Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B42F. The Big Dipper is an ungulates.

.13.14. (.17.) .

The Big Dipper (whole or just a bucket) is identified with a large ungulates (moose, deer, mountain sheep). If not otherwise, in the description of space hunting, see motive B42.

Teda, the Tuaregs, (Sumer?) , Russians (Arkhangelsk, Olonetskaya, Vologda, Pskov, Novgorod, Vladimir, Kostroma, Tver, Penza, Yaroslavskaya, Tambov; probably Tersky Bereg), Russian written tradition, Western Sami (Finns, Karelians?) , Mari, Chulym Turks, Mansi, Northern, Eastern and Southern Khanty, Northern and Southern Selkups, Chum salmon, Kotts, Tundra and Forest Nenets, Evenks (Sym, Erobogachen, Turukhansky, Nizhneangarsk, Orochons), Evens, Negidals, Orochi, Nanais, Chukchi, Markovo, Koryaks (reindeer and coastal?) , Itelmen, Asian Eskimos, St. Lawrence, Aleuts (Commanders), Yupik, Bering Strait and Northern Alaska Inupiate, McKenzie Estuary, Copper, Netsilic, Caribou, Igloolik, Baffin Land, Labrador, West Greenland, Inhalic, halkomel, skagit, snohomish, puyallup niscually, twana, northern payut.

Sudan - East Africa. Ted [Ursa Major is a "wild donkey"; the seven stars of Ursa Major are seven wild donkeys trying to approach a well (North Star) that two stars of Ursa Minor prevent them from reaching]: Kronenberg 1958:106; (cf. Ancient Egypt [The Big Dipper is a bull tied to a pole; in the IV-II millennium BC α of the Dragon (Thuban), which was closest to the axis of the celestial sphere; if the table is associated with a star, then with her, not with Polyarnaya; {the author refers to other publications; the Egyptian images given are vague; N.V. Makeeva, Egyptologist: The Big Dipper is always the leg of a bull; she really tied to something; but not the whole bull}]: Didier 2009:121-124).

North Africa. Tuaregs: Basset 1910:16 [this is from Duveyrier 1864:424, where is the same; Ursa Major is a camel, Malaya is her camel, the North Star is a black woman holding a camel on a leash, so that his mother does not leave; the stars, γ, μ, ν, decide whether to kill the black woman; she froze in horror], 16-17 [The Big Dipper is Noah's camel transported to heaven, who seven noble people were killed; God punished them by turning each of them into an animal of a certain species: a lizard (of a certain species), a jackal, a chameleon, etc.; the Tuaregs do not eat this lizard, considering it a maternal uncle]; Benhazera 1908 [=Basset 1910:16-17, clarifying that the North Star is the head of this camel]: 60-61; Bernus, AG-Sidiyene 1989 [The North Star is the stake to which a camel walking around is attached ( Ursa Minor); his mother, the Big Dipper, is watching him]: 144.

(Wed. Western Asia. Sumer [before the advent of wheeled transport, the Big Dipper in Mesopotamia could not be associated with a wagon and was apparently associated with a bull; {arguments are given based on Gilgamesh and the source of Hellenistic time from Egypt; perhaps but unprovable}]: Didier 2009:119-120).

Central Europe. Russians [the first name "Elk" in relation to the Big Dipper was recorded in Afanasy Nikitin's "Walking Across Three Seas"]: Petrukhin 2003:69; Semenov 1994:117; Russians [Afanasy Nikitin, KHAN 35: "Hair and Cola came to the dawn, and the Elk stands with its head to the east"]: Karpenko 1992:194; Russians (Arkhangelskaya) [Big Dipper - Elk]: Efimenko 1984:171; Russians ( Arkhangelskaya) [Cassiopeia - "Ostyatskaya Moose" (as opposed to) one) t Bolshoy - "an apple; when someone wants to pick it, an apple tree grows; a real one, Ursa Major]: Anikin 1994:88; Russians: Ruth 1987 [the name of the Big Dipper "Elk" in Arkhangelskaya, Olonetskaya, Yekaterinburg, Vladimirskaya, Vologda, Novgorod (Volkhov District and Lake. Ilmen), Pskov, Penza, Perm, Tambov, Tver, Yaroslavl, Siberia]: 17; Svyatsky 1961 [the name of the Big Dipper "Elk" in Irkutsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Kostroma, Arkhangelsk, Olonetskaya, Pskov, Novgorod]: 117; Russians [the area of distribution of the cosmonym; {there is no data for the Terek coast, but given the widespread spread of cosmonym in the north, the Russian ethnic the Russian population of the Kola Peninsula probably also had it}]: Avilin 2019b, map 8; Russian written tradition [Afanasy Nikitin's Three Seas (1460-1470s); Chronicle: "In Undy Besermensky in the Great Heder, I looked at the Great Night on the Great Day, Volosyny da Kola entered the dawn, and the Elk was headed east"; Troitsky (Yermolinsky) interpretation: "In India, on the other hand, in Besermenskaya, in the great Bederi, I looked at the Great Night on the Great Day Volosyny da Cola in the dawn, and the Elk was standing with his head to the east"; Sukhanovsky recitation: "In India and Besermen, in the great Bederi, esmi looked at the Great Night Hair and Cola entered the dawn, and the Elk was standing with his head to the east"; translation: "In Bidar the Great, in Besermen India, on the Great Night of On a great day, I watched the Pleiades and Orion enter the dawn, and the Big Dipper stood with her head to the east"; publishers' comment: "Afanasy Nikitin gives the Russian names of the constellations Pleiades, Orion and Bolshoi Little bears, showing that he is good at reading the starry sky. The mutual position of the constellations named by Afanasy Nikitin indicates that it could have been observed at Bidar's latitude around May"]: Lurie, Semenov 1986:13, 26-27, 38, 53, 168; Belarusians [ one of the names of the Big Dipper is Sakhachi (associated with the Russian "Sokhaty"]: Sanko 2004:453.

