Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B40. The rabbit is like a deer's substitute.



hare or rabbit is a false deer, a former deer, a deer's brother, a former or failed horn owner, its ears are false horns.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Lamba [The elephant invited only horned ones to his beer; the hare cut off the young deer's horns, glued it, appeared; he got drunk; the old hornless Deer came; whispered to the Hare, "What is glued will come off"; The hare laughs, others ask why; The deer said the same thing out loud; the hare trembled, the horns fell, the Hare ran away]: Doke 1927, No. 41:89-91 (translated in Olderogg 1959:49).

West Africa. Mandingo [The hare came last, received the shortest tail; the next day they handed out horns, he came first, got the biggest ones; people came to God to complain - the Hare frightens children with its horns; God took the Hare's horns, dragged them by the ears, they became long]: Mendelssohn 1971:202-203.

Sudan - East Africa. Mehan [The lion met the Rabbit, was going to eat it; the Rabbit said that his weapon was worse than the Leo's claws and fangs; they were horns (i.e. his ears), he would destroy the entire lion tribe with them; the lion ran away]: Jensen 1959, No. 8:415; Nubians [the hare cooks beans for himself and for the porcupine; frightens him by instructing his horns, the porcupine runs away hungry; the antelope explains that the hare has no horns - these are ears; he is no longer frightened, stabs a hare, a hare runs away, a porcupine eats beans]: Arewa 1961, No. 1075:70.

South Asia. Baiga [The Hare had horns, he pricked Nanga Baiga with them while he was working; the NB grabbed his horns, threw him into the sky; the horns fell off, fell on the deer's head and stayed there; the hare ran to the moon; if To lure him out of there, the moon will be as bright as the Sun]: Elwin 1939:333; cond (kuttia) [to provide food for people, Rani-aru made sambhar (a large antelope or buffalo), but forgot to make him horns; The hares had horns; the Hare and Sambhar were friends, went swimming, the Hare put their horns on a stone, entered the water; Sambhar came out first, took the horns away]: Elwin 1954, No. 47:364-365; (cf. Sanskrit [moon names in Sanskrit include Sasi, "marked like a hare", and Mriganka, "marked like a deer"]: Elwin 1949:55).

Baltoscandia. Lithuanians [the hare had horns and scared everyone; God removed the horns, pulled the rabbit's ears]: Kerbelite 2001:84.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Mongols [some lamas say the hare has horns but we can't see them]: Potanin 1883, No. 7:348.

Western Siberia. Mansi [The elk consults his wife who to give a free pair of horns; Moose advises to give it to a deer relative; there is a couple more, the Hare asks to give it to him to frighten enemies; she fell on the Hare's head a bump, he ran in fear, entangled in the bushes with horns; everyone laughs, the Elk gives the Hare long ears instead of horns]: Paderina, Plitchenko 1986:91-92.

Japan. Ainu [hares lived in the sky, they were called "deer"; sky deer were "dogs", they hunted "deer" with them; one day, the "deer" fur was thrown down, it gave rise to hares on the ground; they are skinny, because they originated from wool, and heavenly "deer" are fat]: Batchelor 1927:376.

SV Asia. Forest Yukaghirs (b. Yasachnaya) [the parents of the boy and his younger sister die; for three months the boy lies on the bed, keeps his eyes on his sister, refuses to eat; asks her to lie with him; she replies that the Sun will be angry; he says otherwise they will die; she agrees to call him friend rather than brother, sews two bags where to put her feet on the bed, sewing them to one blanket; a mythical Old Man with a face like the moon enters the house; a young man fights him, kills him on the eleventh day; makes a house of willow branches where she puts the corpse (this is what should be done with outstanding dead); lies down with her sister; the next morning the girl sees in a willow house a beautiful young man and there are many hares around; the young man explains that he died in the form of a moon-faced old man and was born human; since brother and sister got married, the Owner of the Earth sends them hares instead deer]: Jochelson 1926, No. 1:243-244; Markovo [elk, ram and hare are brothers; the elder, the elder, dies from a small arrow, and the youngest, the hare, runs on even if his intestines are released]: Dyachkov 1992: 239.

Subarctic. Tagish, inner Tlingits, southern tutchoni, helmet [Animal Mother gives birth to commercial animals; rocking them on moose skin between four mountains, gives rise to current ones features; before that, Rabbit had horns; Animal Mother gives them to Moose; scary fangs from the upper jaw Moose gives Grizzly]: McClelland 1975 (2): 454-456; 1987:257; southern tutchoni [two sisters married to a hunter; one gives birth to a pair of moose, caribou, mountain sheep, rabbits; she turns into a moose herself; at first, the rabbits had horns, Mother removed them so that the rabbits could fall into traps; she creates {gives birth?} also all other animals and birds]: McClelland 2007, No. 28:154-158; Inner Tlingit [the rabbit had horns so it was difficult to catch it with snare; Animal Mother deprived it of its horns]: McClelland 2007 (3), No. 133:601. chipewayan [Moose and Rabbit were the same size and had no name; fighting for the right to be a moose; the elk wins; falling into the fire, it burns its ass; the rabbit falls into the fire with its hind legs; they are so stretched out that he couldn't be a moose]: Goddard 1912, No. 10:59.

