Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B42B. Hunting for ungulates.


In the plot of space hunting, ungulates (elk, deer, mountain sheep) are the object of persecution. See motif B42.

SW Africa. Hottentots: Marshall 1975 [Schapera, The Khoisan People of South Africa, ch.14, reported Theophilus Hahn; the hunter is Aldebaran, the husband of women- Pleiades; zebras are two groups of three, six in total; the Pleiades told her husband not to return without prey; but he missed, and on the other hand, Leo is waiting, so Aldebaran cannot find an arrow; the Pleiades say to other men that they think in vain that they (women) are their equal]: 454; Schultze 1907:367f in Nilsson 1920 [three stars of the Orion Belt are three zebras; Orion's sword is a hunter who fires two arrows at the middle zebra]: 120; Bushmen! kung (Ju/wā NW of Botswana) [Orion belt - three zebras, male in the center, female at the edges or center, male along the edges; in narons, the first is male, followed by two females; the Great Magellanic Cloud - a grass meadow; the god Old Gaú is on it, he shot zebras, but the arrow did not reach (this is Orion's Sword)]: Marshall 1975:453-454.

North Africa. Tuaregs (Ahaggar and Tadjebest en Amanar) [this is Duveyrier 1864:424, where is the same; Orion is a gazelle hunter (constellation Hare), Sirius is his dog]: Basset 1910:16.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans.

South Asia. Vedas; Hinduism; Northern India, Hindi ["Harina Harin Stars. Hindu mothers teach children to distinguish between Deer and Doe in the sky {Y.V. Vasilkov: male and female of the same species, i.e. either deer and deer, or male and female fallow deer}; next to them is a constellation that looks like hunter with a bow and arrow. The Purva Chitti Apsara lived in the sky in Brahma's country. Once she was dancing and all the gods looked at her. Brahma fell in love and wanted to have it. He chased her and she turned into a doe. Then he turned into a deer and continued his pursuit. Shiva was furious about this behavior, took the form of Ardra (the constellation that the shooter represents) and decided to help the fallow deer. Brahma became frightened and stopped persecuting him. Now you can see them all in the sky"]: Crooke 1895, No. 517:182.