Baltoscandia. Western Sami [the name Sarva ("elk") refers to Ursa Major or Cassiopeia in different areas; according to Juhan Turi, this constellation includes Cassiopeia, Perseus, and part of Auriga]: Pentikäinen 1997:118.

Volga - Perm. Marie: Saint 1961 [Shordo-Chudyr, Moose Star]: 118; Shkalina 2003 [Big Dipper - Shordo-Schudyr (Moose Deer Constellation)]: 81; Erdödi 1968 ["Moose", "Deer"]: 117

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Chulym Turks [The Big Dipper is not a moose hunting scene, but a moose family: a female with a calf, a male elk, and two- or three-year-old moose]: Dulzon 1952:120.

Western Siberia. Northern Khanty: Gondatti (apparently northern Khanty, since Gondatti was in Berezovo and Obdorsk) [a six-legged elk lived in the sky; Noomi sent the hero Mos-Hum, who cut off two legs, threw him to the ground; the heavenly elk was the Big Dipper, the Milky Way was the path along which the elk M. drove] to Potanin 1893:385; Lukina 2010 (Kazymsky, A.M. Moldanov) ["The power of ho is also our people. He was chasing a six-legged elk, now stars in the sky. I cut off two of his legs with a sword so people could catch up. Kurng Voy is the Big Dipper, the song is about her." The power of ho hot - Pleiades (A.M. said: "Where there are many stars". T.A., who knows the starry sky well, explained that these are the Pleiades]: 222; Senkevich-Gudkova 1949 (Kazim) [Hunt, Nenets, Evenk chased the elk; Evenk decided to kill his comrades first; the hunt managed to kill himself moose with an arrow; all were carried to heaven; Big Dipper - Kuring Howl Hes, "Elk Star"]: 157; Solovar 2014 (Kazim) [kurhowl 'elk; Big Bear']: 131; Eastern and Southern Khanty; Mansi: Ivanova 2009 [the elk lived in the sky in the constellation Yangui ("big beast", i.e. "elk"); the northern Mansi call the Ursa Major the Moose constellation; he had six legs, he could not be caught up; Moses Hum made him accessible to humans by cutting off his two hind legs]: 79; Lukina 1990, No. 110 [Mos-Hum heard that the Menki were chasing a six-legged moose; jumped out of the cradle, I drove myself, cut off two hind legs; the road I drove along was the Milky Way, the elk was the Big Dipper; when the moose had six legs, people could not catch up with it]: 297; Kannisto 1951, No. 7 [the elk was six-legged ; the winged Poaster cut off two of his legs; if he wants to be six-legged, let him be Ursa Major in the sky; it is impossible for an elk to touch the clothes of a menstruating woman and a vessel containing raw fish]: 22-24; Northern and Southern Selkups; Southern Selkups: Alatalo 2004 (records by K. Donner, 1911-1914, No. 591 (b. Chaya) [Big Dipper - elk (four stars) and three hunters] ,1630 (Baidon yurts, Chulym) [four stars of the Ursa Major are elk; the other three are chasing moose Tungus, Ostyak and Samoyed] ,1645 (b. Tym) [Big Dipper - "(Jagd-) Zugnetz des Tym-Flußes"; four stars are elk legs, the rest are three hunters: Samoyed, Ostyak and Tungus]: 86, 234, 237; chum salmon; cotts [a ċ áne 'elk; Ursa Major']: Castrén 1858:198, 233 (quoted in Potanin 1893:712); Forest Nenets (Nizhnevartovsk District) [Tyaptukage (sky goose with anthropomorphic features) chased a seminoid moose along the Milky Way; after catching up, he tore off three legs; the seminoid elk became the Ursa Major, and people can now catch moose]: Semenov 1994:115; Nenets ("Samoyeds Turukhansky Okrug" between the Yenisei, Pyasina and Taimyr) ["The North Star is also called the hunter for the big bear 'Forred', which Russians know as the elk"]: Tretyakov 1871:415; Nenets (Bolshezemelskaya tundra) [the Big Dipper bucket is a deer team; the extreme star of the handle is a woman, the second (Mitsar) is a man, Alcor is a load, the handle star closest to the bucket is part of the team]: Nikolay Aleksandrovich Taleev, shaman, born in 1969, personal communication on September 22, 2011; Nenets (Arkhangelsk Gubernia) [when the elk leaves, the night begins]: Yermolov 1905b: 310; Nenets ("Samoyeds of the Turukhansky District" between the Yenisei, Pyasina and Taimyr) ["The North Star is also called the Big Bear Hunter ' Forrade', which Russians know as the elk "]: Tretyakov 1871:415.