The coast is the Plateau. Yakima [The Deer and the Rabbit went to the steam room together; the Deer ran away with Rabbit's clothes, leaving him his own; now the Deer lives in the mountains and the Rabbit in the grass]: Hines 1992, No. 12:50; clickitat [chief promises to appoint the moose to whoever the horns suit; the rabbit wants horns for himself, others say they fit him; after three months, hunters kill him, but there is little fat; they decide that the elk cannot be like this skinny; same episode with another rabbit; (real) Elk is Sturgeon's brother; Sturgeon refuses to go to the fitting, Moose goes, gets horns; after three months he is killed; there is a lot of fat, the hunters are happy; Sturgeon goes into the water]: Jacobs 1934, No. 4:8-10; tillamook [a person finds good luck and health when he sees a rabbit with an elk horn on his head]: Jacobs, Jacobs 1959, No. 60:183; alsea [Coyote tries on horns consistently to all animal people; they are not suitable for anyone; the penultimate is the Rabbit; the Moose gets the horns, the Deer is mentioned as his brother]: Frachtenberg 1920, No. 2:35-55.

The Midwest. Ojibwa [Nenabosho first catches ordinary trouts, throws them away, wants to catch their chief named Ogima; in the spring he hides Laska under his nephew's clothes; shouts O. to swallow him to swallow bait, he swallows the boat; Laska gnaws at his heart; trouts bury him at the bottom, but N. releases bile and O. pops up; N. comes out, comes to his grandmother's house, there are many dead birds near him; they they teased the old woman, imitating the voice of N.; he dries two ponds, O. cooks in one, releases fat in the other; convenes animals; Rabbit was the first to throw himself into fat; The elk was the last, pulled out the Rabbit and wiped it him, said he was too young to feast with others; Rabbit replied that rabbit hunters would now be much easier to kill than moose; when everyone left, the Rabbit put fat around his neck and legs, it's the only place he has fat meat now]: Carson 1917:492.

Southeast USA. Chirokee: Hagar 1906 [The Great Rabbit was big and horned; drowned during the flood; the current ones arose from his remains washed ashore by the waves]: 361; Mooney 1900, No. 26 [The Deer and Rabbit decide race; the winner will get horns; the rabbit says he must explore the area, secretly clears his way; animals punish him by suspending him from competition, award antlers to the Deer; The rabbit was told to continue to nibble on the bushes]: 275-276; Kilpatrick, Kilpatrick 1964 [The deer borrowed Rabbit's shoes and hat (i.e. horns), did not return it]: 25-26.

California. Yurok [The rabbit gets horns; they get stuck in the thickets; then the horns are given to the Moose]: Kroeber 1976, No. X7:426; pomo (porridge): Oswalt 1964, No. 8 [The Rabbit had horns; the Elk persuaded him change horns to long ears; after that, the Rabbit began to run the fastest; the Fox slowly smeared his feet with resin, the Rabbit could no longer run; his relative Wild Cat cured him by cleaning him of tar legs], 9 [roughly the same]: 75-81, 81-83; Nisenan [Coyote chases Rabbit; Rabbit's horns cling to bushes, he gives them to the Deer]: Uldall, Shipley 1966, No. 13:53; coastal mivok [Rabbit cries, wants his maternal uncle Moose's horn; his sister persuaded his brother to give the Rabbit the horn; The elk warned not to show it to anyone, or else they would take it away; the other two Moose saw the Rabbit, took the horn, gave him long ears; Rabbit's lip burst and eyes swollen with crying]: Kelly 1978, No. 9:31.

NW Mexico. Varigio [The deer agrees to race with the Rabbit, if defeated, he will give him his hat, i.e. horns; if he loses, gives him their horns; that's why deer fall every year]: Olmos Aguilera 2005:203-204; Huichol: Lumholtz 1986 [Rabbit had horns but changed clothes with his father Deer]: 37; Negrin in Burkhart 1986 [The Deer Spirit and the Deer Tail set off ; their horns fall; Deer Tail eats its own, turns into a rabbit]: 110; Furst 1989 [1) by Preuss 1908: The deer escapes from the trap; persuades the Rabbit to get into the noose too; Rabbit's horns get stuck ; he runs away, breaking them off; The deer remains the only horned animal; 2) The deer lends horns to the Rabbit; they are hard for him, he returns them; 3) The rabbit wins the competition in jumping over the river, takes the horns from the losing Deer; they are hard for him, the gods tell him to return them; the Rabbit has only long ears]: 142-144.

