older sister is pregnant, the youngest is sitting by the smoke hole so as not to see her cry because she has an old husband; when the boy grew up, he dug a hole, from there the wind, the husbands immediately felt it, but the women managed to close the hole; weaved the rope and went down with the child; while everyone was swinging on the rope, and after the child an old toad woman looks, the boy was stolen by the salmon (this is the next Month); the mother found a rotten tree in the cradle, moistened the diaper, squeezed it out five times, a second boy appeared (the future Sun); the yellow woodpecker goes search for the Month, can not pass between the crushing rocks; the same another woodpecker, raven, osprey; the blue jay flew by; The month promised to come later; inserted a stick between the rocks so that the blue jay could slip through ago; A month married to a woman who is one of the salmon; his son does not want to let him go; Month: a new generation is coming and you (i.e. salmon) will be food; The month was first mistaken, telling the salmon to go down, only then told me to go up; meets people fighting; What are you doing? — We fight; he turned them into birds and stones; turned little slaves into snipes; fishermen and people in the swamp into two types of ducks; people on the beach into oysters; people know that the Month changes the nature of people they meet, they want it kill; others argue about day and night, some want light and darkness every day, bear wants day and night to last for a year; now the bear sleeps all winter; the deer makes the tip of a spear; Month: what are you doing? — I want to kill the Transformer; Month: If you're a deer, they'll eat you; Norka argues with the Month who is who; Norka could not change the Month, and he turned it into a stick; he's Mink again; The Month cut him — the current minks turned out; four women drag each other by the hair; — We train to pull onions; The month turned them into 4 types of edible plants; made a man on the lake a beaver; carrying salmon — otter; Wild Cat roasts salmon, fell asleep; He ate everything for a month, the leftovers are in his face, now it has stripes, he has become a cat; 5 brothers are playing: fire, fire! It's all on fire; the trail: here, my grandson! but the quiver of the Month is burnt; across the river, old man Echo; only repeats: bring a boat! The month has passed by itself, began to fight Echo; bird: take the Echo giblets that hang on the wall of the dugout; the Echo echoed; the blue heron uses its head as a hammer, because stones and sticks alive; The Month made them with stones and sticks, made the Heron of Herons; The month gathered everyone to determine who should shine during the day and who should shine at night; tried the yellow hammer, but there is little light; the raven, the coyote, woodpecker is dark; hummingbirds are better, but the day is very short; younger brother The sun offered to be the sun for the Month, but it is too hot, the water is boiling; the Sun has begun to shine during the day, the Month at night; the old toad woman is now visible at night on the disc of the Month; the rope on which they swayed was up to the sky; Month: you can climb; but the Rat gnawed it, the Month turned it into a rat; the rocks on the mountain were transformed people; the Indians were relatives Months]: Ballard 1929:68-71; Pujallup: Adamson 1934 [Blind Toad has five daughters, the middle one gives birth to a Month; Toad shakes him on a swing, five sisters from the lower world replace him with a rotten deck; mother squeezes his diapers, makes the Sun Boy out of his urine; because he was crooked, he is a strabismus; animals go looking for the Month, with them Blue Jay; at the edge of the world he flies into a horizontal slit, which closes, then opens; only his crest is touched; in order not to attract attention, the Month goes on a journey not with Soyka, but later; a person hammers a wedge with his head, others freeze in the water as living tops; The month teaches me to work with a hammer, weave tops; The heron stretches its leg across the river like a bridge; in the middle he shouts: you will break my leg; The month manages to reach the other side; five pot-bellied children sing, the ground lights up; wood, stone, etc. cannot cover the Months, the path covers; The month rises to the sky, it gets hot, its eyes are too keen to shine during the day; the sun becomes cross-eyed Sun; The Month decides to shine at night, takes its Toad Grandmother with it]: 356-360; Clark 1953 [Father of the Month is Venus; a woman gives birth to a son when she descends to earth; makes the Sun out of the cradle; coming back, The month destroys monsters; marries the Frog's daughter, because only she can carry a heavy bag with his property]: 144-146; upper chehalis: Adamson 1934, No. 