Baltoscandia. The Sami: Billson 1918 [Kalla-parnek are the sons of the Sun's daughter, who invented skis, domesticated deer; they are now in the sky; among them Orion, Sirius, etc.; the Big Dipper is their bow, the Pleiades are pantry, Cassiopeia - stalked deer, Jupiter - Elk, Venus - motley vazhenka]: 180; Potanin 1893, No. 87 [(by Castrén, Finn.Myth.:320); Orion is a Kalla parneh hunter, his bow is B. Bear; Cassiopeia is an elk he drove with his dog]: 328 (probably the same spring in Kharuzin 1890:347, but the hunter is named Colla Parne, Cassiopeia is "deer"); Eelsalu 1995 [by Eero Antio, 7 options; Myandash has golden horns, a white body, a black head, he flies along the "path of the sun"; Orion is a hunter Tiermes, a deer is Taurus, horns are Hyades, a deer tail is Perseus]: 611-612; Kharuzin 1890 [(according to Nemirovich -Danchenko. Lopar land//Picturesque Russia 1:171); Aroma-Telle is ten pines tall, his dogs are a deer, chases a white deer with a black head and golden horns; when he hits him with the first arrow, mountains they will fall apart, fire will be thrown away, the rivers will flow back, the lakes and the sea will dry up; the second in the forehead - the fire will spread across the ground; dogs will rush, the hunter will pierce the heart with a knife - the stars will fall, the moon will go out, the sun will drown] : 148-149; another paraphrase in Czarnoluski 1962 [Tiermes throws lightning from a rainbow, drives the Myandash-Pyrre deer; when he catches up with the first arrow, the rivers will flow back, the lakes will run out; the second is the ground will be covered by fire, the Old Man from the North will burn; when dogs rush at M. and T. stabs him into his heart, the stars will fall from the sky, the earth will turn to dust]: 80-81; Lundmark 1982 [in the space hunting scene Cassiopeia, Pegasus, Chariot are represented by elk, Castor and Pollux, or the three stars of the Orion Hunting Belt; in Jokmokk it is also "three dogs of Steel"; Var.: hunter - Arcturus, hunting moose with a bow; when the elk will be killed, the world will end]: 93-100; Finns and Karelians: Goršič 2015 [Lemminkainen pursues the elk Hiisi (Kalevala, rune 13) across the sky: by kirjovuori, kirjokansi; kirjovuori -" mountain in specks, chips", in this case the starry sky (according to Toivonen 1955:198)]: 213; Frog 2012a [kirjokansi "ornamented cover") - "sky", according to Setälä 1932:524-528]: 230; (cf. Petrukhin 2003 [the hunter tries to ski the giant moose Hiishi rushing across the sky, but cannot do so (or misses the prey, dreaming of the skin of an unkilled beast); {more: "hunter turned into the North Star, his ski track into the Milky Way, his elk into the Big Dipper" - this is not in runes}]: 68; see also Evseev 1950, No. 9 (Karelians) [Lyulicki skis, caught up, killed Moose Hiisi , dreams of lying down with a girl in his skin], 66 [Lyusmukko skis, catches up with Hiishi the elk, the ski split into a stump, on the shoulder blades of an elk; L. regrets that there is no girl to lie on her moose skin with]: 42, 147; Karelian petroglyphs: Ravdonikas 1936, Tables 22, 64 and 65 (=Ernits 2010, fig.7) [an anthropomorphic character, probably skiing and an elk; the character's long arms may have a crescent moon and a sun circle] ; 1938, Tables 5, 13 and 47 (Zalavruga) [No. 15: anthropomorphic character, in front of him an elk, a character, may have aimed a bow at an elk; No. 17 (=Ernitz 2010, fig. 8): a similar anthropomorphic character on skis and an elk; apparently, the character touches the moose with a club], 33 and 73 (Demon footsteps, southern group; an anthropomorphic character touches an elk with a club or aims a bow); (cf. Devlet, Devlet 2005 [one-story with Zalavruga and Demon Nose, as well as profile images from the Deer Cliff on the Hangar (Figure 115.2) and from the Second Stone Island on the Angara (Figure 116): ski hunter haunts an elk; the iconography of an elk is more different from Karelian than the character's iconography]: 133, Figure 116).

Volga - Perm. Marie (zap. Potanin in the village. Bims of Yelabuga County) [Ursa Major (Shordo-shbdyr, "elk star" - an elk with four cubs and a hunter with a dog; the latter are sentenced to spin around the sky forever for killing the first, i.e. young Moose with womb]: Potanin 1883:713.

Turkestan. Kazakhs; Kyrgyz; (Uighurs?).

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Chulym Turks [seven hunters caught up with the elk; the first was clairvoyant, three assistants behind, the other three were carrying food; frost hit, they froze and turned out to be the Milky Way]: Lukina 2004, No. 5.2:98; Altaians; Tuvans; Teleuts; Tofalars; Shors; Khakas; Baikal Buryats (Balagan); Trans-Baikal Buryats ( Khorin); darkhats; Oirats (derbyts); Kukunor olets; Khalkha-Mongols.