Mesoamerica The Aztecs [a rabbit decorated with deer antlers suddenly appeared in the garden of the last Toltec ruler Topilcin and a hummingbird collecting flower nectar with a huge spur; then A deer with a huge tail rushed all over Tollan, disappeared without a trace]: Alva Ixtlilxochitl 1975:278, 283; tepehua (Pisaflores) [The rabbit had big horns, he couldn't run with them; the Deer asked them borrowed, repaid in the evening; same the next day; didn't return it on the third]: Vigueras, Ríos López 2006:6; mountain camps [see J4B motif; when Homsuk was little, he cried, mother grinded it and threw it into the water; it was caught and raised by the old woman Tsitsimat; her husband wanted to eat it, H. killed them both; came to his mother, asked where his father was; He went to the country of Gromov and died; The turtle drove H. across the sea; she was in pain, she came back; for the Rabbit's cure, H. gave him horns; the deer began to compete with him, the horns suited him more, he took them for himself; more about the victory of H. Over the Thunder]: Elson 1947:195-213; acateques [The rabbit lent his "hat" (horns) to the Deer, he did not give it back; the King promises the Rabbit that he would get horns if he brought the skins of certain animals; Rabbit distracts animals by playing guitar, then kills them; when he brings skins to the King, he does not give their horns, but stretches the Rabbit's ears]: Peñalosa 1996, No. 6:31; chooh [The deer asks for the Rabbit let him vilify his horns; no longer returns]: Kunst 1915:357; Tsotzil: Laughlin 1977, No. 167 [The deer calls the Rabbit his older brother, asks to borrow a hat and shoes (i.e. horns and hooves for a while ), does not return]: 377-378; Relatos Tzotziles 1995 [Rabbit had horns and hooves; The deer says he is going to the party, asks the Rabbit to lend them to him; does not return them; so God wanted, ido with horns to the Rabbit it would be inconvenient]: 50-55; kanhobal [The deer asked the Rabbit to lend him horns, he did not give it back; he complained to the king; the king promised to make the Rabbit tall so that the horns would suit him better; for this purpose, he must bear 15 burdens of skins; The rabbit began to play the guitar for the Snakes; asks the Snake where its sensitive place is so as not to hurt; she replies what is at the end of the tail; the Rabbit kills the Serpent, brings it to the king; then but with the Crocodile; Monkeys and Coati invites Monkeys and Coati to get into the bags to weigh who is heavier; he kills everyone, brings skins to the king on the Battleship; he says that if the Rabbit is big, he will become completely dangerous; stretches his ears]: Peñalosa 1995b:99-105; cakchikel, canhobal [The deer borrowed Rabbit's hat or shoes, supposedly for a walk once; did not give it back]: Peñalosa 1996, No. 97:55; Jacaltecs: Montejo 1991 [Rabbit first; the Deer asks for them for a while, does not return them; the Creator says nothing can be done, gives Rabbit long ears in return; now he is smart and cautious]: 31 -34; Montejo, Campbell 1993 [two chiefs try unsuccessfully to hit a deer on the face of the moon with an arrow; a fool (simpleton) asks for permission to shoot, cuts off the deer's leg with an arrow; it falls in the sea, which was then boiling; the chiefs ask Vulture to reach out his leg, it is scalded; the chiefs make him new eyes from the seeds of the miche tree, but he remains bald; the fool easily pulls out the deer's leg; everyone eats meat , he only gets bones; he grinds them, all animals come out of the piston; he keeps them behind the fence; his mother laughs when she sees animals, the animals run through the mountains; the deer had long ears, the antlers had rabbit, they changed; only the Fox remains, he was tied in the house; the Fool released him; noticed that when the Fox blows the winds, the smell is pleasant; Louse sends to follow the Fox, but he lay down in the sun the louse crawled, the Fox saw it; sent Flea, who jumped off the Fox, then jumped again; but forgot exactly where the Fox got the corn; the mouse found the backing rock, said to the Fool; the Mouse and the Fox climbed there through the hole, but it was too small for a person; var.: Qich Mam went after a big ant carrying a grain of corn; bandaged his waist to punish him, so the ants had a narrow waist; the woodpecker became hammering a rock, broke its beak; KM began to play marimba, echoed where the rock was thinner; lightning broke the rock, there were grains of corn, beans, peppers, pumpkins, etc.; the burnt corn turned black, the less charred one was red, some remained white; the KM called people, they dismantled the corn; the CM had the smallest cobs, but the land was his, it gave the best harvest]: 100-103; tocholabal [ The rabbit answers the Deer why he is sad: God said that he would soon lose its antlers; the Deer already knew that he would get the horns; asked him to borrow him horns for a while; promises to give him back if the Rabbit overtakes him ; stuns him with a cry, easily overtakes him]: Montemayor 1996 (1): 74-75.