87 [Xwân makes two girls from salmon milk; my wives turn to them, they run away; the old woman shakes the baby on the swing, the girls kidnap him with a rotten deck; his mother conceived him from a blue stone, he is the Month; she squeezes his diapers, makes the Sun out of his brother's urine; Blue Jay goes west, slips under five barriers that fall and rise; Month is the husband of the women who kidnapped him; they they gave birth to him bushes and trees, the youngest is the mother of all fish; when Soyka finds the Month, he makes arrows, the fragment falls into Jay's eye; the Month says goodbye to his fish children; on the way to earth he turns monsters into objects (mat trowel, wind barrier, head); various Herbs respond that they want to kill the Month, he turns them into herbs; the Deer makes a spear to kill the Month, he makes it out of it ears; woman puts passers-by on a swing, rocks, people break against a rock; Woodpecker helps her; The month is unharmed, rocks the woman, she breaks; five women breathe fire; stone, wood, water is not they can cover the Months (burn, split, boil), the path covers; another woman lies with her legs open; The month knocks out her vaginal teeth and splits her in half with a hammer and a moose horn wedge ; The month rises to the sky to shine during the day, but it is too hot; the weak Brother-Sun should have shone at night but is afraid of ghosts; the Month becomes the month, the Sun becomes the sun], 88 [Geese do not command Xwα nä'xwαne look down at people if he wants to fly with them; S. sees a man, scolds him, Geese leave S. on the mountain, take their wings; he kills an owl, descends on its wings; meets A monster woman, she carries camas tubers, he exchanges tubers for a bead, but it's not a bead, but a stick; he runs ahead several times and repeats the trick, says that their five brothers look the same; the woman collects bees into the basket, leaves it on the stump, tells the stump to close when S. gets there; the stump closes, the bees dazzle him; the woodpecker cut the hole, S. got out, made imaginary eyes out dandelion flowers, came to the Snail, pretends to measure her house; that he sees unusually far away; the Snail agreed to change eyes; when the dandelions withered, she is completely blind; S. caught salmon, baked, turned milk into two girls; S. tries to get along with the girls, they run away; the old woman shakes the baby on the swing; the girls kidnap him with a rotten deck; his mother conceived him from a blue stone, he A month; she squeezes his diapers, makes the Sun out of his brother's urine; Blue Jay goes west, finds the Month; Month is the husband of the women who kidnapped him; they gave birth to him bushes and trees, the youngest is the mother of all fish; the Month says goodbye to its fish children; on the way to earth turns the wrong world into a real one; the Raven has put hundreds of people across the river as a living peak; the Month has turned the Raven into a crow, He ordered to eat carrion, taught him how to make tops with sticks; a man hits himself on the head with a hammer, flattening a piece of bark; The Month taught to do this using a stone as an anvil, not his head; Partridges they dance on pieces of meat to cook it; the Month shows how to make a fire drill; then the Month destroys monsters; S. gave him his hat, the Month put it on, then the Sun and the Month of Steel cross-eyed; The month rises to heaven to shine during the day, but it is too hot; the weak Brother Sun should have shone at night, but is afraid of ghosts, gives too little light at night; The month becomes a month, The sun is the sun]: 158-169, 173-177; kordalen [a woman goes out every day to dig rhizomes (probably hogfennel, Peucedanum palustre, marsh mustard); her son is looked after by her mother; he has grown up , asks about his father, the grandmother replies that he did not have a father; he threatens to kill her with a stick, she admits that his father is the rhizome of a mustard plaster; the young Chief Son-Root (UK) leaves, calls a monstrous fish, pulls her throat out, turns it into a boat; the Pest boy asks to take it with him, jumps into a boat, SK turns it just into a pestle; sees a burning tree, comes up, there is a Grouse (Foolhen, Falcipennis canadensis) touches his burnt eyebrows; the UK tells him to peck raw moss, no longer build a house or cook on fire; and Grouse used to collect moss under his wing, set fire to a tree and throw himself into the fire; the rabbit jumped into the boat, the UK killed him; the Otter (Fisher) demanded its prey, threatened to hit it with its tail, began to hit the water with its tail, spraying the UK; he killed her, threw her to the rabbit; comes to the house, there are many children, the hostess tells them that their father will soon return from hunting; the