Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Introduction
Bibliography
Ethnicities and habitats

B2A. Earth is a female being, A401.

.11.-.17.19.-.24.26.-.32.34.-.37.39.-.41.43.-.53.55.59.61.-.63.65.67. (.72.73.)

Earth, a female character (alone or along with a male character), is considered a female creature or is associated with a woman.

Congo, Sakata, Luba-Kasai, Lala, Nzema, Chagga, Zaramo, Kuta, Mande, Bambara, Dogon, Mosi, Anyi, Kru, Eve, Krachi, Igbo, Yoruba, Ijo, Jukun, Ekoi, Anang, Ashanti, Margi, Dinka, Dagari, Oromo, Konso, Sidamo, Ari (Ubamer), Kunama, Afar, Masai, Malgashi, Tuareg, Spanish, Portuguese, Galicians, Catalans, Basques, Italians (incl. Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica), Irish, French, Sumer (?) , Babylonia, Phoenicians, Saudia, Majprat, Camano, etc. (eastern mountains), aibom, marind-anim, melpa, motu, Palau, Tuvalu, Nukumanu, Samoa, Niue, Rotuma, Maori, Hawaii, Tahiti, Tuamotu, Cook Islands (southern; northern?) , Marquises, Tibetans, Rai, Mizhi, Garo, Dafla, Miniong, Lakher, Rengma, Angami, Miri, aka, Bori, Tagin, Gallong, Apatani, Shimong, Riga, Mori, Kachins, Arakan, Karen, Ede, Khmers, Ancient India (Rigveda), Kashmiris, Marathi (? ; Bombay District), Gujarati, Barela-bhilala, Varli, Dhanwar, Uttar Pradesh, Gadaba, Haria, Bhumia, Bhuya, Bhaya, Bhaya, Bhaya, Baiga, Sora, Didaya, Kondas, Gondas, Muria, Agaria, Baiga, Pardhan, Telugu (Yanadi), Cham, Semangs, Bataks, Java, Bali, Dayaki, Palawan, Toraja, Boogie, Minahasa, Meto, Tetum, Ngada, Mangarai, Seram, Leti, Babar, Kai Islands and all of Eastern Indonesia, Ancient China, Chinese (Sichuan), Asi, Lisu, Lahu, Achans, Koreans, Ancient Greece, Serbs, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Slovenes, Croats, Bosnians, Albanians, Romanians, Russians (all groups, including the Russian written tradition), Ukrainians (all groups), Belarusians, Poles, Kashubians, Luzhitans, Czechs, Slovaks, Karachays, Balkarians, Ossetians, Terek Cossacks, Nogais, Dargins, Lezgins, Georgians, Armenians, Talyshs, Hittites, Zoroastrianism, Yazgulyam, Pashtuns, Edda, Estonians, Livonians, Lezgans, Finns, Karelians, Western Sami, Lithuanians, Latvians, Komi, Udmurts, Maris, Mordovians, Chuvash, Bashkirs, Tuvans, Buryats, Khalkha Mongols, Inner Mongolia Mongols, Tuvans, Altaians, All Nenets, Nganasans, Ents, Northern Khanty, Mansi, Southern Selkups, Northern Yenisei, Far Eastern (and others?) Evenks, Evens, Central and Western (Viluian) Yakuts, Udege, Tundra and Forest Yukaghirs, West Greenland, Taltan, Thompson, Klallam, Okanagon, Kordalen, Yakima, Menominee, Northern Ojibwa ( Sandy Lake), Chippewa, Ojibwa, Fox, Potauatomi, Kickapoo, Steppe Cree, Steppe Ojibwa, Seneca, Mohawki, Kayuga, Onondaga, Delaware, Crowe, Teton, Omaha and Ponca, Osage, Iowa, Ocho, Kansa, Kuapo, Sheena, aricara, pawnee, wichita, comanche, screams, keddo, chupa, chumash, juaneño, luiseño, northern shoshoni, utah, southern payut, western apache, chiricahua, jicarilla, mescalero, navajo, zunyi, Akoma, Sia, Tewa, Taos, Mojave, Diegueño, Pima, Papago, Seri, Yaki, Huichol, Cora, Aztecs, Nahuat Puebla, Huasteca, Totonaki, Popoloka, Mihe, Masatecs, Mixtecs, Lenca, Mestizos Soconusco, Tojolabal, Quiche, Maya Yucatana, Shinka, hikake, bribri, guaimi, guajiro, chimila, kogi, kashuyana, napo, macuna, tucano, tanimuka, maue, all quechua and aymara, machigenga, takana, tupari, (ayoreo?).

Bantu-speaking Africa. Congo: Dennett 1898 [The spider married Nzambi's daughter; N. demanded that he bring for her the heavenly fire of the lord of heaven Nzambi Mpungu; the Spider accompanied the Turtle, Woodpecker, the Rat, the Sand Flea; fixed a web thread in the sky; Woodpecker pierced a hole in it; NM tests those who come to the test to see if they really came from N.; 1) bring a bunch of bamboo from the ground (Turtle brings); 2) stay alive in a pile of brushwood (The rat escapes the fire, is alive); The spider gets fire; on earth, each of the companions demands a girl for his help; N. gives everyone the price of a girl, and She herself to no one, she remains unmarried]: 74-76; Kotlyar 1973 [(Dennett 1898:132-133 et al.); Nzambi is the ancestor mother, the personification of the earth; Nzambi Mpungu is a thunderbringer who represents the sky]: 17-26; Sakata [the tall Tree saw the Earth, wondered who it was; it knew the moon, the stars, the wind, the rain, but not the Earth; the Earth said it was his mother and provided food; to punish arrogance, told her termite slaves to cut down a tree]: Colldén 1979, No. 93:260-261 (about the same text, but without pointing to half of the Earth, near Lingal, Vinogradov 1984, No. L12:306-307); luba-kasai [Water — older sister, Fire is younger brother; Sky is older brother, Earth is younger sister; Sun is older brother, Moon is younger sister]: Studstill 1984:79; uta [meets the idea of Earth as female; more characteristic: Earth (Nzambi wadoko) and Sky (Nzambi watanda) are both male characters, Earth is less powerful and responsible for evil in the world]: Andersson 1991:38; chagga [Kilimanjaro ( like other mountains) — a child of Earth conceived by the Sun]: Widenmann 1899:33; Zaramo [Earth's womb — Nyalutanga gave birth to all living things; her huge vagina filled the earth with people]: Swantz 1972:108-109; lala [Lesa is the supreme god, leader in heaven, thunderdog; married to his sister Mushili, she is associated with the earth; both born to be the first woman to have one breast; once L. was gone, M. died, she was buried; L. said it was not necessary, and now all people would die; those who could revive M. refused to do so]: Munday 1942:48-49.

West Africa. Bambara [Muso Koroni, the scary goddess of the earth, looks like a leopard, hurts women with her claws, causing them to menstruate; taught people how to grow millet (rice and corn are also known, but of late origin); sun god Pemba, in the form of the Acacia albida tree, penetrated it with his roots and she gave birth to all plants and all animals]: Knappertt 1997:216; mande [a couple appeared in the egg twins, Faro and Pemba; P. came out ahead of time, dragging along part of the placenta from which the earth arose; he copulated with it, because of this (coition was incestuous), the earth was unclean; F.'s body was dismembered, trees arose from parts; the god Mangala revived F., sent to earth in an ark from the placenta, where he also placed the first ancestors of humans, animals and plants]: Scheub 2000:138; nzema [ The supreme god Edenkema created the heaven-Nyamenle (man) and Earth-Azele (woman); they are spouses, all living things are their children; when N. does not send rain for a long time, A. is angry; when it rains, the couple reconcile ]: Grottanelli 1967:34, 37; Terns: Belcher 2005:111 (translated into Zhukov, Kotlyar 1976, No. 9:41-46); Anyi [supreme god Adoudou gave birth to Nyame, the god of heaven, and Assie, the goddess of the earth]: Scheub 2000:7; Hoer [Heaven is Earth's husband]: Spieth 1906:890; cru [this was before the Month married Earth; the leopard's wife planted a breadtree seed; a tree grew from which they became various types of raw and cooked food fell; the leopard put the snail as a watchman; it had a round shell full of mucus; the trunk covered with slime was impossible to climb; large animals They tried unsuccessfully to defeat the snail; the iguana summoned the month, handing it over to her third yellow eye; the month became visible, fell on the snail, breaking its shell]: Pinney 1973:104-107; Ashanti ['Nyame — supreme deity, god of heaven, his day is Saturday; Asase Ya, Aberewa is Old Mother Earth; her day is Tuesday, at this time you can't cultivate the land]: Rattray 1921:148, 214-216; margi [Iju is heaven, a man fertilizes a female land Ii; however, the earth is not clearly personified and prayers are only addressed to Ija]: Scheub 2000:75; dagari [a person sees Earth copulating with Rain, gives birth to a tree; a man tries to climb it, falls, the Spider helps to get to heaven]: Goody 1972:26, 294; catch-up: Palau Marti 1957 [the heavenly god Amma created the earth, made his wife; first she had a termite clitoris; then A. pulled it out (excision), his wife began to obey him; Yurugu (Fox, Vulpes pallida) was born before excision, then the first man and woman; they put a green skirt on their mother; Yu committed incest with his mother, as a result, forest spirits were born, and the act of incest led to menstruation; after that, A. left his wife because she became unclean]: 52; Parrinder 1967 [Amma created the sun, wrapping it with eight rings of red copper, the moon with 8 rings of white copper; stars, shooting ginyan balls; threw a lump of clay into space, it spread face up, became Earth; A. came together with the ground, pulling out a termite mound (excision) in the way; first a jackal was born, then half-human half-snake nummo twins]: 23; mosi [sky man and earth-woman are spouses personified in Naaba images Wende and Napaanga Tenga]: Izard 1991:106; Igbo: Belcher 2005 [Ogbughu (rhino bird)'s mother died, he could not find a place to bury her, buried her in his head, now he grows up on her; flying over by the waters, saw a man and a woman copulating in the water; they moved and the earth appeared; the Ale woman merged with the ground, saying that the dead would be buried in the ground; therefore, cultural plants and they bury them in it]: 286-287; Cole 1982 [Ala is a woman earth who dominates the earth and the lower world, kills and eats people (when they are buried in the ground); Amadioha is the lord of heaven, his weapon is thunder, he is peaceful and merciful; Ala is his mother or wife; he is fair-skinned and associated with white and other light colors]: 56-58; Parrinder 1967 [Mbari — Goddess Earth]: 78; nancance [Earth is God's wife Heaven, he fertilizes her with rain]: Zwernemann 1968:30; concombe [Wumbor — son of an Earth fertilized by Sky]: Zwernemann 1968:31; Yoruba [Olorun and his wife Odududua were like two tight halves of a calebas pulled together; Odudua resisted being in the darkness at the bottom, then Olorug pulled out her eyes; she said that he should only eat snails (snails are donated to him); they have a son and daughter, who have given birth to a son Orungan; he chased his mother to take possession of her, she fell in Ifa, rivers flowed from her breasts, parts of her body turned into gods — Lightning-Shango and his three river wives, Okean-Olokun, the god of blacksmiths Okun, hunters warriors and others]: Ellis 1894:41-46 (paraphrase in Belcher 2005:309); Igbo, Ijo [Heaven is son, Earth is daughter of the creator goddess Chineke]: Talbot 1932:19; Jukun: Meek 1931 [The Chido man is associated with the Sun, he is the deity of the upper world; the AMA woman is associated with the Earth and the lower world; their union gives birth to crops in the fields]: 178-190; Scheub 2000:11-12 [Ama is sometimes considered a man, sometimes a woman, but above all associated with the land that Chido fertilizes with rain], 28-29 [=Meek 1931]; ecoi: Meek 1931 [our father, the god of heaven and sun Obassi Uso fertilizes rain our mother, the goddess of the earth Obassi Nsi]: 180; Talbot 1912:17 [but one of the informants: I think Obassi Nsi is actually our mother and Obassi Osaw is the father, because sacrifices are made to Mr. Obassi and Lord Obassi; he is also kind, and it is known that the mother is kinder than his father], 70-71 [all created by Obassi Osaw and Obassi Nsi; at first they lived together, but then OO took heaven and HE took the earth; the newborn falls to earth, and the deceased returns to the land from which everything arises; HE controls all cultivated plants; the sky is bad, because it sends too much rain, then there is no rain at all]; anang [ The supreme heavenly god Abasi learns about what is happening on earth from the female spirit of the earth Ikpa Ison; she sends him a vulture with news]: Scheub 2000:3; baule [The Bat asked for a loan from Mother Earth and heavenly god Nyamye; when N. asked for repayment, the Bat agreed, but Earth reproached her because she had borrowed it earlier; The Bat told N. that her legs were already on the way She always listens to him, but also to Earth; that's why she hangs upside down, head down]: Himmelheber 1951b:48 (translated into Himmelheber 1960:60-61, Kotlyar 2009, No. 222:143).

Sudan—East Africa. Dinka [male Garang is son of Heaven, Abuk woman is the daughter of Earth, the first human couple; their son Deng]: Lienhardt 196:100; kunama [Earth is our mother, Heaven is father; sending rain, Heaven does The land is pregnant, which gives birth to cereals and herbs]: Haberland 1967:49; Afar [four brothers are surrounded by hyenas in the forest; their king asks what everyone believes in; the elder in God, the second in his clan, the third — to mother earth, the fourth to hyenas; the king says that hyenas cannot go against God, against an entire village, and against land; so they ate their fourth brother]: Reuss-Nliba, Reuss-Nliba 2016:12-15; Oromo: Bartels 1983 [Sky (Waqa) lay almost close to Earth, watering it abundantly with rain; called all the animals to make claims; everyone was happy, but Mule said W. was too close to Earth , kicked him; W. moved away, there was little rain; W. made Mule barren]: 104; Haberland 1967 [Father Heaven is Mother Earth's husband; snakes and rain are connected to the sky; the Earth was flat, said what was more important Sky; Sky said it was more important, streams of rain created a crossed landscape; at first they lay close; Sky rose, Earth expressed regret; Sky then created people on earth; var: Earth was the wife of Heaven , they have a daughter Batto; Heaven has moved away from Earth; B. came together with a black serpent, gave birth to people]: 44-46; konso [1) Jensen 1936:493; God (Heaven) created the Earth, she became his wife; first lay close, then he got up; began to rain her; 2) Jensen 1950/1955; at first the Earth was as flat as her husband Sky; they began to argue who was stronger; the sky began to throw stones on Earth, rained, she recognized him supremacy]: Haberland 1967:48; sidamo [Nebo-Maganno — Earth's husband Batto]: Haberland 1967:48; ari (ubamer) [Sky-Sabi created the world, stars and rain in his possession; he is being addressed soothsayers; his wife (sometimes sister) Earth is Berri, plants and agriculture depend on her; appears in a dream like an adult woman, girl, girl]: Jensen 1959:177-178 (quoted in Haberland 1967:50); Dima [Heaven is a man and Earth is a woman]: Haberland 1967:50; basketo [Heaven is our father and Earth is our mother]: Haberland 1967:50-51; Masai [Heaven is married to Earth; Earth receives warmth and rain like a woman receiving male seed]: Hollis 1905:279; malgashi: Abrahamsson 1951 (Bara) [1) God has come together with Earth, they have a child; God has refused to perform a legal marriage ceremony, so The Earth kept the child for itself; they got into a fight, God threw stones at the Earth, the Earth settled, the child died; God gave the Earth the body, took his soul; 2) God and Earth got married; decided to divide the rights to the inhabitants of the earth , God takes his breath, Earth takes bodies; 3) Ndriyanakatakati revived a person on the condition that he would receive a gift from Ikutuvului, who owned the person; he did not pay, so N. began to take the soul and I. the body]: 118 ; Molet 1979 (Merina) [The sky was looking for a wife; the bird invited him to marry the Earth; the Earth began to unite with Heaven, everyone was frightened; the bird advised Sky to give up marriage; Earth said that the sky was not hers respects, wets every day; some parts of the Earth have risen and remain mountains, the sky has decorated them with vegetation]: 32-33; Parrinder 1967 [The Earth was the daughter of God; playing, made people out of clay figures, God revived them; people multiplied, the Earth flourished; God, out of envy, demanded half of the people, the Earth refused; then God began to take their breath]: 59; malgashi (bar) [Sun invited Earth to marry; she was afraid that he would burn people's heads; the Sun promised to cool them with rain; they agreed to divide people; their breath would go to God and their bodies to the ground, for they were made in the form of clay dolls]: Haring 2007, No. 18:22.

North Africa. The Tuaregs [at first Mother Earth was generous, providing food; one maid wiped the hostess's baby with a piece of meat; then the food (tous les mets offers) turned into stones]: Claudot-Hawad 2002:54.

Southern Europe. Spaniards, Portuguese, Galicians, Catalans, Aragon, Italians (incl. Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica) [in all Romance languages, “land” is feminine]; the Basques [Earth (Lurra) is the mother of the Sun and Moon]: Barandiaran 1991:54 in Zelikov 2016:62.

Western Europe. The Irish [Éire (also known as Ana) — Earth is a woman; there are two hills in County Kerry that are considered her breasts; she is the mother of Tuatha Dé Danann, “descendants of the goddess Ana”; they are gone underground after the arrival of Irish ancestors]: Muller 2006:174; French [terre (f)].