Western Siberia. Forest Nenets; Tundra Nenets [they do not know the Russian name of the Pleiades constellation, they usually call it "many little stars"; the names of the Pleiades are recorded "they share the thigh of a wild deer" and Milky Way "wild deer share fat"]: Adayev 2015:211-212; Nganasans; northern Khanty: Gondatti (namely northern ones, since Gondatti was in Berezovo and Obdorsk) [the six-legged elk lived on sky; Noomi sent the hero Mos-hum, who cut off two legs, threw him to the ground; the heavenly elk was the Big Dipper, the Milky Way, the path along which M.] drove the elk to Potanin 1893:385; Lukina 2010 (Kazimsky, A.M. Moldanov) ["The power of ho is also our people. He was chasing a six-legged elk, now stars in the sky. I cut off two of his legs with a sword so people could catch up. Kurng Voy is the Big Dipper, the song is about her." The power of ho hot - Pleiades (A.M. said: "Where there are many stars". T.A., who knows the starry sky well, explained that these are the Pleiades]: 222; Senkevich-Gudkova 1949 (Kazim) [Hunt, Nenets, Evenk chased the elk; Evenk decided to kill his comrades first; the hunt managed to kill himself moose with an arrow; all were carried to heaven; Big Dipper - Kuring Howy Hes, "Moose Star"]: 157; Eastern Khanty: N.P. Grigorovsky (missionary in Vasyuganya) in Potanin 1883 [ The Big Dipper is called Elk; the Tungus, Ostyak and Samoyed decided to kill the elk; the Samoyed wanted to roast meat on a spit, the Tungus was raw, the ostyak was boiled; at the beginning of the chase, the Ostyak returned for the pot, overtook Samoyed; the Tungus was ready to hit the elk with a palm tree (horn); asked the spirits for the moose to live in the land of the Tungus from now on, for which he promised to kill Ostyak and Samoyed; Ostyak managed to kill the moose with an arrow, breaking the spell tungus; therefore, moose are found in the ground of the Ostyaks; the four stars of the bucket are the legs of an elk; the first star of the tail is the Tungus, then the Ostyak, which leaned to the right, shooting; next to it is a bowler hat; the last star is a Samoyed; three stars in front of the bucket are an arrow; if the Elk goes faster than other constellations, spring is early, there are a lot of fish and animals]: 778; Kulemzin, Lukina 1978, No. 1 (Vasyugan) [God created an eight-legged moose; sees that the hunter he drives (and cannot catch up); God's son put on skis, drove an elk, cut off 4 legs to make the hunter catch up more easily; the ski track is the Milky Way], 2 (Vasyugan) [God's son Torom-pah drove a six-legged moose, took off two legs, four remained; the trail remained in the sky, as T. killed the moose with an arrow; the arrow remained in the sky; once T. missed and the miss was visible], 3 (Vasyugan) [Torom-pah drove a six-legged moose, cut off two legs; said that people will be as small as a finger, how will they catch up; people began to be born with a little finger; where T. ran after a moose, there is a ski trail - the Milky Way; there is a six-legged elk nearby, each star is a part of his body]: 15; Honti 1978 in Lukina 1990, No. 8 (Tromoegan) [father-in-law laughs at Torum's son, believes he is a bad hunter; he can hardly catch up with a six-legged moose, cuts off a pair of his legs so that future people can catch up with the moose; attached the skin to the sky, ordered to mark the dawn; the moose trail he was walking on was nailed to the sky with the tip of an onion so that people could navigate; brings meat to the father-in-law, tells him to get lost and die]: 67- 69; Lukina 1990, No. 9 (Vakha river) [three winged men from Vakha, Ob and, perhaps, from the Yenisei ran after the moose; Vakhovsky threw the cauldron to make it easier to escape; the moose was the first to catch up; the handle of the Big Dipper - three hunter, bucket - cauldron]: 69; southern Khanty (Irtysh) [Tunk-Pokh chased a six-legged moose across the sky, cut off two hind legs; Big Dipper - elk, Milky Way - ski track]: Patkanov, 117 c Okladnikov 1950:299; Mansi; Northern and Southern Selkups; Southern Selkups: Alatalo 2004 (records by K. Donner, 1911-1914, No. 591 (b. Chaya) [Big Dipper - elk (four stars) and three hunters] ,1630 (Baidon yurts, Chulym) [four stars of the Ursa Major are elk; the other three are chasing moose Tungus, Ostyak and Samoyed] ,1645 (b. Tym) [Big Dipper - "(Jagd-) Zugnetz des Tym-Flußes"; four stars are elk legs, the rest are three hunters: Samoyed, Ostyak and Tungus]: 86, 234, 237; Kets; Sym Evenks (b. Kate).

Eastern Siberia. Central, Western (Olekma) and Northeastern (Kolyma) Yakuts; all Evenks; Evens: Bolshakova, Chaiko 2015:55;.

Amur-Sakhalin. Negidals; Orochi; Nanais.

SV Asia. Chukchi; Markovo.

The coast is the Plateau. Quarry; chilcotin; chalkomel; snohomish; twana.

Plains. Sarsi; grovantre; wichita.

Big Pool. Northern Payutes; Southern Payutes; Chemewevi; Panamint.

The Great Southwest. Yavapai; mojave; kiliwa; seri; Western Apache; mescalero; lipan.