children see the Otter killed by the UK, he was their father; the SK revives him; enters the house with an awl on the walls; takes a large one with patterns, the awls dig into him; he sets fire to the house, says that Shilla will no longer be cannibals, but will become awls for making moccasins; the same in the house where the Combs are; where Bubbles (they will now store tobacco); Kingfisher dives, but the fish slips out; he washes the smell of fish into the bucket, cooks the soup, he likes it; he makes the Kingfisher claws and beak so that the fish is easy to grab; he should not live in the house, but by the river, eat fish raw; the same with Osprey; by the river, a man with one leg is a spear; SK turns into salmon, harpoons himself, breaks off, carries the tip; harpoons the fish with it; Ostronog sharpens himself again tibia; SK comes to him, says he caught salmon with the tip stuck; Ostronog tries to cover his leg with a cape; SK offers to play hoop and stick on capes, wins, Ostroonog is forced to give his own, the SK hits him on the leg with a stick, makes it normal, gives a moose horn, and from now on tells him to make tips from a moose horn, and not from his own bone; everyone goes out to meet the UK; the ugly Toad causes rain, enters the house; the UK is forced to enter her; he addresses her, naming her to varying degrees of kinship, finally says “wife”; she jumps between his eyes; she can't be torn off; Coyote says we should choose the Sun and the Month; Robin is too hot, Coyote talks about everything he sees; SK says he will be the Month, will go far without the Toad visible on his face; Toadstool's son one-eyed becomes a good Sun - it does not see everything so clearly and is not so hot; when the sun is less bright, it shows a one-eyed toadstool]: Reichard 1947, No. 1:57-63; (cf. twana (skokomish) [Kais, the Sun, creates the world and people; they behave badly; he goes down, turns them into animals and stones; the Deer replies that he makes a knife out of the shell kill K.; he turns him into a deer; the second race is destroyed by fire, two men and their wives are saved; the third by the rain that floods the ground; a man with children is saved on the mountain; later sent to punish people as well cold winter]: Boas 1895, No. VI.1:56-57).

Honduras-Panama. Sumu [Uhubaput and Udu had skin disease (karate); they were all chased; they threw darts at people, saying the name of the animal in question; this is how they turned everyone into animals, birds, and fish themselves became handsome; now women wanted them, but they also turned them into animals, left two for themselves; began to dance in the fire; Udu was the first to try to get up, could not; Uhubaput got up, became The Sun; Udu after him became the Month]: Houwald, Rener 1987 (3): 14.

Western Amazon. Zion: Chaves 1958:134-136 [He lived with Tapir's two daughters for a month; he led them to a juansoco palm tree, they ate fruit, got drunk; they had animals like fish in their vulvas, the Month took them out, threw them into the river, they became fish; joined both women, wanted to put in pieces of a fragrant vine; the bird frightened him with her scream, he climbed back into the tree; the girls woke up, the eldest kicked the trunk , it grew tall; the monkey ate the fruit and fell asleep; saliva flowed from her mouth, became a vine, N. went down it; shot the turkey, put thorns in it, told his father-in-law to pick it up, he stabbed his leg ; turned into a tapir, sank into the ground; he, the Father of Earth, moving, causes earthquakes; The month has come to a village where people drank chicha, beat drums; you do like pigs; they turned in pigs; What are we going to eat? He answered; other people made spears — you'll be cerrillos; etc. (turned groups of people into monkeys, bears, pauhil birds, turkeys, etc. — depending on their clothes and colors, the color of the feathers); menstruating women — red monkeys], 143-145 [Ñañagüé Nianyague (Month) did not like his wife because she had to look in his head; climbed a juansoco tree, threw fruits at them, they became intoxicated from them and fell asleep; N. pulled piranha teeth out of his wife and sister's vagina (further as in 134-136); on the way he took the trapped birds, put rotten leaves in them, sent them father-in-law check the traps; father-in-law returned, asked his daughters to remove the thorn from his leg; N. told him to lie not in a hammock, but on a bark bed, to become a tapir; the tapir ran, leaving a trail — the Milky Way; N. ordered he will become the Mother of Earth; when he moves, there will be an earthquake; N. changed his appearance, came to his wife; she fell in love with him, smeared his face at night; the Turtle hid all the water; N. cut down bamboo, the grove turned into a river, both women swam; N. did not let