Western Asia. Sumer: Yemelyanov 1999 [Enki-Ninki — “Mr. Place, Mrs. Place”; spells from Farah and Ebla: “Tamarisk, lonely trunk, Ana tree! From her roots in the land is Enki-Ninka, along her crown is Lord Ana, spread over the | pier | sacred!” ; “Tamarisk, the trunk is righteous, the trunk is clean! Tamarisk roots — Enki-Ninki! Enlil's Tamarisk! Tamarisk! The life of heaven, the life of the earth, the life of Ana, Enki-Ninka (be cursed!)” ; we see that Enki-Ninki lives in the roots of a sacred tree whose trunk belongs to Heaven and the crown to the inhabited world (Enlil); Ur-Nanshe's spell: “Sacred reed, water abyss reeds, reeds Ankie Ninky!” ; Eanatuma's inscription on the “Kite Stele”: “Let Ninka turn her foot (=Umma) away from the ground!” ; The Ninki here is the goddess of the earth, depriving violators of the sacred treaty of support; first Heaven-Earth exists undivided, then generations of terrestrial androgynes appear, then Demiurge Enlil with his wife (already separately) followed by Enlil and Ninlil's firstborn, the moon god Nanna; the earliest written tradition considers Enki-Ninki to be the deities who were at the origins of life: they live in the roots of the sacred trees near the water abyss, in Nergal's dwelling, are the parents of 7 (or 6, 9) paired deities and Enlil; Sacred Hill is an embankment of earth to a water source from which the tamarisk celestial tree sprouts, where Enlil's androgynous ancestors live, who arose before the separation of Heaven and Earth]: 100-104; 2001 [Urukagina Lagashsky, XXIV century: “The well has released water. Ahn, Vladyka, stood up in his youth. Ahn and Ki shouted at each other (i.e. split, moved away from each other). At that time, Enki-Ninka was gone, Enlil did not live, Ninlil did not live, the Day did not pass, New Month did not come out.” The fragment describes the beginning of the world, when there was only a freshwater spring gushing from the ground and the first conflict between Ana and Ki, which previously existed inseparably, took place; after the separation of Heaven from Earth begins to give the deities of air and earth the attributes of the world order]: 107; Espak 2012 [the oldest text alluding to the marriage of Sky An and Earth Ki — Barton's “cylinder” from Nippur]: 73; Babylonia [Habti-Ilani-Marduk is the author of the epic story of the disease-bringing god Erra; Seven (Sibitti) are seven terrible creatures sent by Erra to destroy people; called children of heaven and earth]: Burkert 1992:109; Phoenicians [Earth — Sister and Wife of Heaven, Al's Mother]: Tsirkin 2000:77, 139, 321; 2004:39; Saudia [ant and louse found grain, began to cook in a pot, louse wanted try it, but the ant hit her with a ladle; she started shouting: Oh people, ride your negative donkey {incomprehensible}, he denies the bush; what will defeat you, bush? — The sheep will eat; then the knife kills the sheep, the fire spoils the knife, the rain floods the fire, the grass sprouts after the rain, the horse eats grass, the guy rides a horse, death kills the guy; what will defeat you, death? — I am Death, I'll hug you and throw you into your mother's bosom (i.e. into the ground)]: Taibah, MacDonald 2016:4.

Melanesia. Majprat [the main sources of the beginning of an (feminine, warm, alive, passive, red, green, right; opposite to the beginning of cha — masculine, cold, active, death, yellow, black, white, left) are the sun, vagina and underground dema, sometimes identified with earth]: Elmberg 1968:210; camano, usurufa, etc. (eastern mountains): Berndt 1965:80-81 [The tree grew out of nothing, its branches formed the ground; Jugumishanta and her husband Morufonu sit at its base, maintaining peace; the tree is on M.'s shoulders as he moves , earthquakes occur; J. is associated with the earth, all people are her children], 83 [field cultivation — copulation with mother earth]; melpa (mbowamb) [earth is feminine, sky is masculine]: Stagl 1971: 54; ibom [Antimangge became land, Meintumbangge made two women out of the land, Kolimangge and Nemenggenbo; their mother A. told them to make clay vessels out of it, they primarily made; vessels were their children; the women had not yet given birth; K. told the vessels to dry, lie in the fire, harden there, go to the market; the Yumanmáli man came and lay down with K.; after that, the vessels stopped obeying orders and women began to give birth]: Schuster 1969:148; Marind-anim: Wirtz, Neverman 1981 [Sun and Month are men, earth represents femininity]: 159; Wirz 1922:28 in Stagl 1971 [earth embodies the feminine principle, the sky is masculine, all demas are generated by them]: 54; motu [the man dug the earth deeper, found the Moon, took it out, it grew, shone, rose into the sky; said in a woman's voice that She had to stay in her Mother Earth for a long time before she was born; then she would shine constantly, and now she would appear and disappear; descended into the sea; man took a net, dogs, spears, went looking for the Moon to marry her; found a woman bathing, sat on her clothes, said he would marry her; Luna replied that he would die in two days because he touched her clothes, and she was an immortal spirit; agreed to marry him for one day, then sent him home so that he could prepare for death; she would also become the wife of the Sun, who is already dissatisfied; the Sun became jealous because the moon is walking in the wrong way The same way that he and that she shines brightest just when he's not there; decided to part]: Romilly 1889:134-142.

Micronesia—Polynesia. Palau [there was only Bgaur Island (Angaur), inhabited by people with big, thick legs; Akuab became pregnant, grew taller than home, to the sky, burst, parts of her body scattered, fell at sea, formed the Palau archipelago]: Frazer 1939:156; Tuvalu (Noumea) [Heaven and Earth came together, gave birth to people]: Williamson 1933 (1): 16; Tuvalu [Nanumanga, Nanumanga: Heaven and Earth were married , lay together; the sea serpent raised the Sky; Nukufetau: the same, but the fish first gathered for advice on how to raise the sky]: Williamson 1933 (1): 45; Nukumanu [Earth Woman met the Wind, which lived in heaven; then he could not go down to her, asked them to name their child Sinekepápa; this is a daughter; then the Wind came back to Earth, she gave birth to her youngest daughter Asina; Heaven found out that Earth had daughters, asked her father for permission to go down; Earth asked Vetra if he agreed to give his eldest daughter, he agreed, the eldest married; after that, a man named Opuna came to marry his youngest daughter, received; Sinekepapa gave birth to a son Naleau; he decided to go to his Father Sky (Kimulani); that mother is blind, N. touched her eyes, ants, a centipede, black squirrels, crabs fell out, she saw the light, glad that sees a grandson; he leaves, meets men led by Opuna who are building a guesthouse, mocks them; when he jumps into a hole prepared for a pole, she throws a pole at him; he turns into an ant, hides inside a pole; goes out; replaces food in an earthen oven with crap; they want to bake it in the oven, it turns into an ant, crawls out unnoticed; sails to Keloma Island]: Sarfert, Damm 1931: 413-436; Samoa [The rocks married the Earth; the god Salevao (brother of the god of death) noticed a movement of the soil on a moa in the center of the earth; Moa was born there (it is not said that he was the ancestor of humans)]: Turner in Williamson 1933 (1): 5; Niue [Langi's sky held his wife Earth in his arms; their children remained trapped in the dark between their parents; some wanted to kill them, others only to separate them, leaving them nearby ; they raised Heaven; L. cries away from his wife, his tears irrigate the Earth; in spring he hears his terrible complaints {thunder?}] : Thompson in Williamson 1933 (1): 25; Rotuma [Heaven and Earth were close together; a man of Heaven lay down with Earth's woman; their son Tangaroa knelt on one knee, pushed Heaven away; yielding Parents' requests to see each other, T. did not stand up full length]: Williamson 1933 (1): 44; Hawaii: Beckwith 1970 [Ku and Hina are the ancestor gods of heaven and earth, embodiments of masculine and feminine principles ]: 12; Makemson 1941 [Father-Heaven Wakea and Mother Earth Papa gave birth to Calebas; V. split her, turned the upper half into the sky, the lower earth and the sea; the seeds became the sun, moon and stars, juice became rain]: 52; Tahiti [Ta'aroa was inside the Rumia egg; went out, picked up the upper part of the shell, making it into the sky; at first the sky was close to the ground; the Great Octopus, his four, held the earth and sky tentacles supported them on four sides of the world; T. created Atea (Space), the goddess of heaven; created the first pair, Tumu-nui (The Great Foundation) and his wife Paparaharaha (Rock Base); from Papa-tuoi (“Thin Earth”) A. gave birth to the Sky Builders, who built 10 celestial layers; on the highest god Tane; from Rua-tupua-nui (“The Source of Great Power”) A. gave birth to all heavenly bodies; her third husband Fa'a -hotu (“Making Fertile”); she changed sex with him, they gave birth to Ru; he raised the Sky, but not enough; then Maui cut off the octopus tentacles that held the world, they fell into the sea, turned into Australia; called the god Tanya from heaven; he fixed holes in the sky, raised it to its current height]: Henry 1928:336-344 (retelling in Makemson 1941:50-51, 68-69); Cook Islands (Mangaia and, probably other islands in the southern group; “among the almost extinct Tonga tribe”) [Vatea and Tonga-iti (Tangaroa on the other islands) both claimed to be the father of the first child born Earth-Papa; cut it; Vatea took the upper half, threw it into the sky, it became the sun; Tonga-iti got the lower half, she stayed on earth; later, imitating Vatea, he also threw it to the sky; this half of it has already partially decomposed, and blood has flowed out, so what was abandoned became a pale moon; “the victorious tribe rejects this myth because they make Tonga-ichi the son, not the Pope's husband"]: Gill 1876:44-45 (retelling in Dixon 1916:37); Cook Islands (southern and northern?) [Vatea (associated with light and clear skies) married Papa (“Foundation”, “Earth”), they gave birth to five great gods — Tangaroa, Rongo, Tonga-iti, Tangiia, Tane]: Dixon 1916:14; Tuamotu [ inside the world's egg were Te Tumu (“Foundation”) and Te Papa (“Earth”); the egg split, forming three terrestrial and ten celestial tiers; TT and TP remained on the lowest tier of the Earth, giving birth to people, animals and plants; strongmen stood on each other's shoulders and lifted the sky up so that even the tallest palm trees could straighten out; only the Warrior (Aito) and his wife Earth (Fenua) did not want to change horizontal position; people multiplied, pierced holes, first going to the second tier, then to the surface of our earth]: Henry 1928:347 (retelling in Makemson 1941:52-53); Marquises [Papa-uka (“The Upper World”) snuggled against Papa-ao (“Lower World”), giving birth to Athea, Tanya, and other gods; he lived in a dark underground cave; at the suggestion of T., A. split the body of Mother Earth and they were born]: Christian in Williamson 1933 (1): 25-26 (more briefly in Makemson 1941:71); Cook Islands [Vatea (associated with light and clear skies) married Papa (“Foundation”, “Earth”), they gave birth to five great gods — Tangaroa, Rongo, Tonga-iti, Tangia, Tane]: Dixon 1916:14; Maori: Best 1899 [Rangi (sky) came together with Papa (land); they gave birth to Tane, Tangotango, and Wai-nui; this was the beginning of all things in the world; Papa — Mother Earth]: 114-115; Reed 1999, No. 1 [Rangi (Father Sky) and Papa (Mother Earth) were lying close to each other; their children decided to raise the Sky; only Tane (the father of the forest, birds, insects) was able to do so; planted on trees on earth, put the sun, moon, stars in the sky; stars (“Shining Ones”) played, then gathered on the mountain, T. collected them in a basket; the Milky Way — this basket; T. placed, then tore off the red cape; her remnant is dawn; the gods made a Hine-ahu-one woman out of clay, washed her in heavenly waters, married T.; their children inhabited the earth]: 11-21 (translated into Reed 1960:9-17; retelling in Dixon 1916:30-31); moriori [First Range and Rape, i.e. Heaven and Earth, darkness; Rangitocona was born between them, asked them to separate, they refused, he divided them himself, put 10 pillars, pushed the sky aside with them; the sky began to grieve on Earth, his tears are rain and dew; Rangitocona made man Tu out of the earth; his descendants are Rongo, Take, Tangaroa, Tiki, and many others; they are “heavenly born”, children of Heaven; of which the last Ro Tauira took Rangimaomao's wife, she gave birth to Winds, the first to Eastern]: Shand 1894:121-122.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibet: Ogneva 1982b [after the adoption of Buddhism in the 8th century. Tibet began to appear as the open body of a mountain witch]: 511; Ogneva 1982c (bon mythology) [the sky emerges from the head of goddess Lumo, the moon from the right eye, the sun from the left eye, and the sun from the upper teeth planets; when she closes her eyes, night falls when day opens; thunder from her voice, rain from her nostrils, wind from her nostrils, rivers from her veins, earth from her body]: 74; Hermanns 1971 [Heaven and Earth (letters. “quadrangular earth”) as Father and Mother]: 189; Hummel 1961 [Khon-ma — mother earth]: 355; rai (bantava) []: 368; miji (Dhammai) [Shuzanghu met Zumiang-Nui, she gave birth to a Sky Boy and Earth girl; there was no place for them, they fell down, they were swallowed by the Phangnalomang worm; when Z. gave birth to her second child, S. made a playground for him; M. wanted to swallow it too, but was trapped; S. cut it, extracted Heaven and Earth; they married, gave birth to two mountain gods; then Heaven and Earth split; in the course of this, the Earth gave birth to two more children in the form of frogs; they married and gave birth son and daughter; they were like humans but covered in hair; they gave birth to three sons]: Elwin 1958a, No. 5:13-14; garo [Mané land is a woman; Tatara-Rabuga gave her a robe made of clouds, did so that Her hair began to grow — trees, reeds and grass; created a gibbon (hullock ape) to prevent M. from sleeping with loud screams, forgetting his duty to produce all living things]: Playfair 1909:83; dafla (niches) [earth is a female deity]: Ramya 2013:28; miniong: Elwin 1958a, No. 3 [Sedi's land and Melo sky lay close together like wife and husband; Polung-Sabbo buffalo was born, wandered through the hills with his horns, he threw the sky high up in anger; when the earth dried up, she wanted to reconnect with the sky, but at that time the Doini sun and the month of Pollo appeared; Sedi was ashamed of the light and froze; The part that rose closer to heaven became mountains], 16 [Sedi's land and Melo sky got married; humans, animals, and Wiyus (gods, ancestors) were going to decide how not to be crushed; Sedi-Diyor, one of the strongest Wiyus, pushed Heaven far from Earth; she gave birth to two girls, but grieving for her lost husband, she could not raise them, and they found a nanny; she died, she was buried, and her sisters cried, they also died, the light emanating from them was gone; they thought that the nanny had stolen something from the sisters, dug up the grave, the body decayed, but the eyes were gone, they had images of sisters; the master extracted from them, they became alive girls; the eldest, Bomong, dressed nicely, left, did not come back, she was the sun; the youngest Bong followed her, was just as bright and hot; they decided to kill her, the Frog shot her with a bow, the Rat brought her body older sister; out of fear and grief, Bomong put a stone on her head, the light faded; Nginu-Botte sent a rat, a wild bird and a rooster to Bomong; the rooster's huge genitals prevented him from walking, his penis was cut off, that became an earthworm, and the testicles went inside the body; Bomog agreed to return if his sister came to life; the master made the image of Bong, breathed life, Bomong removed the stone, the rooster and bird sang at dawn, the rat squeaked]: 25-26, 48-50; Roy 1960 (padam minyong) [Sedi (earth) and her brother Melo (sky) first hugged each other, giving birth to many creatures, then parted, the sky moved away from the ground; at the same time they have gone underground and hold it on their shoulders; when they shift the weight from one shoulder to another, they occur on their shoulders; when I'm earthquakes]: 242; miniong abor [Shidkin-kede, Earth deity, woman; Doing Anggong — Father-Sky]: Fürer-Haimendorf 1954:593; Lakher: Parry 1932:381 [only Sabeu consider heaven to be a woman; the rest of the Lakher tribes have a man sky] 486-487 [earth is a woman married to heaven; earthquakes occur when they copulate]; rengma [heavenly spirit is father, earth is the mother of all things]: Mills 1937:165; angami: Hutton 1914 [proverb: Heaven is my father, Earth is my mother]: 497; Sorhie 1993 [heaven is husband, earth is wife]; Hill Miri [Earth and Sky lay close; Earth gave birth to Dige-Wiyu, he moved away from it Sky]: Elwin 1958a, No. 1:25; aka (chrusso): Elwin 1958a, No. 2 [The sky quarreled with his wife Earth, began to harm her; the boy Nejlien was born, he settled everything, was the wind, blew, moved the Sky away from Earth, humans and animals now have enough food and water; the wind still brings cool heat and warmth when it's cold], 9 [at first only two eggs, they collided, broke, one came into Earth, from the other is her husband Heaven; Sky asked the Earth to shrink so that he could hug her; she shrunk, valleys and mountains appeared; Heaven and Earth gave birth to all living beings and plants]: 15-16, 25; Sinha 1962 [the gods of Heaven and Mountains are men, goddesses of Earth and Rivers are women]: 122; bori: Elwin 1958a, No. 6 [Sittking-Kedding land and Peddo-Dodum sky lay close, they had a sun daughter Doini and then a month-son Pollo; the mother was afraid that when she gave birth to Tani, D. would eat him; she shoved the sky up with her foot, he took the Sun and the Month with him; when T. was born, D. hid the Sun, the world fell into darkness; they agreed that The Sun will only drink blood (when it drinks a lot, it's very hot), and the Month will only drink blood once a month when the moon is red; people come from Tanya, it belongs to the Sun, so the Sun cares about humans; Wiyus (gods, ancestors) descended from Taro, it belongs to the Month, so the Month takes care of shamans]: 40-41; 1958b, No. 1 [black fat big-eyed Wiyu Neli-Bo is afraid that when heaven wants to get closer to his wife Earth, they will crush him; screams is thunder]: 65; tagin [Nido lived in heaven, Sichi lived on earth, they quarreled, N. put up his army, in which the Sun, the Month and The stars, and S. exposed all the animals and snakes; N. came down to crush them; the animals are discussing what to do; only the Chichin Jarin bird suggested that N. and S. both sacrifice buffalo and arranged a joint celebration; they each have to stay home for 10 days, whoever comes out, his body will become ugly; S. went out on the third day, so there are mountains, rockfalls, earthquakes on the ground; and N. did It took 10 days, so the sky is beautiful]: Elwin 1958a, No. 5:26-27; Apatani: Elwin 1958a, No. 1 [first Earth (Kujum-Chantu) was like a human being with a head, limbs and a huge fat belly; she decided that if she got up, everyone would fall and die, so she died voluntarily; her head became snowy peaks, her back bones became hills, her chest became the Apa Thani Valley, her neck became a northern country Tigin people, her buttocks are the plain of Assam; because her buttocks are high in fat, Assam's soils are fertile; her eyes became the sun and moon; Kujum-Popi was born from her breath, sending the sun and moon to the sky], 1 [first Kenku was born, he is Wiyu (god, ancestor) in the shape of a ball of earth; she said she was Chantu, gave birth to Apo Tani, told him that he should give birth to people and she would die; he asked where they would live then people; she replied that her thighs would become earth, her eyes would become the sun and moon, and her blood would become water]: 8, 37; gallons [cloud and fog gave birth to the earth and moon, earth and sky to the creator goddess Jimi-Ane, she features of a rhinoceros bird, a deer, a monkey, and birds; they also gave birth to a young man called Opo Tako; he became pregnant with her unnoticed; she gave birth to various spirits, animals, humans, summer and winter, plants; the earth became cramped; JA gave birth to a daughter, Mipu, who began to expand the space between heaven and earth; Earth and Sky celebrated and then split; for several days it was taboo; the Earth did not abide by taboos, so it was covered with vines, thorns, etc., and the Sky remained clear]: Pandey 1999:47-53; shimong [Dine-Mane Wiyu lives where earth meets sky; he tied them with rope; when Earth and Sky try get together like wife and husband, D. pulls the rope, both scream, the ground shudders]: Elwin 1958b, No. 11:98; riga [Earth-sedi and Sky-melo lay close together like wife and husband; buffalo (mitun) Polung was born Sabbo, his horns began to touch the clouds, he threw them high up in anger; when land later appeared, S. wanted to be near M again; but then the Doini sun and the Pollo moon appeared; S. was ashamed, ceasing rise; the part that had already risen is a big mountain]: Elwin 1955:123 in Ho 1967, No. 35:229-230; Mori [Earth-Sichi and Sky-Sichi lay close to each other; when Earth gave birth to Dige-Wiyu, he pushed back from her Sky to its current height]: Elwin 1955:123 in Ho 1967, No. 36:230; Kachin: Kasevich, Osipov 1976, No. 24 [paternal from heaven and maternal from earth merged, gave birth to a man and a woman natov; semi-liquid earth thickened from the fog, the nats made it solid; gave birth to a man and a woman; they first gave birth to all animals, then the human Chave Neinchan Phan Wa Nainshan; he separated heaven from earth, became rule the earth; married Tajamin's daughter, who had descended from heaven; there were nine suns, an eternal day; at the request of C., T. created an alternation of day and night]: 97-99; Elwin 1958a, No. 17 [first clouds and fog, of which Khupning-Knam was born, her body was like a cloud; she gave birth to a girl Ningon-Chinun and a boy, Tung-Kam-Waisun; they were like snow; they got married, gave birth to a girl Inga (earth) and a boy Mu (sky); I. was clay, M. was a cloud; their son Wind lifted his father far up, where the clouds are now, dried his mother; this is how the earth and sky appeared]: 20-21.

Burma — Indochina. Arakan people [Sun, Rain, Wind, Month - four sons of Earth; go to the holiday, promising to bring a gift to their mother; the Month takes rice with them, others forget about the gift; out of envy The rain is wet rice, the Sun began to dry it, the Wind scattered it; the Earth ordered people to curse their eldest sons both when they are and when they are not; and the Month would always be praised]: Kasevich, Osipov 1976, No. 58:185-187; karen [the supreme god created the male being Tha-lu to rule the sky, and the female Tha-lu to rule the earth; the earth was first the size of a spinner; thanks to an earthworm, it grew; first the earth was covered with water; God squeezed it with iron and silk, the water came down to form rivers; a spider in the sky could go down to earth and rise back; God created two suns, a man and a woman; they lived in a closed palace, they were not there I can see; the pangolin gnawed through the hole, losing all his teeth; both suns came out, it became unbearably hot; God allowed a man to kill one sun; he hit him with an arrow and it became the moon]: Mason 1865:175; Ede: Nikulin 1970b [Dam Shan comes to the Sunwoman to marry her; the Sun is the daughter of Earth and Sky; Sky is a male character (i.e. Earth is female); a rainbow staircase leads to the Sun's abode; the Sun refuses, because if she comes to earth, everything will burn there; she tells him to leave as soon as possible before it rises; DS stays; the Sun rises; DS goes back, but the heat of the sun makes the earth viscous like resin, DS dies]: 89-94; Nikulin 1980 [the head of the supreme deity Aedié symbolizes the heavenly dome, frowning forehead — clouds, breath — air, genitals — fertility, right eye — sun, the left is the moon, his hands are the two pillars on which the sky rests; his wife Heba (mother earth) gave birth to him a woman sun and a son who died from a scolopendra bite; since then A. has settled in a large house on upper tier of heaven]: 49; the tyamas [the main deity of the Tyams is the goddess Po Yan Ino Nogar (“the goddess is the mother of the state”); created the earth, rice, taught people agriculture; wanting to honor the King of Heaven, she sent a winged grain of rice in the sky, white as a cloud; he sowed it, all varieties of rice grew out of it]: Cabaton 1901:16-17, 109-110; Khmers [(the text is not entirely clear, but the earth is named mother)]: Por Ée-Maspero 196:607; (cf. Vieta [during the rain-inducing ceremony, Prince Millet joined the sky, and the god of earth joined the earth]: Knorozova 2000:43).

South Asia. Ancient India (Rigveda) [Father-Sky is Mother Earth's husband; rain is the seed from which all living things are born; sometimes Heaven is depicted as a fertiliser bull or stallion]: Elezarenkova 1972:177, 338; Gujarati or Marathi (Bombay District) [veneration of Mother Earth]: Enthoven 1924:81; Gujarati (Kathiavar) [Zamindar gave the land to a Kunabi farmer; he is good at her cultivated, became rich; Zamindar decided to take the land; Kunabi offered that the plot go to whoever the land would respond to; dug a hole and hide his daughter in it; the daughter responded to her father's cry and land K. went to; but when he opened the hole, there was a porcupine in it; the daughter said that our mother earth was outraged by the deception and turned it into a porcupine; therefore, the Kunabi do not hunt porcupines and let them eat everything that grows there is in the field; the cry of a porcupine is like a child's cry]: Beck et al. 1987, No. 91:274-277; Kashmiris [phrase from text No. 9: “I sowed seeds in mother land, they sprouted and brought crops”]: Stein, Grierson 1923:61; Paraya [requests and sacrifices are made to Mother Earth]: Prasad 1978:157-158; Uttar Pradesh: Crooke 1894 [Honoring Mother Earth]: 13-14; 1895, № 180 [Dhari Máta — Mother Earth; prayers are prayed to her during sowing and harvesting]: 76; barela-bhilala: Haekel 1964 [during creation, the land suffers from drought; Puti Bhagwan asks, “Why are you crying, sister?” She explains and recognizes him as mister]: 169; Stiglmayr 1970 [Earth (Dharti mata) asks her to find a husband, it's rain (Kalu rano)]: 158; Varley: Dalmia 1988 [Mahadeva and Ganga Gauri created the world; M. called the gods, no one came, then he flooded the earth with a flood for 12 years; then asked Naranadeva and Brahmadeva {then Barham is the same?} bring land from the world of Gunderideva (ghunderi is a fly that collects clay and makes it a nest on the corner of the house; they brought clay, painted on it, made cakes, they began to grow, they turned them into heaven and land; only Bhimabali was able to lift the sky off the ground; the earth was unstable; to secure it, Mahadeva ordered Naran and Barham to bring stones from the world of patheri (a species of small rat, always at her hole many stones); hills and mountains were made of stones; to create vegetation, M. sent N. and B. to the world of squirrels and ants for seeds; they brought them, but not enough; he sent them to King Lakhapati to bring more; M. and The Gauri dug a hole to get water at the foot of the date palm tree, got drunk; G.: let no one do that; M. created dense forests, G. created trees in savannas; two children were saved in the tree during the flood; M.: who are you ? — Brother and sister; the gods separated them, brought them together — the same thing; so 7 times, but then did not recognize each other and said that husband and wife; people from them; gods created animals; animals and plants multiplied, the earth became it was impossible to bear such a burden; she turned to her brother King Pandu (“white” in Sanskrit and Marathi), but he picked it up and threw it; M. and G. returned, the land complained to them, they called the gods; M. punished Panda by making him master of the lower world; a bull in this world told the cow: Our world will now be the realm of death; Jum Joshi (god of death) sent messengers to P., but P. put them in prison; himself disappeared; JJ sent him poisoned berries and he died; after that, people began to die and the earth felt better; before that, people were like snakes — they changed their skin and renewed themselves]: 25-30; Remedios 1998 [the earth is considered mother; mentions a bull pulling a plow to plow Mother Earth]: 42, 44; dhanwar [the birds had four legs and the earth was unstable; Mother Earth took a pair of legs from the birds, made them out of them underground supports]: Elwin 1949, No. 10:34; gadaba [when Mahaprabhu combines with his wife Mother Earth, earthquakes occur]: Elwin 1954, No. 3:91-92; Birkhor [major deities Birkhor — Singbonga (creator) and Devi Mai (goddess of Earth)]: Roy 1925:294; haria [Mother Earth]: Roy 1937:310; bhumia [mother of five Pandava Brothers Kotma complains to the heavenly god Bhagavan, that there are only rocks on earth; B. invites Pandava to descend into the underworld of the serpent king Burha Nang; the turtle king Kichhul descends along a crack in the ground, with him an earthen wasp, an earthworm, a white ant; a wasp sent everyone to the other side of the river; the serpent king set seven traps, next to the Kakramal crab; one of his claws in the underworld, the other reaches the sky; the crab is sleeping, Kichhul and his companions pass; Mother Earth I agree to go upstairs, hides in Kichhul's mouth; K.'s companions swallowed white clay, red clay, black soil; leaving, K. gets entangled in a trap; K. and his companions put them under the press, squeeze them out earth; a few grains are stuck between K.'s teeth; the Earthworm cut them off with a knife, found grains; the Wasp brings Mother Earth back to life; Kotma Bhimsen's son makes a whorl out of Python, wrapped it around Stone a snake, Kotma began to knock down the ground in a stone cauldron; an intoxicating drink must be poured onto the ground; it is in the hollow of a tree, it is driven into barrels by two Blue Starlings; they give Bhimsen plenty of drink, give him a jug with a drink; it is poured onto the ground, it overlaps the edge of the cauldron, spreads on the ground; Nanga-Baiga becomes her husband; she cuts off her sixth finger, nails four pieces at the four ends of the earth]: Fuchs 1970:16-22; bhaya [dog is the guardian of Mother Earth and Thakur Deo]: Elwin 1949, No. 13:214; bhuya (Orissa) [ancestors came from Mother Earth, so they are called bhuiya — earthborn] : Roy at Elwin 1939:313 (note 2); Oraons [at Chutia Nágpur celebrate Earth's marriage in spring]: Crooke 1894:16; sora: Elwin 1949, No. 25 (Lanjhia) [the woman had teeth in her vagina, and the man converged with her through the navel; the parrot pecked his vagina with his teeth spread; the woman cursed him, ordered him to have teeth in his beak, to dig for food; for she was Earth, a parrot dug it up; when they honor Mother Earth, they remember a parrot]: 386; Krylova, Renkovskaya 2017, field materials [shooting stars on litter — labo boi, “woman of the earth”; when you see a shooting star, it is a goddess Earth, who went for a walk in the sky, returns to earth]; pardhan [Heaven and Earth were supposed to be married; the gods were afraid of being crushed; Guru Bahadeo whispered in Deshiri Mata's ear, she gave birth The wind; he went to look for his father; Bhimsen called himself a father, the wind hit him in anger, B. knocked his eyes out; since then, the Wind has been blind, looking for a father everywhere]: Elwin 1949, No. 13:87-88; gondas: Elwin 1949:39 [ Nansur Dano was standing on Earth; she said he was too heavy to marry her; Brahmin was born from the shadow of Dano's head, Sonar was born from his eyes, Chamar (Nakua) from his nose, a stake from his ribs, gondas from his foot, from urine is punk; Dano turned Earth's breasts into sun and moon, clitoris into lightning; he pulled out his pubic hair, it became grass; pulled out testicles — rocks, penis — trees; so the bodies of Dano and Mother Earth gave birth to the world and everything in it], 105 [Heaven called the gods to marry earth; Bhimsen stole for him the foal that the mare Dano gave birth to; decided that if Earth and Heaven married, they would crush everyone; created the rooster who announced the beginning of Kali Yuga; the gods decided that marriage should not take place in an era of darkness; birds and insects were born from the seed of Heaven that fell to the ground, and the Rainbow Horse was allowed into heaven], 158 [Night came together with Earth, she gave birth to a Mosquito, he asked his mother what to eat, she sent people's blood to drink]; muria [Bhimul is a man, Earth is a woman; in love he rushes to her, a lightning strike- thunder is a seed; otherwise it would not rain]: Elwin 1949, No. 21:94; conds: Crooke 1892-1893, No. 218 [at first the earth was rough and unstable, unsuitable for cultivation and habitation; then Goddess of Earth ordered human blood to be shed before her; the child was sacrificed; then the soil hardened and became fertile; the goddess ordered that sacrifices continue to be made], 295 [the goddess of Earth is responsible for the fertility of the land, the well-being of people; it is called during war; it has no images or temples; it can take any form, such as a tiger]: 56, 73-74; punk [Earth and Sky are married; during the wedding ceremony, they went around the pole, slipped on the moss that had grown in the yard, fell; Nanga Baiga told them to bring a certain grass, make a broom out of it and sweep the yard; then they went around the pole again]: Elwin 1949, #14:311; agaria [to prevent Mother Earth from wobbling, the first agaria placed 12 iron pillars at the four corners of the world]: Elwin 1949, No. 1:27-28; baiga : Elwin 1939 [many baiga say that “the first ancestors were born from the uterus of Mother Earth"]: 313; 1949, No. 2 [Earth was to marry Heaven; the gods were afraid to be crushed, Mahadeo created the Bear and married him on Earth; Bear caresses Earth's breasts - anthills]: 207; Fuchs 1952 [=Fuchs 1960:405-418; Bhagwan hadn't washed for 12 years, rolled dirt from his armpits and chest, blinded a man and a woman, revived it; this Nanga Baiga and Nanga Baigin; they were ashamed of their nudity, sat in the sea up to their necks, fished, ate raw (there was no fire); the Pandwa brothers and their mother Kotma Ma lived in the middle world; KM complained to B. that there were only rocks; he ordered to bring land from the lower world; the P. brothers sent the Turtle there, it passed through a crack in the rock; took with them the Wasp, the Alumina Worm, the White Ant and another (the informant forgot); the wasp planted carried the rest to her wings across the river; the Kakramal crab guards the entrance, one claw on the ground, the other reaches the sky; he sleeps, the Turtle passes, Fertile Soil agrees to go to the middle world, tells her swallow; The turtle and its companions have swallowed all types of soil: white clay, red earth, chernozem; returning, the Turtle falls into the seventh trap, convinces Crab that he is his maternal uncle; owner of the lower world, the Ancient Serpent (Burha Nang) wakes up; he will give the Earth only if Bhimsen himself comes for it; those who came were placed under the press, the ground was squeezed out of them; they went upstairs; the clay worm knocked out the Turtle her big teeth collected a piece of earth the size of a grain from them; for this, Bh allowed him to eat up the stems in the fields, but not the grain itself; the wasp revived the Soil; the lump was placed in a huge vessel with water, the whorl snake KM (mother of the Pandavas) began to knock her down, the earth became huge; Bhimsen brought an alcoholic beverage (the leaves of the tree between the middle and lower worlds fell into the recess, fermented; probably an analogue of catfish), Soil filled the middle world, but was going to return to the lower world if Nanga Baiga did not honor her; Bhagwan breathed Nang Baige's clothes, he came out of the sea, addressed the ground, “Mother- earth, I offer you my respect, I will honor you”; The soil told him to cut off his sixth finger, which was very long, divide it into four parts, and hammer it in the form of pegs in the corners of the world]: 608-617; Telugu (Yanadi) [Yanadi, like all Hindus, honor Mother Earth; to relieve the need, you have to put a leaf or stone; coconut milk is poured into the pillar pit]: Raghaviah 1962:375.