his wife go ashore, her sister came out; there was a palm tree in the water, his wife went to her; M., If you approach the shore, storms would begin; He told the turtle to eat rot; his wife's sister to be the mother of the living, the patroness of the dead, sent him to the land of the dead]; sekoya [like Zion; takes out bats; father-in-law makes the tree tall]: Cipolletti 1988, No. 3b, 3c: 45-46; Maihuna [like Zion]: Bellier 1991b, No. 21, 22:249-258; Koreguahe: Jimenez 1989, No. 19 [Pai Kansao (month) came to people gathered to dance and who painted their faces; told them to be monkeys with this coloring; they became monkeys, ran into the forest, asked them what to eat; he replied that fruits; the same in another village, there were dancers woolen necklaces and black kushmas, PC turned them into wild pigs; let them eat coconuts, kaimo fruits, etc.; in the third village, a man asked the PC to remove the splinter from his leg; he drove it even deeper, his leg altogether swollen, became the leg of a tapir, the man asked where to sleep, the PC answered where; the tree with flowers Unsuu (sun) asked the PC to climb to pick flowers; W. looked from below, said that the PC had a face like the moon, it turned into a month, went up], 41 [when Painsao quarreled, turned his opponent into an animal; this is how he and his companion remained; the sky was low; when menstruating women knocked on him, it was moving away; P. and his satellite made a chain of reeds (reed darts?) , sticking them one into the other; P. climbed half way, returned, told the companion to climb; he climbed into the Month; P. climbed into the vessel, where he lit the fire, ascended to heaven by the Sun]: 40-41, 91-92; (cf. cofan: Calífano, Gonzalo 1995, No. 1 [Chiga (The Sun) has always existed, turning people into animals (no details)], 18 [C. meets a man painted like a jaguar; turns him into jaguar; same with paujil; with tapir; cuts Tapir in half, tapir emerges from the front, paiche (manatee?) from the back] : 69, 77).

Montagna — Jurua. Ashaninka (Pajonal district campa) [there were no cultivated plants, people ate the land; the father left his daughter in the cave for the first period; Manchákori (Month) came in the dark; at this time the girl chewed plants to regulate menstruation, spat at the person who came, stains remained on the face of the Month; M. gave forest fruits; when the girl's parents return, let them take them in order; but they mixed them, now in the forest was all mixed up; when the Month appeared, people ran and turned into earthworms; others in animals (in particular marten); the girl's mother, father, and younger brother remained; when the girl began to give birth, The month told her to grab a tree that was blooming in early summer; she grabbed the wrong thing, burned down, giving birth to a hot Sun; the Sun had a tail, the Month cut it off, made it out of pieces of people; from the smallest — Ashaninka; Maonte told the girl's father to take the Sun; if he burned, throw it on the ground; he threw it into the water, so mists appeared; Maonte became a bird with a black back; the Month itself also rose to sky]: Varese 1969-1970:167; (cf. amuesha [many myths tell us how, after almost killing the jaguars, the Yompor Ror sun, heading to the place from which it ascended to the sky, passed all over the earth, transforming various groups along the way first ancestors in animals; turned Matar into a stone for greed, Opanesha and Pueshestor for limitless ambitions]: Santos-Granero 1991:67).

Bolivia — Guaporé. Siriono [while the Month was hunting, Jaguar began to remove lice from his son's hair, could not resist eating it; the Month asks everyone, they don't say, he consistently turns them into animals; hit The turtle, since then it has a cracked shell, a dent in its stomach; guajojo painted its face black, hit the stump, now these birds are sitting on stumps; the porcupine twisted its neck and legs, placed thorns on its back; He drove monkeys and ants into the trees, did not allow them to go down; scattered the animals, they no longer live together; shot them in the turtledove, since then her skin around her neck has been wrinkled; she said that Jaguar killed the son of the Month; A month apologized for shooting her; people saw the Jaguara and its female across the river; called her to cross the river by a long reed stalk (tacuara); when the male was in the middle, people swung the bridge, the Jaguar fell, was eaten piranhas; the pregnant female escaped, new jaguars from her; The month, grieving for her son, joined the reeds together, climbed this staircase to heaven; if it hadn't gone to heaven, there would be no night]: Priest, Priest 1980:8-11.

(Wed. Southern Brazil. Caigua [The sun comes and turns humans one by one into animals]: Schaden 1947b, No. 3:112-114).