Malaysia—Indonesia. Semangs: Endicott 1979:168 (batek) [the earth is an old woman and at the same time a snake; she is Gobar's aunt], 179 (kensiu) [(according to Schebesta 1928:251; 1957:21-23); Ta' Pedn lives in heaven; produces a thunderstorm by hitting heavenly planks with a rope or vine (=lightning); Ta' Pedn and Ya' Manoij both lived in the sky and were married; when the dung beetle created the earth, they went down there; TP then returned to heaven and YM went to the middle of the earth], 184 [Negrito's deity of earth combines the features of a woman and a naga, a dragon or snake, characteristic of the cosmology of most Indianized peoples of the South -East Asia and Indonesia; its anthropomorphic aspect is more obvious among Western Negritos; they call it by their own name Manoji or Takel; the Eastern ones simply mean Ya' (“grandmother”)], 185 [(by Schebesta 1957:13); Ya' is responsible for harvesting tubers and one of the heavenly gods for harvesting fruit trees]; bataki [Batara Guru created heaven and his daughter Si Deak Paroudjar created the earth; she stays on the moon, spins there]: Backer 1874:278; dayaki [Mahatara created the sky and his wife Djata created the land]: Grabowsky 1892:119; palawan [in a number of myths, palawan Father-Heaven lies on Mother- earth]: Macdonald 19988, ch.1 in Headley 2005b:186; Java [Javanese peasants still maintain the idea that Father Heaven (Bapa-Kasa) and Mother Earth (Ibu-Pratiwi) ensure fertility]: Mabuchi 1969:71; Bali: Covarrubias 1956 [Sabghyang Ibu Pertiwi — Mother Earth]: 316-317; Hooyakas 1974 [After creating characters associated with the four sides of the world, the goddess of Earth and her appeared shadow is the god of Heaven, the father of Heaven; they are the two Patrons of the World]: 21; Winstedt 1951 [in Bali in a mixture of Sanskrit and Balinese “Father-Heaven and Mother Earth]: 143; Eastern Torajas [Ndara — earth-woman, Lai — sky male; N. lived in heaven with other gods, committed incest with her nephew (neef; cousin?) ; the gods gathered for advice, the lord of heaven PUE-MPalaboeroe (Poee-mpalaboeroe, perhaps the same as L.) decided to lower N. on copper wire into the world's oceans; on the water she collected foam, it thickened formed the earth, N. is now underground]: Adriani, Kruyt 1951, No. 2:3-4; Western Toraja (bada) [at the beginning of the world, the Earth brags that Heaven will not be able to cover it; opens; Heaven also opens up, it turns out to be smaller than Earth; he has to compress it, so valleys and mountains appear; the marriage of Heaven and Earth gave birth to the Sun and the Moon, and their marriage gave birth to stars]: Kruyt 1938, No. 1:1 (=Fischer 1932:11); Toraja [The Sun is Earth's husband but has met the Moon; during eclipses she comes to make love to him]: Riedel 1886:95 in Lasch 1900:134; boogie, minahasa [marriage of Heaven (Sun) and Lands]: Fischer 1932:231; eastern Indonesia [in its original state, the sky lay in coitus on earth until the earth gave birth to elements of wildlife, often the first human couple; later People or trees that get cramped raise the sky]: Members 1982:92-93; Tetum: Hicks 1984 [the god of heaven shed his rain-seed on mother earth; she gave birth to people coming out of two holes- vaginas]: 6; Vroklage 1952 [Heaven is male, Earth is woman, rain is seed; children of Heaven and Earth — mountains, plains, forests, springs]: 134; Athoni (SW Timor) [supreme deity — Lord of Heaven, Lord of Earth (Uis Neno, Uis Pah); earth is mother, sky is father]: McWilliam 1991:50; Timor (according to various sources) [Usi-Neno — Lord Sun, Usi-Afu — Lady Earth]: Frazer 1926:655; ngada ( central Flores) [Déva (Sky) and Nitu (Earth) - spouses]: Arndt in Stöhr, Zoetmulder 1965:131-132 (=Erb 1988:110); mangaray: Arndt 1931:832 [Deva sculpted the first people out of clay as clay vessel; Deva is considered father and mother mother], 840 [heaven is noble man, earth is woman]; Erb 1988 [the supreme deity is called Mori Keraeng (“noble”), but also “Father Above, Mother Below” or “Earth Below, Sky Above”]: 110; Solor, Alor, and the nearest islands [in this area, the Sun-Month is male, father, and Earth is female, mother]: Vatter in Mabuchi 1969:70; Seram (nusavele, hatuolu, huaulu) [Alahatala man-sky met Pohun, a woman earth; she gave birth to the first human couple Tomoa and Binawalu; they pushed the sky away; the earth also gave birth to the Male Sun and the Moon- a woman who gave birth to a boy Evening Star and a girl, the Morning Star; Mount Hatuolo is the bosom of the Earth]: Röder 1948 in Stöhr, Zoetmulder 1965:139; Western Seram [god of heaven (some believe that he is in the sun) — man, Earth is his wife, they gave birth to all living things]: Stresemann 1923:331 in Maaβ 1933:329-300; patasiva (Seram) [Rapie woman came out of need, failed with her foot into the hole, they couldn't pull her out, she disappeared into the ground, became her incarnation; she was dragged there by the Sun, he connects with her during his night under the ground]: Tauern 1928:136 in Maaβ 1933:300; let, babar [Sun Mr. Upulere marries the goddess of the land Upunusa every year]: 1982d members: 549; Vetar, Tanimbar, Aru, Kai [from Vetara do Tanimbar Sun is husband, Earth is wife; on Kai and Aru Islands, Sun is husband, Earth or Moon is wife]: Schmidt, S.244-245 in Mabuchi 1969:71; Kai Islands [Sun is male, Earth is woman, The sun fertilizes her with rain]: Nutz 1929:83, 128-129.

China — Korea. Ancient China: Kravtsova 2004 ["Hou-tu definitely acquired a feminine hypostasis already in the Zhou era, when she became the embodiment of the feminine world and paired up with Heavenly Lord (Tian- di) "]: 116; Yanshina 1984 [The Book of Legends: Heaven and Earth are the father and mother of all beings; the feminine character of the deity of the earth Howth is evidenced by later monuments (2nd century BC — 2nd century AD); the earliest monuments know the male heroized deity of the earth]: 77; Eberhardt 1968 [the image of marriage between a male sky and a female land in early Chinese philosophy]: 443; Chinese (Sichuan) [in the legend “Like Fuxi and Nuiva created people” the idea of marriage is presented by Dima Nyannan (Mother Earth), a personification of the earth, a deity of late folk mythology, which is very rarely mentioned]: Riftin 1987b: 389; ( cf. Chinese (Sichuan, Wu. Yibin) [heaven and earth were one, and there was no day or night; after a long time, King Pangu appeared, who decided that he could not continue like this, talked to his wife and decided to share the chaos; they the two of them grabbed him and tore him into two pieces; half of Pangu flew upstairs to become heaven, and half of his wife flew down and became earth; then husband and wife turned into sun and moon, and so on day and night appeared]: Zhou Yang et al. 1998b:23); asi [older brother tells his younger sister how the sky was created: God A-tien was in emptiness; created heaven, planted a tree with blue ones in emptiness leaves; it has grown gigantic, has reached the size of the sky; therefore, the sky above us is blue; the younger sister tells her older brother how the earth came about: God A-chih was in the void; he planted it in the void a tree with yellow leaves; it grew wide, it was as wide as it was, sat on it, pressed it down, so the earth arose]: Hudspeth 1959:399-400; fox [sky is male, earth is woman, they beautiful couple]: Miller 1994:77; lahu: Coyaud 2009, No. 1 [at first only G'ui-sha in the center of the world is like a spider in a web; he scraped off the dirt from his hands and feet, made it four fish: gold, silver, copper and iron; put them on a pole; laid 4 beams of heaven and 4 earth; made poutrelles out of the same scraped mud, creating heaven and earth, but the earth staggered; from the same G. rolled 70,000 balls of mud, filling the cells (mailles) of the earth; from the bones of his hands he made the bones of the sky, and from the bones of his legs he made the bones of the earth; to find out how thick the earth was and the thickness of the sky, he created from mud two ants; one climbed through the sky, the other through the earth; when they returned, they said that the thickness was the same; G. had two assistants: Ca Law, the man he told him to make the sky, and Na Law, a woman whom ordered the earth to be made; NL worked day and night, and KL drank tea, so heaven and earth were not the same in size: the sky was like a large canopy, and the earth was narrow, wrinkled; because the earth was compressed, valleys and mountains appeared; to prevent the earth from swell, G. put a rock on it, but it slipped; the bulbul bird (Hypsipetes mcclellandii) told it not to slide; G. placed fire in the Sun, fireflies to the moon; but they do not go to heaven, they are afraid of people; then G. gave them needles {obviously rays that pierce their eyes}; tiger to the Sun: you are too bright; he bit him, hence the eclipses; frog to the Moon: you too cold; she tried to swallow it, so there were spots on the moon; by letting a tiger and a frog into the sky, G. made the sun go east and the moon west, otherwise they were constantly in the sky; from the scraped from the hands and feet of mud, G. created stars, as well as a chicken and a rooster; the rooster sang three times and the east lit up; this is how the light separated from the darkness; G. moon: it will be 12 months in the year]: 9-12; Walker 1986 [in the story of Father G'ui sha creates heaven, and Mother Ai ma creates earth; peasants turn to her, asking her to give fertility to the fields]: 379; achan [the sky was larger than the earth; The sky zhepama went south to repair the sky; Earth-zhemima remained weaving; at this time, the demon Lahong placed two extra suns on the top of the mountain in the middle of the earth; the real sun and moon did not move either, everyone shining; the earth was burning; the pig, the dog, the bull and the horse began to swim, went into the water, and the fish and crabs went to land; when he returned, Zhepama wanted to destroy L. by poisoning waters or mountains, but Zhemima said that then People and animals will also die; it is better to make friends with L. and then kill him; Zhepama does so; wins competitions: L. dries up the peach tree, and Zhepama rains on it, it blooms again; sees a better dream than L.; he loses his strength in despair; (apparently Zhepama destroys excess suns; other versions recorded by the same informant only speak of one sun)]: Richtsfeld 2000:305- 309; Koreans: Ionova 1969 [sacrificed to Heaven the Father and Mother Earth]: 168; Nikitina 2001 [tonë children's song: Heaven is Father, Earth is Mother, Sun is Older Sister, Month — older brother and I'm a star]: 108.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece (Orphics) [The night in the guise of a black bird laid an egg; Eros came from it; the top of the egg became Father Heaven Uranus, the bottom became Mother Earth Gaia, they gave birth to gods]: Makemson 1941:52; Hes. Theog. 20 [Gay Mother]; [Gay gives birth to Uranus, Nymphs, and Pontus {Sea}; then, sharing a bed with Uranus, gives birth to Titans, Cyclops, Cotta, Briaray, and Gies]: Hes. Theog. 127-159; [After absorbing drops of blood shed from Uranus's severed penis, Gaia gives birth to Erinius, Giants, and Melius]: Hes. Theog. 183-187; [Gaia gives birth to Ponta Favmanta, Forkia, Keto, and Euribia]: Hes. Theog. 237-239; [Gaia gives birth to a hundred-headed Typhon from Tartar]: Hes. Theog. 821-825; [“There was a God-equal Pelasg among mountains densely forested, /He was born by the Black Earth for a tribe of people to arrive” (trans. ABOUT. Tsybenko)]: Asius Sam. Fr. 8 (West) = 3 (Gasparov) = Paus. VIII. 1.2; [Gaia is the mother of the inhabitants of Olympus]: Sol. Fr. 30 (Gent. -Pr.) = 17 (Gasparov). 4-5; [Gaia is the all-mother and wife of Heaven]: Hymn. Hom. XXX; [“Gaia decided to come to the Ladon River to connect with him. And when they got together, Gaia would get pregnant and give birth to Daphne, and the Pythian god fell in love with her and spoke love speeches to the girl. However, Daphne was prudent. So he had to go after her, and he ran after her. Before she says no to God, she on the run asks her mother to accept her and keep her as she was. Gay did this when she accepted Daphne, and a tree immediately grew in her place” (trans. V.N. Yarkho)]: Palaept. XLIX; [Uranus married Gaia]: Apollod. Bibl. I. 1:1; Serbs [in riddles Earth is called wife, mother, Heaven as father, husband]: Jankovi1951:15; Bulgarians: Georgieva 1983 [when Earth married Heaven, drought gave way to rain, Earth brought a harvest; a Month was born from marriage; then Heaven moved away from Earth]: 18; Stoynev 2006 [The month was born from the marriage of Heaven and Earth]: 193; Macedonians [Earth is a female living being]: Tsenev 2004: 20; Albanians [Bukura e dheut, “Beauty of the Earth” is a female chthonic deity, guarded in the lower world by a three-headed dog; she has drugs against death; during the day she hangs on top of a tree, divided into 4 parts; in black skin, harmful, if she takes it off, good; skulls around her house; she is the mother of the earth, the equivalent of Persephone/Demeter; with her, the Beauty of the Sea (mistress of the seas) and the Beauty of the Sky is a thunder god, in In Christian terminology, God; in fairy tales, the Beauty of the Earth is simply beautiful]: Lambertz 1952:209-210; Romanians: Rusu 2009:88 [Earth is a female living being, Mother of men and God is their father], 94 [ heaven is considered Father]; Slovenes, Croats, Bosnians [female symbols of the land that are universal for all Slavic traditions]: Belova et al. 1995:316.

Central Europe. Russians [ubiquitous designation of the earth as Mother Cheese-Earth]: Corinthian 1901:1-17; Russians (Arkhangelskaya) [Mother is cheese earth; land is mother, our nurse]: Efimenko 1984:171; Russian written tradition [the Russian version of the Serbian Alexandria (a list made at the end of the 15th century by Kirillo-Belozersk monk Efrosin): “Why did Abel die of sorrow — this from the land and the packs of his land were returned to his mother”; “This food is not for us, but for you. But I have this food from this tree, but I have drink from this source, amphibious is my body - it feeds from mother earth, but our clothes are leaves, and our mind is in the dark, we do not care about anything earthly for nothing, but our life is fearlessly, but we will last for many years”; “Oh, the sun and all the creature are crying less today: I am born, and I go underground in wax! Oh earth, my mother, the red man is fat and brave, in vain!”] : Botvinnik et al. 1966:43, 45, 69, 108, 110, 135; Ukrainians (Volyn, Podolia) [the land is considered a mother, it cannot be beaten]: Chubinsky 1872:36-38; Belarusians, Czechs, Poles, Kashubians, Slovaks, Luzhitans [female symbols of the land, universal for all Slavic traditions]: Belova et al. 1995:316.

Caucasus — Asia Minor. Karachays, Balkarians: Aliyeva 1994, No. 2 [“When the trough was made of stone, the sieve was made of wood, /Tairi Neba married Tairi of the Earth, /The sky rattled and the earth conceived. /Nine years and nine years It was hard for days, /Then the earth opened and Debet was born”; the Mother of Water fed him, the Tairi of Fire and the Tairi of the Earth taught him the language of fire and stones; Teyri Waters sent him food and water; his body was from fire and steel; he was the first to extract iron]: 302-303; Dzhurtubayev 1991 [earth — Ger Anasa Dauche (Mother of Dauche Land)]: 104; Lipsky 1973 [Fire came together with Earth, which gave birth to blacksmith Debét]: 83; Ossetians [testing the groom's mind and wit, the girl asks him who his father and mother are; his father is heaven and air, his mother is water and earth; the girl is happy with the answer]: Britaev, Kaloev 1959:386-388; Terek Cossacks (art. Naurskaya) [it's a sin: “You spit, after all, you are on the ground, and cheese is our mother, to whom we must treat the most respectful; mother cheese is our nurse”; you should not hit the ground with a stick : it's like beating your mother]: Vostrikov 1907:36; Nogais: Kapaev 2012:30 [Yer-Yesi and Su-Yeshi — Lord of Land and Water Lord], 41 [su-ana is water mother, yer-ana is land mother, ot-ana — fire mother]; Dargins (zap. Khalilova) [The seven-day spring wind is called “Husband of the Earth” (cf. “Wind man” among the Laks); he gives the earth fruitful strength]: Khalidova 2012:256; Lezgins: Khalidova 2012:209 [Mother Earth was considered the main deity], 223 [Mother Earth (Dide-Chchil) was revered as a deity capable of bearing fruit]; Georgians [heaven is the personification of male powers, and the land of women]: Surguladze 2004:202; Armenians [in the final, the epic of Mger, the aged and sinful Earth is not in able to withstand all tests, and Mher enters the rock]: Harutyunyan 2004:199; Talyshi [a woman in Talysh folklore represents the Earth]: Igbal Abilov, personal report, 17.03.2013; Hittites [ The Heavenly Driver on his star chariot (Ursa Major) came and merged with Earth; the Earth gave birth to twins]: Ivanov 1977:123-124, 284 (note).

Iran — Central Asia. Yazgulyamtsy [sky — “grandfather” (“father”), earth — nan (“mother”); autumn and winter are men's seasons (it's raining fruitfully), spring and summer are women's seasons (everything bears fruit)]: Andreev 1927c: 20; Tolstov 1931 [as in Andreev; groundwater is for women, rain and glacier water are male]: 341 (=Litvinsky 1975:253); Zoroastrianism: Chunakova 2004:17 [as a generating element, the earth belongs to feminine (Bundahishn, 22)], 209 [Spandarmad is a female deity who represents cultivated land]; Pashtuns [when it rains, the earth becomes pregnant]: Andreev 1927c: 20.

Baltoscandia. Edda [Gulvi's Vision”; from two trees growing on the seashore, Bohr's sons made people: a man, an Ash Tree, a woman, Willow; they were settled in Midgard; the aces built a hail for themselves in the center of the world — Asgard; Asa are the children of Odin and his wife Frigg (“beloved”); Earth was Odin's daughter and wife, and his eldest son Thor (“thunder”) was born; Nervi or Narvi was the name of a giant living in Jotunheim; he has a black and a gloomy daughter named Night; her husband Naglfari, they have a son Aud; then her husband was Anar, their daughter Earth; Delling's last husband from the Ace family, their son Day, is beautiful and bright in father; All Father (i.e. One) gave Nights and the Day of Two Horses and Two Chariots, sent to the sky once a day to go around the earth; Ahead Night is ruled by the Frost Mane, every morning the foam that flows down from his bit irrigates the ground; the horse of the Day is Clear Mane, his the mane illuminates the earth and the air]: Younger Edda 1970 (=2005): 19; Estonians, Finns [land (Maa-ema, Maan-emo) — wife of the god Thunder]: Castrén 1853:89 (retelling in Eichenwald 1982:167; Petrukhin, Khelimsky 1982:564); Karelians: Makarov 1959 [proverb: “Mua muamosh, taiwash tuattosh, vesi on vnkhin vellekshistä” (“Earth is mother, sky is father, water is the eldest of brothers”]: 171; Petrukhin 2003 [until recently, Karelians revered Mannutar; she was plotted before sowing, calling her “Mannutar, the Mistress of the Land”]: 81; Livs: Loorits 1926 [mother earth: 1) cares about carrots; 2) it is seen by a poor owner; mother sand 1) prevents children from destroying their sandcastles; 2) when she is bathed, the water in the sea foams; details in Loorits 2000 (4): 85-86]: 38; 2000 (4) [among all mother earth spirits (mõ-jema, mõ-äma) is the most revered; mother sand is also jõuvgõ-äma; you can't poke at it with a knife]: 82-83; counselors [maanemä and maanisä are mother and the father of the earth; also maaukko and maaakka (grandfather and grandmother of the earth), maa isäntä and maa emäntä (owner and mistress of the land) were assessed as a bad force; if a person suddenly falls on the road, his the mother of the earth is paralyzed; the earth's mother lives in the cemetery, or the earth's spirits live in piles of stone; or in the woods, inviting children]: Ariste 1958:32 in Konkova 2009:22; Westerners (and Eastern ones?) Sami: Castrén 1853 [Madderattje and Madderakka — Father of Earth and Mother of Earth]: 88-89; Eichenwald et al. 1982 [Madder-akka, Madder-atje, the goddess of the land, sometimes acts as a wife heavenly god Madder-Ačče]: 169; Lithuanians [in riddles heaven is father or husband, and earth is mother or wife]: Laurikene 2019:296; Lithuanians: Löbite 1965 [Month {at translated as “Moon”) and the Sun decided to divorce, because the Sun is too hot, the Month is cold; they argue who will get their daughter Earth; Perkunas decided to have the Sun look at her during the day, the Month at night; when the Months no, his sisters Stars are shining}]: 290-291; Laurikene 2002 [two versions of Lithuanian tales about the couple Month and the Sun and their daughter Earth are known]: 370; Vaiškūnas 2006 [The month and the Sun were not shared their daughter Earth (Zemė); Perkunas breeds those who quarrel, deciding that the Sun should look at the Earth during the day and the Month at night; if both go out, Perkunas drives one away; Var. in western Lithuania: The Sun has overtaken Months, having received the right to see Earth during the day]: 180; Latvians: Aris 1971 [driving around the royal horse, the servant enters the forest to an old man; he orders not to open the bast gate; outside the gate a lake, three ducks come to swim, throw off their clothes, turn into girls; a young man hides his clothes alone; returns him, they turn him into a dove; when he returns, the old man restores his human appearance; then the second time; the old man advises not to give up the dress, the young man takes the beautiful woman as his wife, returns to the king; the sorcerer advises the king to lime the servant with difficult assignments; 1) bring the lion; the wife gives a handkerchief the girl in the hut recognizes her sister by him, tells him to put a handkerchief over the lion's nose; 2) bring an apple tree; his wife's other sister rolls an apple tree into a handkerchief; 3) go there, I don't know where, bring something, I don't know what; wife promises the king to marry him if her husband does not return in a year; the third sister tells him to kiss the knees of the dead Mother Earth; she comes to life, calls birds and animals, only the lame Frog knows the way; invisible I don't know What tells you to feed the snake, ask it for a box; an army leaves it, kills the king, the servant reigns]: 101-114; Abyzov 1984, No. 514 [Daina: “You, Good Mother Earth, /Give me the grave key,/ I'll lock the grave in front of my mother/I'll lock the sky with this key”]: 256 (Russian translation), 257 (Latvian original); Ryzhakova 2002 [in riddles, the sky is associated with “father”, “height” and “field”: “Tall father, broad mother, crazy son, blind daughter” (answers — heaven, earth, wind, night)]: 61-62.

Volga — Perm. Komi [Parma's son Pera asks the Rainbow why she drinks water from his river; she promises to take it to heaven for this; he sits on its horns, visits the upper world, takes it Zaran's wife, the daughter of the Sun, descends with her to earth; the Sun tells her daughter to return, threatens to burn everything; Parma did not let her children go with her; Pera and his seven sons shot in the Sun from bows, they beat off a piece; dew — the tears of Z., crying from separation from children]: Konakov 1999, No. 7:433; Udmurts: Vladykin 1993 [Vumums are the mother of water, Vozhomums are the mother of summer and winter solstices, Muzemums are the mother of the earth, the Inmums are the mother of heaven, the Shundymums are the mother of the Sun, the Tolezmums are the mother of the Moon, the Gudyrimums are the mother of Thunder]: 233; Gataullina 2008 [Music- mumas (Mother Earth) live inside hills, so you can't dig them up]: 51; Marie: Vasiliev 1907 [among Cheremissky goddesses Mother of the High Sky, Mother of the Bright Sun, Mother of Clouds, Mother of the Moon, Mother Stars, Mother of Warmth, Mother of Water, Mother of the Sea, Mother of Fire, Mother of Earth, Mother of Profit, Mother of Cattle]: 10-11; Toydybekova 1997 [Mother Earth — Mlanda ava]: 103; Mordovians: Harva 1952 [land — mastor-ava, woman , mother]: 187; Paasonen 1938 [appeals to Mother Earth due to various circumstances]: 1-8; Chuvash [“that Chuvashin represents the earth as a mother,... appears from the saying We are fed by the earth with her breasts “]: Ashmarin 2003:286; Bashkirs: Barag 1990, No. 48 [beautiful Malika will marry someone who answers her 12 riddles; she answers; the first person was born by our mother Earth and Gadem ( Adam); the raven is G.'s son, but because of laziness he has ceased to be human; because a person overloads the cart, the owl shouts “Wow, you can't pull it!” ; a lying woman became a bat; a gossip girl turned into a spider; the swallow's tail was split, because during Noah, during the flood, the dragon grabbed and pulled out some of the feathers; the flood happened like this: they flooded the stove, from water poured in; there are more dry trees if we count those with at least one dry branch as dry; there are more women if we count men who listen to women; M. and Eget married]: 119-120; Khadyeva 2005 [earth is considered mother]: 61; Khisamitdinova 2011 [the mistress of the land Tulaua is the wife of the deity of heaven Kyk Tənre; but sometimes the earth is called a red-beard; there is a male character Er Atasa (Father of Earth)]: 161.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Khalkha (and others?) Mongols: Banzarov 2011 [heaven is masculine, earth is feminine]: 105; Nassen-Bayer, Stuart 1992 [heaven is father, earth is mother of humans and animals]: 328; Inner Mongolia Mongols [god of Heaven and the goddess of Earth lived in harmony, went to bed together for the night; one day the god of Heaven decided to go down and see the earth; became a hare, and the prince tried to catch up with him and shoot him; saw the prince enter the grotto, Where is the poor hermit, the golden goat is with him; the hermit asks to change the goat to the princely horse; the prince ordered the hermit to be killed and the goat taken; the god of Heaven turned the goat into a lion, who chased the prince; decided to destroy people by the flood; a young man fed an old woman, carried her across the river; she became the goddess of Earth, told him to go up the mountain, but not to tell anyone about the coming flood; however, he told another arat and many of them were saved; and he himself became a stone]: Coyaud 2012, No. 54:115-118; Buryats, Mongols: Viktorova 1974 [Etugen is the female deity of the earth; Tengri is male the deity of heaven]: 262; Zhukovskaya 1980 [mother earth is feminine, sky is masculine]: 98-99; Balagan Buryats [High Sky (Under Tengari) married the daughter of the Wide Earth for her son ( ulgen dalhey); Earth demanded the Sun and Moon in dowry for her daughter, locked them in a box; heaven and earth became dark; Sky can not think of a way to get the Sun and Moon back; sent for the wise Hedgehog Zarya Azarga, ordered her 9 sons and 9 daughters not to laugh when he came in; ZA had no legs, rolled on the ground; sons and daughters, when they saw him, could not help laughing; FOR got angry, drove back; Heaven sent Hare, Deer, Ermine, Squirrel, Ferret to eavesdrop on what ZA would say; “Let the sons and daughters of the High Sky descend to earth and become huts and ongons; In order to return the Sun and Moon, we must ask the Broad Earth for the Echo of the Forest and the Flickering of the Water; she is unable to catch them, she will be forced to give back the Sun and Moon”; the Hare overheard these words; As a result, Heaven received the stars back; 9 sons of the High Sky descended to earth, became western huts, and 9 daughters became ongons]: Khangalov 1960:11-12; Neklyudov 1981 [in Mongolian Oirat in the heroic epic (Vladimirtsov 1923:218), the hero is the son of mother earth and father heaven]: 198; 1982 [poorly personalized heaven and earth are carriers of masculine and feminine principles; to the Khitan pantheon of the 4th and 12th centuries. heaven and earth entered (in the guise of an old woman)]: 170-171; the Mongols [the tract near Erdeni-dzu Monastery was considered an earthly manifestation due to its characteristic relief (the intersection of three ravines) deities seducing celibate monks]: Neklyudov, Tumurtseren 1982:67; Sharakshinova 1980 [heaven — father, tengriy, earth — mother earth Ulgen; dates back to ancient Mongolian Etugen Utugen , ötugen it ügen — mother earth; Buryats have Earth and Sky a divine couple]: 31-32; Nassen-Bayer, Stuart 1992 (band not specified) [heaven is father, earth is the mother of people and animals]: 328; Buryats [Ehe Burhan wandered in the darkness; made a wild duck, which dived into the water, brought dirt in its beak; EB blinded Mother Ulgen's land, created plants and animals on it; from The Sun gave birth to a daughter, the good Manzan Gourmet, from her then Western deities were born; from the Month she gave birth to the evil Mayas Hara (or Hara Manzan), from her came Eastern deities; on the side the sunset of EB created a feminine, masculine on the sunrise side; they met, united, the first Pahang man was born, the first woman Tuya was born]: Sharakshinova 1959:40-47 in Zhukovskaya 1980 : 95-96; Altaians: Dugarov 1991 [in the Altai heroic epic, the “big-eared old woman” is Yer-Eme, “mother earth”]: 157; Ukachina 1984 [the land in riddles is always depicted as a nurse mother]: 33; Tuvans [Saljak Tuvans identify land with the body of a goddess]: Galdanova 1987:26; Tuvans [before his death, Møge's father Bayan-Dalaya (DB) sent him for Lama Koldu-Burgan; he came and became read sacred books, but the camp was surrounded by enemies — brothers Ak-Khan and Kadyn-Kara; the DB horse tells him to aim higher, because the brothers will jump, but the DB did not listen, the arrow flew by; he himself did not to jump, was killed; his pregnant wife Sai-Kuu fled to the steppe, gave birth to a son Kara-Kogel; three days later he is already walking and talking; asks his mother about animals, from small to large, easily kills them with stones; mother taught me how to bow and shoot; KK brought 6 bears at once; mother does not tell me to go to the sacred mountain; he went, the mountain is moving, this is a giant maral that eats the forest like grass; KK hit a vulnerable place on the forehead, where animal hair; ripped the belly of the maral, and many people came out alive from there (this episode on p. 102); KK made a home out of the skin of this maral; his mother sent the KK to meet his grandfather Aldyn-Aas; he goes to marry Manchin-Ege Khan's daughter; people without an ear; without an arm; without a leg; they say that they were attacked by two eagles; two birds of Khan Hereti; two lions; this was when they went to Manchin-ege-khan; AA gives the DB a name that the mother only vaguely said: Kara-Kogel, riding an Arzilan-Kyskyl horse; this horse has no cracks between its ribs; AA stays with KK's mother and sends him to Mynchin -Ege Khan; DB's father once married him, gave him steel bars and scissors; to cross the sea, KK fired an arrow, she scattered the passage between the waters; at the khan of the competition, the winner will be his daughter; The son of the moon, the son of the sky, the son of the sun participate; the KK arrow went through the needle eye, through the hole of the shoulder blade, set fire to a pile of firewood, etc., but he threw a lasso over it and returned it; compete in the run from the place where the sky is converges with the ground; the strongmen sent fairies instead of themselves; they served the KK to drink — he, poisoned, fell dead; the horse ran away, pushed the jug away, the winds revived the KK, he overtook the old women, dragged along those who wanted to hold him with hooks; jumps, those old women were on horseback, the horse told him not to look back; AA turned around, saw his mother's chest, fell to her, fell poisoned; the horse woke him up, he overtook the old women; fight against strongman for 90 days; in winter only hoarfrost creaked under his feet, in summer the dew rustled; AA overcame him and buried him in a hole; fighting a strongman from which sparks fell; AA beat him with an icy fur coat, threw him into the sea; to defeat the bull, AA threw the bull by the stone scree; fighting three bears; in winter, hoarfrost creaked under their feet, in the summer the dew rustled; all three KK threw against the stones; these strongmen are from the lower world, they licked arrow, vowing not to attack again; horse: they will demand me for the bride, do not give me iron fetters; but Malchin-ege Khan took the horse along with his fetters; they gave the KK a drink at the feast, he was attacked by heroes; KK shouted: Earth is my mother, Heaven is my father, where are you? Stones fell from the sky, destroyed half of the Khan's squad; his wife brought the KK to her, and in the morning he called out again to Earth and Heaven, asking them to be benevolent; the sun shone, half of those killed came to life; broken The KK melted the bronze bowl and poured it again; the KK horse almost died of thirst and hunger, but the khan's little son let him go and gave him water; the horse was offended by the KK for giving it along with the fetters, but then forgave him him; after visiting his looted camp, KK saw the remains of a long-dead man; this is his father; KK smeared his bones with drugs, the body revived; hit the whip with a golden handle and jumped over — man got up, but could not speak; from the book, Sudur KK learned that the magic mouse had carried the vocal cords across 7 layers of earth, 9 layers of dust; KK became an ermine, caught up, killed the mouse, returned the ligaments, put it in his father's mouth; The DB came to life, but the KK told him to look after the house, and went to take revenge; learned from the shepherds that life was hard under the new owners; invited Ak-Khan and Kadyn-Kara to shoot at each other the way they shot with his father; their arrow bounced off the KK's chest and crumbled, his arrow pierced both at once; the KK returned the people to their original place of nomadic]: Grebnev 1960:87-141.

Western Siberia. Nenets: Golovnev 2004 (Gydan, Western 1979) [Vadisey Salako (Left-Handed Fool) has been lying in a yurt all his life; finally he gets up, raises his hands, asks his father what it is. “These are your hands.” So does the head, face, ears, genital penis. “This is your reproductive penis, you have a wife.” The Sun comes out, easily defeats the strongest heroes; he is Num, his father is Hehe Nisya ('Father of the Gods'), his wife is Ya-Myunya (goddess of the Earth), his son is Yavmal (a wanderer god who “watches the world”, lord of the southern/warm/ Upper Sea, close to the Ugric Mir-Susne-Khum)]: 115-119; Pushkareva, Khomich 2001, No. 1 (Nadym District, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug) [old man Tirniy-Vesako (Universal Old Man) quarrels with an old woman, which of them older, diverge in different directions; an old man cuts down a spruce to make a boat, it turns out to be the meta of the top of the head of the Yandey-Wesako plague (Old Man of the Lower World), they fight, Y. wins, T. buys his life promising to give her son, to do this, leave her knife, for which the son will come; at this time the old woman comes to the lake with rejuvenating water, drinks, becomes young, brings it to the old man (both have now returned home), he drinks, he is also getting younger; says that he forgot his knife, sends his son; his son was gone before, now he has appeared as a young man from under his mother's yagushka; I take the young man who has come to the lower world; promises life, if he brings him the Daughter of the Wind King; he goes, wants to kill the Fox, she becomes his assistant, drives the Six-Legged Huge Moose to the cedar she told the young man to climb, he jumps Moose on his back, he carries the young man and the Fox; the Thunder boy suggests that their dogs (Bear and Fox) and horses (horse and six-legged elk) fight; Fox kills the Bear, the Elk chases the Thunder Boy's horse; the Fox tells exchange her from the Thunder Boy for Syromyatnaya-Cow-Skin, who carries the hero to the Tsar-Wind; the partridge lures the servant of the daughter of the Wind, who calls the girl, the skin takes her to the Fox's land; the fox turns out to be God Numgypa, the eldest son of an old man and an old woman, the hero's brother, the hero's name Yav-Mal is the main presonage of fairy tale myths; he abandons the woman he has received to Old Man Lower Mir, who promises to eat him anyway, but lets him go; he comes to the plague of his parents, hears the Old Man saying that he has gone beyond seven heavens, and the old woman goes down the seven permafrost, that the youngest son has separated them; when he wakes up, he is in the house, his wife is the Daughter of the Wind-King, he is Yav-Mal]: 89-109; Nenets: Golovnev 1995:312 [the Summer Middle Day ceremony is dedicated on behalf of men to the spirits of Heaven, and on behalf of women to the goddess of the Earth], 388-389 [Mango-myang (mango is enets, Myang is a maternal uncle) brings 9 mammoths, polar bears, deer; marries a Sihirt girl; becomes Noom, his wife Ya-Myunya (“Land of the Bosom”); makes her older brother Nga Erv (Lord of Nga, Underworld), middle — Eid Erv (master of Water), younger — Ilibembertya — owner of deer]; 2004 [I-Minya — 'Carrying Earth', goddess of Earth, motherhood and birth]: 330; Khelim 1982 [the old patron saint I am Neba, “mother of the earth” (also known as Myad Pukhutsya, “old woman at home”) is often identified with the old woman, the mistress of the land Ya-Myun ; corresponds to the Ents d'Menu'o, “old woman of the earth”]: 399; Forest Nenets: Turutina 2004 [the domestic goddess, mistress of the plague, is also called Mother of the Earth; was considered the patroness of women, especially pregnant women]: 96; Tuchkova, Shkurkina 2004 [god — Num, Tyangade — Earth, his wife; Tyaptu-kahe is their son]: 246; Northern Khanty (d. Yuilsk) [Lukina 1990:15 identifies Kaltashch with his wife Torum and with the goddess of the earth {it is not clear who has more Mansi}; the Kazim Khanty distinguish them; Torum Mother is important in current beliefs, Mother Earth appears in sacred songs and is given different offerings than Kaltašch]: Moldanov 1999:67; Mansi: Munkácsi 1909 [Our Mother of the Lower World, or Our Black Earth, Our Barked Mother ( Krustige) Mother Earth; she is also Dirty, covered with mud, garbage, “sacred land with a dirty back”; it has seven layers, crusts; Numi Torum's sky is the elder brother of Joli-Torum]: 61-62; Chernetsov 1935 [ Kashar-Torum (Kashar is a chipmunk, torum is weather, sky, world, supreme being) is recognized as the owner of the highest of the three heavens; he is the father of Cors-Torum and the grandfather of Numi-Torum ; CT is the owner of the upper middle world, NT is the closest to people from the upper worlds, that is, the visible sky; it is home to NT younger brothers: Hotal Ekva (sun) and Etpos-Oika (month); NT sisters - Kapošar Ekva (earth) and Nai-Ekwa (fire); the three lower worlds are located in the same tiers underground; their owner is Hul-Otyr, he is the younger brother of NT]: 21; nganasans: Gracheva 1976 [Moo-nyam (Mother Earth) has been raising humans, deer, and other creatures (or just humans) since conception; the term ngo (sky) alone does not define grammatical gender, however, there is some tendency among the Nganasans themselves to consider ngos to be masculine]: 47; Long 1968 [Moo-nyam gave life, gave birth to all living things on earth; when the snow melts in spring and the earth protrudes From under the snow, this is Grandma M., giving birth to Kouyama (Sun), who gives summer; then she washes and combs the Kounyams; the fallen needles are K. ; moss eaten by deer is M.'s fat, when geese eat grass, they eat wool on M.'s body; when it snows in autumn, M. changes clothes; she wears white in winter, now she has it variegated, and in summer it was black; when the snow went heavier and the blizzard rose, the same informant remarked: “Now M. is shaking off his old clothes to wear new ones”; the hills in the tundra are warts on M.'s body; they did not have their own” owners” or souls, but were only part of M.; Nganasan did not have owners of the areas; M. looked like the ground; she is an old woman dressed in moss, the forest is her hair]: 215-217; Simchenko 1996 (1) [Mother Earth — a supernatural animal on whose body all living things exist]: 76; Enz: Long 1961 [old woman Dia-Menuo (mother of all living things; aka Dya-Soi — Earth's parent) finds on in the swamps of the baby, the son of Nga-nyo (Sky's son) and Dya-kata (Earth's daughter); raises him; Dia (gossip, liar; Yombu among the Nenets) walks across the sky on skis (his trail is the Milky Way), tells the boy who his parents are; he meets his older sister, who tries to tear him apart with her claws, he throws her into the fire, her sparks turn into mosquitoes; Dia learns from Irio-Casa (A month, or rather, a shaman stuck to the moon, who can be seen on the disc) that there are 7,000 stars, but he did not take into account the 7 stars of the Ursa Major and the 7 stars of the Pleiades; the son of Nga-nyo and Dya-Kata grabs them at the same time both, they cannot take him to heaven or underground; his name is Sydene badasi nga (God who brought us up)]: 15-27; Prokofiev 1953 [supreme god Nga, his wife Dya Menu'u (“mother earth”), grows herbs, trees, is in charge of the birth of children, is “on the first circle underground”; when you are in the sky with N., you can see a rainbow — the patterned border of D.'s fur clothes (ngā padde — “God's podol” (Nenets. now (m) pan, nganasan. rgā hphantu)]: 199-200; Kets [the earth was understood as a female living being]: Alekseenko 1976:77; Southern Selkups: Pelikh 1998 [there are two hypostases of mother earth; Tomem — in spring and summer, gives gifts, protects him from hell; once she chased him, he turned into a frog, swam down the Ob; in pursuit of him, Tomem fell into a “tag” (the cold lower reaches of the Ob), turned into Tagam, a harsh, angry old woman; hell swam into the ocean, she didn't catch up with him]: 9; Tuchkova 2004 [grass and moss — mother earth's hair (wool), especially grass on a hummock (hummock — head); sky is man, T &# 275; ly (sun) and Areth (month) are their sons]: 70; Funk 2000, No. 10 [The Sun and the Month are the sons of Heaven and Earth; Mother Earth loves the Sun, and Father Sky loves the Months, so the Month is strong in winter, and The sun is in summer]: 236-237 (retelling in Tuchkova 2004:277).

Eastern Siberia. The Evenks [the Evenki land was considered as a female creature, the mother land of Dunda-Enin, which gives man all kinds of benefits]: Shashkov 1864:21 in Ivanov 1956:185; northern Yenisei Evenks [they “recognize the land as a woman and call her both in everyday speech and in shamanic appeals by dune enin — mother earth”]: Rychkov 1922:83 (quoted in Anisimov 1959:32); Amur Evenks : Bulatova 1987, No. 6 ["They used to talk about land: Mother Earth had people in Middle Earth"]: 123; Myreeva 2013 [“When the middle mother earth spread like a fur rug, /The Upper World Father could be seen as the bottom/Birch bark box”]: 30-31; Evens [the spirit of the earth — t ər myho nni, mother woman]: Alekseev 1993:17; central Yakuts: Alekseev 1975 [names of the spiritual mistress of the earth: Aan Darkhan khotun (Original Important Lady), Aan Aalay Khotun (Original Aalay Mrs.) Aan Alykhchyn Mrs.; her children are Ereke-Jereke — “Seventy Discharged Girls, Ninety Painted Boys” (spirits owning trees and herbs)]: 74-75; Pripuzov 1885 (West-Kangalas Ulus) [the deity of the earth is An Darkhan Khatun; her they are called mother, grandmother and mistress; she patronizes herb growth and childbirth; in spring her children fill the earth]: 62; Troshchansky 1902 (no place of recording; probably central) [Sky — male, Earth — female]: 44, 47; (retelling by Pripuzov and Troshchansky in Holmberg 1927:459); Western Yakuts (Vilyuysky) [Aan Doidu Ichite Aiyy Nelberdeen, or Nyajay Baraan Hotun — 'mistress of the land'; presented herself as a gray-haired old woman living on thick birch trees]: 271-272: Popov 1949 (retelling in Alekseev 1975:75).

Amur-Sakhalin. Udege people [Kanda-mafa is an old man, animal owner, husband of Mother Earth, or animal mistress Sangiya-mama (var. Tagu-Mamam) living where the sun rises]: Podmaskin 1991:124; Sem 1993:177.

SV Asia. Yukaghirs: Kurilov 2005, No. 58 (tundra, p. Andryushkino, Nizhnekolymsky District) [when leaving, the man began to extinguish the fire, it still did not go out, he hit him with an ax; he could not light a fire in a new place; he returned to the old one, there was an old man with a wound on his head; that man's relatives also failed to light the fire, they all died; for buried people, they turn to fire (“Grandfather Fire to the Mayor”) and earth (Grandmother Native Land)]: 417-419; Jochelson 1880:110-120 in Jochelson 2011 (forest, b. Corcodon) [appeal to earth and sky in a shamanic song: mother earth standing below, give warmth; heavenly father, give warmth!] : 208-209.

The Arctic. West Greenland [a giant joined the earth, she gave birth to a girl; he married her, people descend from them]: Birket-Smith 1924:440-441.

Subarctic. Taltan: Teit 1919, No. 2 [The Earth is Our Mother, keeps the earth like an unfolded blanket; when it gets tired and moves, earthquakes occur; when it is completely tired, it will sink into water], 3 [The Earth is ours mother; rocks are her bones, water is her milk; when Mother Earth is completely tired, it falls into the water below the ground; the Sun is a good father, used to live on earth, now in heaven; if it is sick or grieving, it goes rain]: 227.

The coast is the Plateau. Clallam [Sequatsi's land is a woman; women in labor ask her for help]: Gunther 1927:289; Thompson [some say all people originally came from a country under the sun located on east or southeast; this view may be related to the idea of marrying or copulating a male Sun with a female Earth, which led to the birth of humans]: Teit 1917b:48 (note 3); okanagon: Teit 1930:289-290 in Haekel 1958 [Earth is a woman; Mystery in the Heights fertilized her, giving birth to humans and natural sites]: 44; Teit 1917c, No. 2 [An old man turns a woman into earth; soil is her flesh, vegetation — hair, stones — bones, wind — breath; when it moves, earthquakes occur; after rolling pieces of its flesh into balls, the Old Man created first ancestors with animal features; but deer were never first ancestors, just animals], 4 [The chief laid the Earth spread out (probably on the waters) with his head to the west, his feet to the east]: 80-81, 84; kordalen [many consider the earth a living, transformed woman; she is called mother and the sun is called father]: Teit, Boas 1930:176; yakima [the earth is covered with water; the Great Chief Upstairs went down to a shallow place, piled up mountains; once Mother Earth became angry with people, brought mountains down into the Great River (Colombia)]: Clark 1953:142-143.

The Midwest. Winnebago [The bunny lived with his Grandmother Earth; the monster in the form of a grassy hill devoured people; The bunny showered himself with crushed flint, let himself be swallowed; inside the living and the dead; the Bunny turned a piece of flint into a flint knife; cut a hole, people went out; threw the monster's children overseas, so elephants don't live here; put a net made by my grandmother on the path, caught the Sun in it; freeing himself, he scorched his hind legs; trying to kill a huge ant, he was killed himself; his grandmother revived him; he brought a huge pine tree from the ends of the earth, knocked it down on an ant, which turned into a multitude scattered ants]: Burlin, p. 247-253 in Edmonds, Clark 1989:266-269; menominee [The creator raises the Earth from the depths, which is human, humans are Earth's grandchildren; she has a daughter; the Creator wants animals; the old woman does not tell her daughter to turn north when she leaves the house; she turns around, the wind enters her bosom, she gives birth to Menapus (“big rabbit”), then all the birds and animals; Flint is the last to come out, kills her mother at birth; the old woman buries her; her fire goes out; she tells M. that the owners of the fire live overseas; M. swims across the sea in a dolblenka, turns into a rabbit, picked up by the two daughters of a blind fire master; they plant him by the fire to warm up, he runs away, carrying the fire, the owner chases him; the Big Hairy Fish with horns transports him across the sea; he brings fire home]: Bloomfield 1928, No. 68:137-147; Northern Ojibwa (Sandy Lake) [O-ma-ma-ma, Mother Earth, eternally young; gave birth to world spirits; this is 1) Thunder Bird (protects others from the water serpent Genay-big); 2) Oma-ka-ki frog (watches insects); 3) Wee-sa-Kay-jac; 4) Ma-heegun wolf; 5) Amik Beaver; also gave birth to fish, rocks, plants, and other animals]: Ray, Stevens 1971:20-21; chippewa [ At night, someone comes to the young man; he stains his mistress's thigh with something; in the morning his sister sits on the ground; he wants her dress to catch fire; the girl jumps up, he sees his mark; if he wishes, his sister falls through the ground; falls on a Turtle in the middle of the sea; gives birth to a daughter, the Turtle marries her; she gives birth to twins Flint and Venebozho; Flint kills mother at birth, V. kills Flint; in Jones 1917, 1919, pt. 1:431: Grandma W. is Mother Earth; often referred to as the Toad Woman]: Barnouw 1977, No. 5:73-74; Ojibwa [Mother Earth, known as the Ottawa Woman, gave birth to all birds animals and fish; Partridge, Hare and Sturgeon are her most important sons]: Jones 1916, No. 14:370; kickapoo [land is grandmother, Visaka was raised by her; her food is people buried in her bosom; vegetation is her hair]: Latorre, Latorre 1976:267; Fox: Jones 1907, No. 17 [see B3A motif; Grandma Visakia and Kiyapatya is Earth (Mother All Earth)]: 337-379; Jones 1911 [earth, Mother All in the World, is Grandma Visakia and ours; vegetation is the hair on her body]: 215; potauatomi [earth is Our Mother]: Skinner 1924:47; steppe crees [Creator creates First day, then night, Sun and twelve Months, peace; then gives Mother Earth a companion to nurture what he created; she has four souls in terms of the number of cardinal points]: Dusenberry 1998:65-66; Steppe Ojibwa (bungs) [Earth is considered the mother of humanity]: Howard 1965:91

Northeast. Seneca, Mohawki, Kayuga, Onondaga [Earth — “Our Mother, the One That Holds Us"]: Foster 1974:56-57; Seneca [in heaven, a woman is instructed to dig up in a dream a tree with the flowers of light; people dig it up, it falls into the abyss; the leader tells the woman to be left behind; the Loon tells the Osprey to pick her up; rejects the Horned Serpent's offer to take care of the woman; The turtle is chosen for this role; animals and birds dive to get the ground, emerge dead; Hell-diver brings some land; it is placed on the Turtle, Beavers and Ducks make the earth big; a woman gives birth to a daughter; she becomes pregnant by a person who turns out to be a Turtle; gives birth to twins; the youngest comes out of her armpit, killing her mother; his head is flint; the woman is buried, one of her breasts grows white, from another red corn; the older brother makes people; the younger one tries to imitate him, creates monsters; the elder puts them underground; after death, the good go to the older, the evil to the younger brother]: Curtin, Hewitt 1918, No. 74:409-415; Delaware: Hitakonanu'laxk 1994 [The Earth is our Mother]: 34; Newcomb 1956 [Earth, our mother, is the sister of the Sun but not the Moon/Month]: 59

Plains. Crowe [in the steam room, pouring water on hot stones, first turns to Mother Earth, then fire, water, air]: McCleary 1997:76; teton (oglala): Neuhardt, Brown 1997 [in Prayerful conversion Earth is called grandmother and mother; Heaven is associated with masculinity and wakan tanka (mysterious)]: 390; Walker 1917 [Earth and femininity are classified as one beginning]: 80; 1991 [Grandfather spoke to the Sun, Grandma spoke to the Moon and Earth]: 102; “dakota” (santi, yankton-yanktonai? given the data on other Sioux, these land must also have a woman) [flowers did not grow on earth; flowers of different species successively appeared from its depths, but the Earth (called woman) rejected them; when Rosehips appeared, she told him to stay, for the Demon of the Wind would be fascinated by him; the Demon of the Wind liked the rose hips so much that he not only did not destroy it, but he became good at all; only sometimes does he fervent causing harm; the Earth is covered with flowers]: Edmonds, Clark 1989:208-209; Omaha [the top is associated with the masculine principle and the sacred power of the day, sky, sun; the bottom is feminine, with the sacred power of night, earth, moon; people descended from the union of heaven with earth]: Liberty et al. 2001:408; Osage: Bailey 1995 [heaven is father, earth is mother]: 31; Mathews 1961 [Sun is male, Earth is woman]: 17; Omaha, ponca, osage, iowa, oto, kansa, kuapo [all these groups consider Rabbit (names like Macti ñ'ge) to be a protector of people; he always lives along with her grandmother Mother Earth; all Indian women are her daughters, Indians are her sons]: Dorsey 1892:293; Sheyens: Marriott, Rachlin 1968 [Maheo creates sky, salt water, light, waterfowl; tells them to dive and get land from the bottom; Goose, Duck, Loon do not dive; Coot brings silt from the bottom in its beak, puts M. in his hand; he makes a lump, creates land; M. looks for whose back to approve land; snails, crustaceans, fish are not suitable for this; only Grandmother Turtle is able to hold this weight; this is Mother Earth, she generates plants; from her right and left ribs, M. creates a man and woman]: 22-26; Moore 1996 [sky is associated with masculine, earth feminine]: 204-205; Arikara: Boas 1909 [Missouri is the sternum of the great Mother Earth]: 91; Gilmore 1926 [humans and animals are in the bosom of Mother Earth; they want to go out; the mole digs a hole, is blinded by the light; the hole closes before some animals can go out, so badgers, marmots, etc. live in the ground]: 188-193 ; Pawnee (Chawi) [Tirawa first made a woman, then sent her a man; told her to call the earth mother, heaven father, moon mother, sun father]: Dorsey 1906, No. 1:14; wichita [after the flood The wind finds a woman lying head west, feet east; this is Earth, she gives birth to her first woman]: Dorsey 1904a, No. 56:296-297; Comanche: Barnard in Archer 2000 [a witch doctor lights a sacred pipe, addressing Father Heaven, then Mother Earth, then four directions]: 152; Kavanagh 2001 [The creator (my father) was sometimes identified with the sun; the earth was called ne 'pia (probably ni bia, my mother)]: 892.

South East. Screams [some say people have come down from heaven, others say they have come out of the ground; the earth is man's mother]: Swanton 1928:480; kaddo (Natchitopches tribe) [people live underground, they climb to the surface from a cave in a hill; people and animals lived together like brothers underground; when they found a hole, the old man was the first to get out, holding a fire and a smoking pipe in one hand, and a tambourine in the other; When the wolf climbed, he got stuck, some people stayed in the lower world; since the caddo came out of the ground, they call her mother and return to her after death; caddo never leave fire, tambourine, corn, pumpkins, as they carried them to the ground themselves; the caddo came out near the mouth of the Red River and went up this river]: Swanton 1942:26.

California. Hupa [The sun marries the Earth; it gives birth to two sons; lies belly up; if it turns, the world will end]: Goddard 1904, No. 48:343-345; chumash [Earth is a mother giving food; the Sun - supreme life-giving masculine principle]: Hudson, Underhay 1978:45, 51; Juaneño [Brother Sky descends to Sister Earth, offers to unite; she rejects him, but later gives rise to sand from him, earth, rocks, trees, animals, Oyot's; he has many children; he has been poisoned; his mother makes a potion for him out of urine and worms that can heal him; leaves him in the sink; Coyote knocks over the shell with the foot, the flowing liquid forms the sea; worms turn into fish; because of urine, the sea is salty]: Kroeber 1925:637; Reichlen, Reichlen, Reichlen 1971:244; luisegno [in primary darkness, the supreme deity creates a man to heaven and a woman to earth; they conceive children; she gives birth to many creatures and objects, including flintlock tips to chiefs' ritual sword rods, ritual stone vessels, animals, people, trees , sun]: DuBois 1906, No. 1:52; 1908:128, 140-141 [The burden in a woman's womb is heavy; she leans back, he rips her body with a knife from her breasts down; 29 objects born are listed]; Kroeber 1906b [ the ground lies with its feet to the north, its head to the south]: 313-314.

Big Pool. The Northern Shoshones [The Coyote turns Mother Earth's fish basket; the basket turns into a lake. Yellowstone, from which the Snake and Yellowstone rivers flow out; big fish were carried into the sea, only small fish remained above the rapids]: Clark 1966:175-177; Chemewevi [1) =1976:148-149; Ocean Woman Woman), Puma, Wolf, Coyote swim in a basket boat on endless waters; JM exfoliates its skin, rolls the ball, throws it into the water; earth appears; FM lies on its back, arms spread out, head to head west, pushes and stretches; sends Wolf and Coyote to find out if the earth is big; after several returns, Coyote reports that he is big enough; 2) The Sea Woman falls from the sky in the form of a worm; creates the earth, crumbling it into water and stretching it, as in the first version; exfoliates the skin scales, rolling them into a ball, makes a Coyote; he runs around the ground to see if it is big; then JM creates the Wolf and the Puma; because the wolf is smart and the Coyote is reckless, it is decided that the older brother will be the Wolf]: Laird 1974a:20; Utah, Southern Payutes [sky male, earth female]: Steward 1943b:325; Southern Utah [ Sky is male, Earth is female]: Gifford 1940, No. 2301, 2303:61

The Great Southwest. Western Apaches, Chiricahua [Sky Male, Earth Female]: Gifford 1940, No. 2300, 2302:61; all Apaches [earth embodied by goddess Guzanutli]: Bourke 1891:44; (Western?) Apache [a yellow and white disc appeared in the dark, with the Creator (Living Above) on it; his gaze spread light; he wiped the sweat off his face, rubbed his hands, and the Parentless Girl appeared on the cloud; asked where he came from; he replied that from the east, where is the light; asked Where is the earth, he asked Where is the sky; the Creator wiped his sweat and rubbed his hands twice more, the Sun God and the Little Boy appeared; then created Tarantula, the constellation Ursa Major, the Wind, the Lightning Worker; all the gods wiped off their sweat, the Creator rubbed his hands, fell a ball the size of a bean, became earth; the Creator, followed by the first three gods he created, kicked him, he grew up; Tarantula stretched four threads from the ground in different directions, stretched the ground; the Creator rubbed his chest, rubbed his fingers, created a Hummingbird, ordered him to fly in four directions for reconnaissance; the Hummingbird returned, saying that the earth is beautiful and the water is in the west; the earth continued to swing; to secure it, the Creator made four pillars (like the threads, they are of different colors: black, blue, yellow, white), put it under in four directions of the world; the earth froze; the Creator sent the Lightning Worker, who found two girls and a young man in a turquoise shell, they had no eyes, ears, mouths, noses, hair, teeth, fingers; they were placed in the steam room, they sang spells, they became normal people; the Creator made the young man the leader of heaven, the girl the guardian of the land and the harvest; called the second girl Pollen, responsible for treating people; The Creator sent the Dove, who returned four days later, said that the water on the other side of the earth would flood the earth; the Parentless Girl put everyone in a ball, 12 days later they came out; the water that ran down created valleys and mountains; The Creator and his assistants waited out the flood in the sky; the Creator tells Lightning-Rumbler to watch clouds and water, Sky Youth to watch the people of heaven, Daughter Earth to watch the clouds and water plants (all crops) and people of the earth, the Pollen girl for people's health, the girl without parents for everything; together with her she lights a fire, rubbing her arms and legs, ascends to the sky on a column of smoke, the rest gods ascend on other columns of smoke]: Curtis 1976 (1): 23-35 in Edmonds, Clark 1989:101-104; hicarilla: Goddard 1911, No. 12 [the hero makes earth out of his grandmother's body; Rio Grande is her backbone, two mountain ranges - legs, two mountains - nipples]: 205-206; Opler 1938, No. I.1 [at first only darkness, water, hurricane; Hactcin spirits make Mother Earth in the form of a woman facing upwards; Heaven father in the form of a man face down], I.6 [Earth is our mother, Sky is father, Sun is grandfather, Moon is grandmother (although the Sun and Moon themselves are also children of Earth); other nations live on the Earth's feet and arms, and hicarilla lives on its heart], II.1 [ Black Sky is the father of White Hackcins, Earth is the mother; the next two Haksin, the Sun and the Moon; Earth and Sky say to each other: How will we create people? They make the moon to watch plants and fruits]: 1, 47-48, 141; Navajo [Earth meets Sky]: Johly, B'yash 1958:14; Griffin-Pierce 1992 [Heaven is Father, Earth is Mother]: 105-110, 174- 183; O'Bryan 1956:2-3 [a man is dawn, life and heaven; woman is darkness, death, earth; when they meet, each of them says: I saw how you're wandering around and wondering why you're not coming to me; the light from his crystal is stronger than the light from her turquoise; so she goes to live with him, not him to her], 21-22 [The First Man Told Earth She must be the wife of Heaven; she will face east, and the husband above her to the west; when the Earth is enveloped in fog, Heaven visits her; after that they put up four pillars of heaven and stretched it into four directions; raised the Sun and Moon; at first the Sun was unbearably hot; then they stretched the sky again in four directions and the Sun was farther from the earth; in order to obtain its current situation, they had to do this four times]; Wyman 1970 [Mother Earth and Father Heaven are two anthropomorphic figures standing side by side (colored sand drawing)]: 34, pl.3; hopi [earth is a woman who helps with childbirth (child-medicine woman), young woman (earth alter young woman)]: Parsons 1939, table 2; Zunyi: Cushing 1896 [Avonavilona (All Father, All-Content) revealed himself to the Sun, created by the holding the world is the ocean; the rising foam turned into the Four-Layer Mother Earth and the All-Covering Father-Sky; they gave birth to people and all creatures in the four-layer womb of the world, life on earth was conceived from the coition of a mother- Earth and Father Heaven; then Earth pushed Heaven away from itself, getting bigger and sinking deeper into the waters; becoming a woman (she is warm) and a man (he is cold), they spoke to each other, created clouds, rain , corn to feed people; the Sun sent its two sons to bring people out of the lower world, gave them a cloud bow with thunder arrows; each of the four underground worlds was brighter previous; at first humans were unfinished, half-animals; when they climbed to earth, they took a fully human form]: 379-383 (retelling in Judson 1994:19-23, Thompson 2000, No. 6:17-19); Parsons 1939, table 2 [Earth is Mother Earth]; Navajo, Western Apaches, Chiricahua, Mescalero [Sky is Male, Earth is Female]: Gifford 1940, No. 2300, 2302:61; Keres (Akoma, Sia) [ Earth is Mother Earth]: Parsons 1939, table 2; Taos [Earth is Mother Earth]: Parsons 1939, table 2; teva: Harrington 1916 [Old Woman Earth is Old Man Sky's wife]: 45; Lavender 1998 [ Tewa's prayer message (Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe): “Oh mother earth, oh father-sky, we're your children” (etc.)]: vi; mojave: Bourke 1889 [fertilized by Sky by a man, Earth Woman gives birth god Kukumac and his brother Tochipa; their other children Matyavela and his sister Katenya; M. creates their flesh son and daughter; son gives people tobacco, corn, mesquite; during the flood holds people on his hand]: 178-179; Grey 1970 [Matavilla was the first to be born from the marriage of Heaven and Earth; he was killed by his daughter Frog; he was succeeded by his son Mastambo, who taught them mojave culture and the Sky Rattlesnake that defeated the sea monster]: 9; Kroeber 1972 [Ammaya is a man sky; Amata is a woman earth; they all spawned — Matavilya, Mastambo, humans, plants; it was overseas in the dark country of Pi'in (not etymologized and not mentioned in other cases); Matavilla was the first; reached our country by turning 4 times, followed by all humans; in Pi'in Heaven and Earth and now continue to copulate — The sky goes down to Earth and then rises]: 5; diegueño: Dubois 1901 [the eldest of two brothers makes the earth a woman and a male sky; the sky descends to earth]: 181; 1904 [Sin-yo-hauch is the mother's name of twin heroes, same as Earth]: 272; 1906 [like Mojave in Kroeber]: 147; 1907 [heaven was male, earth was woman; their marriage gave birth to the first man and woman; Shin -yo-hauch is their daughter; her father went to heaven, she was alone; crawled east on all fours; when she grew up, she returned to the Colorado River]: 132; Curtis 1976 (15) [Earth was a woman, Water — a man; gave birth to two sons, Chakopá (the elder) and Chakomát; they got up and pushed the water up, it formed the sky; made the sun, the moon, stars; the youngest successively threw the disc into four the sides of the world, it was set in the east; it was too hot; the elder picked it up, the heat became moderate; the same with the moon (the cold is moderate); people summoned a huge snake (Heavenly Moon) from the sea, it crawled into the fence, her burned, all the songs, rituals, languages were taken out of it, they spread throughout the world; the elder brother fell ill and died; the Coyote was sent to bring fire to the fire; at that time the fire was lit; the Coyote returned, jumped over Badger, grabbed his heart, ran away, ate; blood became red minerals; younger brother went to heaven, became a ball lightning, taking souls, causing death]: 121-123; diegueño (kamia) [ Earth (pakamat) and Sky lie close to each other at first; there are five characters between them: Chiyuk (evil), Chiyi (good), Pukumat (supreme deity), Mastamho, White Woman ; the informant was confused, calling Heaven a woman, Earth a man, or vice versa]: Gifford 1931:75; pima: Bahr et al. 1994 [Jeoss, a spirit without flesh, was in emptiness and darkness; created another who was light; then created the man who came down and created our world was the Earth Doctor; the one who created the one Siuuhu; after that earth and sky came closer, Siuuhu, the son Mother Earth and Father Heaven; S. and ZSH made another man, the ancestor of Pima, out of clay, breathed breath into him; then they made a woman in the same way; created the sun and deer that rose from the east to fall on him hunt; rabbit; storm and rain; wild edible plants; Mother Moon and Sun Father gave birth to the Coyote; ZSH, J. and S. created stars and the Milky Way to navigate; at first the earth trembled, S. He weighed down the mountains by taking the gold off his hat, stepped foot, the ground was established; an evil spirit entered the woman, so ZSH told her to menstruate and give birth in agony; the gods also received fire by friction]: 46-53; Russel 1908 [creator (Earth-Doctor) tells earth and sky to copulate; Earth gives birth to Big Brother]: 208-209; Papago: Gifford 1940, No. 2300 [Heaven Male, Earth Woman], 2302:61; Olmos Aguilera 2005 [first only darkness and water, a child was born in them, felt for algae, made termites out of them, they collected more algae, earth arose; Heaven joined Earth three times, and the Elder was born Brother, Coyote, Vulture; SB created humans from chips]: 155-156; Underhill 1946 [dark at first; Earth Creator (NW) and Yellow Vulture (HS) meet four times in the void, each forcing the other to create world; NW took something out of his heart or rolled dirt off his skin, put it in the palm of his hand, a green branch grew out of it, greasewood; the louse on the plant produced resin and created the earth from this NW; he sang, bored it, she became flat; he placed mountains on the ground, bird fluff (clouds) and shamans on the tops of the mountains; when the earth spread out, shamans and mountains spread everywhere; the Earth expanded to the dome of Heaven; I'itoi jumped out , said that he was the son of Heaven and Earth; he was small, bearded, gray or blond; Coyote came out from under the bush from the northwest; the earth was swaying, Coyote, I. and JS unsuccessfully confused to fix it; this was done by two The spider, connecting the sky and the earth with a web; all the mountains were inclined to the west, all the rivers flowed there; the HS flew by, waving its wings, gave the mountains a variety of shapes, the rivers flowed in different directions; the NW splashed water to the north, west, south, east, the moon and the sun appeared; spit out stars like saliva; created people from his body, she began to fight; he and I. sent a flood; for this purpose I. created Handsome Man, he became pregnant with all the girls, each gave birth the next morning; the sorcerer made the Handsome Man himself give birth; he left the child, he began to cry, his tears flooded the ground with a flood; NW escaped on a magic rod, I. in a large vessel, a Coyote in a reed, JS pierced the sky; some people became birds, clung to the sky with their beaks; others became trees, took root; others climbed to the top of the mountain with their dogs, turned into stones there; traces of foam on the water can be seen on them; the NW and I. agreed that whoever emerges first after the flood is older; the first NW, then I., the last Coyote; but I. made sure that He was considered the eldest; all three began to sculpt new people; those made by the Coyote are shapeless, thrown out of the sea; the NW made are also shapeless, and I.'s people are real; the NW and I. began to argue; the NW tried to pull off down the sky, then fell through the ground, spreading diseases; I.'s people became pima, papago, apache, maricopa; I. made papago his people, taught culture (bow and arrow, house-building, drinking ceremony); I. retired to the cave; people, especially maricopa, kicked a defenseless rattlesnake; I. gave her poison; she bit maricopa, he died; he was burned (since then maricopa has been cremated to the dead); Coyote stole heart from the funeral fire; a hole in the ground opened, water or wind; closed when two boys and two girls were thrown into it; this is how Santa Rosa ceremonies arose; the cannibal stole children, her strangled with smoke in the cave; I. killed the ogre eagle, feathers for witchcraft; the monster sucked everyone into himself; I. let himself be sucked, killed the monster, freed the swallowed; I. grew old, began to attack the girls in the time of the ceremony they reached maturity; people killed him three times; on the advice of the Sun, JS managed to kill I. with an iron bow (gun); after 4 years, I. revived, went west; I. created deer, the evil shaman drove them in the pen; two brothers paid a shaman so that everyone could hunt; JS is scalped so bald; I. sometimes returns from the underworld]: 8-12; series: Coolidge, Coolidge 1939:194/195 [photo sand painting: Father-Heaven and Mother Earth], 260 [The Moon is the wife of the Sun, the Earth is the wife of Heaven].

NW Mexico. Yaki: Spicer 1954 [Mother Earth is associated with Mary; she also embodies the whole earth to a certain extent]: 115; Huichol: Cunningham 1978 [Ulianak's mother earth as an old lady collects mesquite pods, magey stems, cactus fruits; Citaima cries for losing her five daughters; Black, Blue, Red, White, Variegated Corn; on the fifth day, W. is tired of listening her crying turned her into a Coyote crying at night; five Corn girls teach W. to cultivate the field, take care of crops, etc.; Coyote promises to deceive because she herself was deceived; sends a Rattlesnake putting a seed in her tail - let it resemble corn; W. cries, irrigating the ground with rain; pierces his chest with a thorn, blood mixes with tears, so the earth is red; Father Sun on the old woman is not looks; W. becomes beautiful, lifts up her skirt; Corn girls are doing the same; now the Sun is looking at them; the beautiful colors of the sunset sky are a sign of the Sun's love for W. and the Corn Girls]: 40-46; Negrin 1979 [the foremother allows the Deer Sun to fertilize herself; grows, turns into earth]: 18; bark [the goddess of the earth creates rain gods, places lakes (seas?) on the water ; they are dissatisfied, she sends them to heaven, twisting a rope out of her hair; they are dissatisfied again; she asks them to look for earth on their bodies; they roll a ball of mud, give it to the goddess; she puts a ball with two crosswise arrows tied by her hair and a snake; tells the rain gods to dance on the ground; this expands the earth]: Preuss 1912:57-61; Nahuatl Zap. Mexico [Once Mother Earth (se tonantsi, “our mother”, is identified with the earth and moon and with the Virgin Mary) organized a celebration, everyone brought magey cactus wine]: Preuss 1955, No. 4:389.

Mesoamerica The Aztecs [Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca descended from heaven to the goddess of Earth; all the joints of her body had eyes and mouths, she bit them; both gods turned into two snakes, tore her in half, one by the left leg and right hand, the other by her right leg and left hand; from the half where her shoulders made the earth, the other half of the sky; to reward the Earth for its violence, other gods said that fruits would grow out of her; they made trees, flowers and herbs out of her hair, small grass and flowers from her skin, wells, springs and small caves from her eyes, and from the shoulders of a mountain]: Histoyre du Mechique 1905:30-31; Krickeberg 1928:4-6; Mendieta 1870:81; Portal 1986 [translated in Spanish]: 41; Nahuat (Puebla) [the land is represented as a kind old woman or a beautiful and seductive young woman; the sun treats the earth like humans to milpe and husbands to wives]: Taggart 1983:59; Nahua (Huasteca region) [Earth is living being, soil is flesh, rocks are bones, water is blood; Earth has two entities are Father Earth and Mother Earth; human activities (defecation, childbirth, field cultivation) irritate the Earth, it must be appeased; if the crime is particularly severe, shamans bury poultry alive]: Sandstrom, Effrein Sandstrom 1986:77-78; Huastecs: Alcorn 1984 [four drowned people hold the ground; at the end of the year, the mushas descend into the underground paradise, replaced by new drowned ones; the earth is a woman, Great Mother, has a spouse]: 57; Stressner-Pean 1952 in Mendelson 1967 [The Great God of Thunder is the husband of Earth; Thunder is his servants]: 406-407; mountain totonaks [Earth is a woman, our grandmother, and at the same time man; he/she supports people who stain her/him with their garbage; they must donate alcohol for this, dug]: Ichon 1969:128-131; otomi [land is a woman, without details]: Galinier 1990:543- 544; the flood [the earth is like a human being; water is its blood, its heart is in the south; others say that the earth is an iguana whose movements cause earthquakes (San Felipe residents don't eat iguanas); the earth eats corpses humans so that corn can grow; the Sun eats human hearts to shine; Earth's heart is living people, the heart of the Sun is human hearts]: Jacklein 1974:285; Miche [most important The supernatural object is the female dyad Na .š w i , Mother Earth, the receptacle of primordial wisdom; it is associated with the north and with dark green]: Lipp 1991:25-31 (quoted in Tate 1999:178); Masateks [Our Father blessed Earth because she is a woman, giving us food]: Portal 1986:40-41; mixteks [earth — nanao, Our Mother; heaven — Tatao, Our Father]: Monaghan 1990:56; 1995:111; Lenka [land is female, no details]: Chapman 1986 (2): 98; mestizos Soconusco [poor woman's daughter rejects suitors; God comes disguised as a beggar, also rejected; turns into a bird, sits next to her; the girl hits it with a stick, then puts it under her clothes; the bird comes to life, bites her breasts, flies away; she gives birth to two twins; herself dies, turns into the land we live on; grandma wants to eat twins, tells her many sons to kill them; they are going to throw the twins into a deep ravine; ants tell them to jump by yourself; one jumps, turns into the Sun, ascends to the sky, burning his grandmother; she turns into a black-headed wind, chasing the sun in vain; the second brother jumps later, becomes the Month; uncle they jump after them, become stars, they can't grab the Month]: Navarrete 1966, No. 1:422-423; tojolabal [the land is square; it is surrounded by the sea; the ground is cold in the center, there is a hot land between her and the sea; Mother Earth is the mistress of these two zones]: Ruz 1982:55-56; Quiche: Estrada Ochoa 2006 [Earth is recognized as a woman, mother of people]: 157; Perez Maldonado s.a. ( Chichecastenango) [When she came to this unknown land, the goddess of the Earth Ishmukane took the corncobs and helped the gods create four ancestors; they received wives; when they were in Tulan, The flood flooded the land; only four ancestors and their children were saved; Tohil led them to an even more prosperous country, where each of the four founded their own tribe; Balam-Kitse became the lord of the Rabinals, Balam-Akap - Kakchikeli, Mahukutah - Tsutuhili, Iki-Balam - Quiche]: 11-12; Yucatan [the first day of the 260-day imix cycle (“food”) is indicated by a sign in the form female breast; its owner is a chthonic female monster; the 17th day, caban, “earth”, is under the protection of a deity associated with earth, water, and moon]: Villar 1989:60-62; shank [God created heaven as a home for him to live, and earth to be the mother of everything that would then be created (nana' naru — “mother earth”)]: López Ramírez 2007:108.

Honduras-Panama. Hikake [Tomam Major (thunder) creates Mother Earth; she kills, eats people, so they die]: Chapman 1982:127-130; 1992, No. 14 [Earth feeds us and eats us], 15 [Earth is angry for digging it, it will eventually eat everyone]: 166-167; Bribri: Bozzoli 1977 [the world is only rocks; The Bat flies to suck the blood of the Earth Girl; trees grow from the Bat's excrement ; Shibyo sends the Mouse again, Earth's mother and grandmother cut the Mouse in half with a thread; now bats hang upside down to prevent their insides from falling out; S. sends people to dance in front of their homes Earth; Earth's mother drops it, dancers trample on the child, fertile soil spreads; Earth's mother and grandmother say they (=Earth) will now devour the dead; grandmother's tears turn into birds of prey and animals]: 172-175; 1982:154-155; Bozzoli, Cubero Venegas 1982 [old woman Sula lives in the lower world; S. kidnaps her granddaughter, turns her into fertile land]: 6; 1987 [The Earth was a little girl- orphan, lived with her grandmother; the Bat sucked her blood; where the Bat relieves her need, plants grow; he is trapped; the grandmother is invited to dance; she drops the girl, she turns into fertile land; the grandmother tells S. that the dead will go to her, i.e. to the ground (the grandmother is also Earth)]: 32; 1989, No. 1-2 [there were only rocks; S. kidnaps a girl from her grandmother, turns her into fertile land; the Earth girl is alive; people grow plants on her]: 8-10; Guaimi [during an earthquake, people aim at the sky with weapons; believe that Noncomalá wants to kill a land that people consider their mother]: Adrián de Ufelde 1965:86-87 in Casimir de Brizuela 1972:57 (same from another Krickeberg 1928:215-216 edition).

The Northern Andes. Guajiro [evil monkey spirits look at a young woman, she dies; her husband buries her, seeks death, leaves, telling his four children he will return with the Pleiades season; went to Mars (or Venus); when he reached the sea, he met a man, told him that he was the son of Iiwa (Pleiades) and Spica's grandson; the bird offers to report about him to the stars; the Pleiades tell Orion, the man's maternal uncle, about him; The Pleiades, Altair, and other stars lift a person beyond the clouds; the Pleiades ask him to go to his mother's house, Earth; makes his body like their body, without joints; advises him to meet with girls , they turn into calebasses; young men turn out to be corncobs; a man wants to go home, stars put him on a cloud; Orion, other stars, and Rain raise his dead wife to heaven, leaving him on the ground cultivated fields with a rich harvest]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1986 (2), No. 67:661-673; chimila: Niño Vargas 2008 [Yunari (“old woman, grandmother”) Kraari (“long, big”) is a female character embodying the earth; riverbeds are its veins, water is its blood]: 114; 2014 [Sierra Nevada is Mother Earth's vertebrate range]: 109; Kogi: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1977 [the earth is a female body that nourishes and guarding; every topographic detail corresponds to Mother's anatomy]: 268; 1985 (1) [Kogi land is Mother's ninth daughter; all recesses in the ground are perceived as holes in the Mother's body; water too there is Mother]: 238; Wavrin 1937 [the first four mama (priests), i.e. Sarancua, Seücuque, Aruhuavico, Sintana kept the girl in a nine-room building; leaving the ninth room, she became earth]: 531- 532.

Guiana. Kashuyan: Kruse 1955 (Arikena) [heaven is man, earth is his wife]: 414; Polykrates 1962 [Purá brought the first man down from the Sun because the Sun is a man; brought the first woman out from the ground, because the Earth is a woman]: 78.

(Wed. Ecuador. Imbabura [The sun is the sun father, the moon is the mother of the moon; when it reaches the sea in the west in the evening, the Sun drinks it; there are no respectful appeals to the stars or the earth]: Parsons 1940b: 222).

Western Amazon. Napo (quiho) [see motive K44; the young men live with the wife of the cannibal sorcerer; she told them to harvest corn; they hardly worked; the old women answered the reproaches, Maize, maize; the cobs fell asleep her head, the young men pulled her out; the next day they were sent to cut down trees; only one thing was cut down; the old woman is unhappy, they say a tree, a tree, a pile of firewood covered her; the old woman demands to be brought water; brothers bring little, she is unhappy; they say, Water, water, stream carries away the old woman; brothers find a corpse, bury it under the floor of the house; this woman is mother earth when she moves in grave, earthquakes occur; brothers turned into Morning and Evening Stars]: Oberem 1957:184; 1963:35.

NW Amazon. Makuna: Århem 1981 [Romi Kumu (Female Shaman) creates the world with Mythical Male Heroes (MG, including the Sun); the Earth is her body; the Eastern Outlet is the RK vagina; northern and southern the exits of the earth are its ribs; the calendar cycle is its menstrual cycle; when the vagina is closed, rivers flow to the mountains and from there to the sky, falling down in the rain; when closed, the Milk River, which has absorbed the waters of all the rest, pours out into the lower world (dry season); fertilized by MG-mi, RK gave birth to the first ancestors buku masa; from the vagina (Eastern Outlet), they swam upstream to the center in the form of anaconda ancestors the lands where the tribes were created, then returned; the first people were Yaguars (yaia), ate each other, copulated with sisters; so the RK destroyed them by the flood and then burned them; MG stayed, created new people, other than animals]: 70-71; Århem et al. 2004 [the earth is alive, it is mother earth]: 243; tukano actually [The Earth Woman (Pamuri Mahsho's daughter) became pregnant after eating fruit from a tree braided with a vine yazhe; gave birth to Epa-Mahsho (Earth Man)]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985:245, note 18; tanimuka [Ñamatu was the first to test clay varieties, sculpted various vessels, distributed to people; the sun Aiyá created a tree whose bark ash is added to the dough as a separator; N. was the first to burn this bark; her four nephews Imarimakana sculpted a brazier for cassava; when women are now asked why they make braziers this way and not the other, they say that I. did it.]: Hildebrandt 1976:181-182.

Central Amazon. Maue [God took the first world to heaven; snakes make a new world out of their sister's body; the earth lies face down, so people die and go into it]: Pereira 1954:93.

The Central Andes. Prov. Caruas (dep. Huanuco) [cannibal bones turn into mountains and blood into deserts]: Arguedas, Izquirdo Rios 1947:133; Kanta (dep. Lima) [mother of the sun and moon Pachamama (“mother earth”) turns into a mountain range responsible for the land's fertility]: Villar Cordova 1933:164; huanca [old lady sends her three sons across the river work in the fields; they have fun, tell their mother every time they worked hard; they live in a hut, take wives; they leave them when they run out of food; brothers are starving; they come to their mother, demand meat; she cuts off the flesh from their buttocks, gives them an animal under the guise of meat; when they put it in their mouths, the ground shudders; the mother tells them they ate; turns them into Frost (older), Hail, Wind; god Huallallo turns mother into fertile land]: Villanes Cairo 1978:113-117; Andamarca (dep. Ayacucho) [the earth is the body of the mother goddess (Lake. Titicaca - her genitals, rivers - blood vessels, etc.); the transformation itself is not described]: Ortiz Rescaniere 1973:146-147; prov. Chumbivilkas (upper reaches of Apurimac), dep. Cuzco [landscape elements are metaphorically equated to parts of the human body; Maria Fortaleza (Conquista Ancocagua sanctuary, Aymara name) is the center of a woman's body, i.e. her navel; her head is a river Colomani, right hand — Llaxa River, left — hand of Totorani; right leg — Inti Pucara ruins, left hand — Teracara Pucara, first on the left, second on the right bank of Apurimac; head to the south (source Apurimaca), legs downstream to the north; the name is from the Virgin Mary, who turned into stone; the urine of the woman who called her became the source of Apurimac from the confluence with Totorani]: Reinhard 1998:96-97; Canas (dep. Cusco) [Langhi-Layo Lake is a woman, the mountains are her breasts]: Alencaster, Dumezil 1953:24; Calahuya [the surrounding landscape is a woman's body]: Bastien 1985:596; Ocongate (Prov. Kispicanchis, dep. Cuzco) [The Earth is a universal mother; the grass that animals feed on is the hairs on her body]: Gow, Gow 1975:154.

Montagna — Jurua. Machigenga [Earth is a woman; surrounded by water; her voice was heard during the age of creation; her jaguar brother destroys evil spirits]: Baer 1984:168, 181, 222 (=1994:138).

Bolivia — Guaporé. Takana: Hissink, Hahn 1961, No. 5 [the bururu frog (Leptodactylus pentadactylus labirinthus Spix) is mother earth, an old woman with huge breasts, mouth and vagina, lives underground] : 42-43, 153; No. 33 (Ixiamas) [Seguameji (“the one who creates”) wished his daughter; she refused, he decided to eat her; she ran away to a man named Ena (“water”) cuashri (“hot”) Cuati bueda (“fire”) Rara (“pit”) Dsamaji (“close, cover”); he guards the hole; if he dies, boiling water and fire from it will spread all over the earth; he hid the girl in a part of the hole where there was no stench; his stalker father was weaned his right leg, put him in the smelly part; released both, took the father to a place where he could see his daughter, but would not be able to catch up; the father became the Sun, the daughter the Moon; the father married the Earth, the stars their children; himself the owner of the pit became Lightning]: 80-81; tupari [Arcoanio lives in the south, his mother is Earth; he has many wives and children; one son was eaten in the forest by a pig; he buried the remains from his long bones cassava arises, from taioba penis, sweet potato liver, small yam from the heart, large yam from the skull; A. resurrects his son, makes wild pigs the owner]: Caspar 1975:193.

(Wed. Chaco. Ayoreo [Heaven and Earth lived together; Sky decided to rise up so as not to be stained with garbage; {in English, “sky” is “he”, “earth” is “she”, but not directly about the field of Earth and Sky says}]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1989b, No. 2 [Heaven and Earth were together; Heaven decided to rise, tired of what people do; they argue which one is bigger, Heaven is bigger than Earth], 3 [Heaven lived on earth , but out of disgust that the Earth is dirty, that people pee on it, rose], 4 [Heaven decided to rise, with it the Stars, they are happy; those who remain on Earth are also happy], 5 [Heaven lived on Earth, rose out of aversion to human garbage; the Earth said it was also disgusted, but remained; the Sun, the Month and the Stars rose with the sky, the Stars were hunters, hunted in the rain, So they now appear during the rainy season; the ones at their zenith are called Dayade and Dayojideo, and the ones low above the horizon are Ghigina-Piagode, “my house door”]: 27-28, 29, 29-30, 30).

(Wed. Southern Brazil. Guarani (Argentina, prov. Misiones) [Iví (“land” -pora (“espíritu, spirit) is the goddess of the earth; {the source is questionable, no references to texts}]: Cruz Rolla 1954:105).