Eastern Siberia. All Evenks; Evens: Bolshakova, Chaiko 2015 [three brothers chased animals, have already killed everyone; Havki decided to punish his brothers, created three rams that the brothers cannot catch up with; the sheep reached the ends of the earth and ran across the sky; their hunters; they all turned into stars (Ursa Major): three rams, followed by three hunters, followed by a dog dragging a leash]: 55; History and culture Evens 1997 [among the Even constellation names, only the general Tunguska name Ursa Major is Ilkun ("Sokhaty")]: 113; Keymetinov 2000 [even, Evenk and Yukagir (or Chukcha, h eek) ) decided to find out which of them is stronger, faster and more enduring; we agreed that whoever finds the largest and fastest animal and brings home the whole thing will be considered the strongest, fastest and a hardy hunter in the middle world; they chased an unknown animal; where he stepped with his foot, a lake appeared, where hunters were skiing, rivers appeared, and where they ran, a river (roll); the beast ran north, from where frost comes from and where the sky is closer to the ground; left traces in the form of lakes (so there are many lakes in the tundra); this animal, i.e. moose, began to be called currents ("coming or trail the hunters did not notice how they found themselves in the upper world; there Havek turned an elk, three hunters (even, evenk and yukaghir) and a dog into stars for climbing into stars without Havek's permission the upper world; the four stars of the Big Dipper are the four legs of an elk; star-turned hunters froze near these four stars, and not far from these seven stars, another often flashing "North Star" {unlikely; North Star does not blink; rather Alcor} is a hunting dog]: 125-127.

Amur - Sakhalin. Negidals; Orochi; Nanais.

SV Asia. Chukchi; Markovo; Koryaks (reindeer and coastal?) : Krasheninnikov 1994 (2): 22 [The bear is called a crankhl], 160 [Ursa Major - Yelue-kying, i.e. wild deer]; Jochelson 1908 [Ursa Major - Elwe'kyeñ, Elwe'eñen (" wild male northern deer", "wild northern star deer"]: 122; itelmen [Ursa Major is called a name that means "elk"; reported by St. Grebnitsky]: Potanin 1883:942.

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos (Sirenics, Naukan), St. Lawrence, Alutiic, Bering Strait and Northern Alaska Inupiate, Copper, Netsilic, Caribou, Baffin Land, Igloolik, Greenland [in these languages have preserved the Proto-Eskimo tuntu ("reindeer") and tunturðuγ ("Ursa major")]: Fortescue et al. 1994:351; Asian Eskimos [Ursa Major - Tuntu ("wild deer"); Eskimo-Russian Dictionary, Moscow, 1971:510]: Anikin 1990:20; St. Lawrence [tunturyuk - Ursa Major (from tuntu - caribou)]: Jacobson 1984:377; Aleuts: Grebnitsky in Potanin 1883 (Commanders) [Ursa Major - Itmakh, Malaya - Itmakucha; under iths - "deer", "elk" in the language of the Unalashka Aleuts]: 942; Jochelson 1990, No. 15 (Unalashka) [digging roots, sister of the Month makes a hole in the sky, sees villages below; weaves a rope, she goes down, marries two men, gives birth to a son; he grows up; before she dies, she tells him how to take to the sky by sunlight (?) ; describes the people he will meet; these are the constellations: Three Stars (Orion), Evening Star (working with the turn of day), Cod Ligaments (Pleiades), Caribou (Ursa Major; at the same time, all stars these constellations are humans, obviously men); the young man comes to the Month; burned by lifting the mat (behind which the Sun is apparently a man); the Old Month gives him clothes for the new, half, old moon; makes it New Month, Dies]: 149-155; Yupik: Zagoskin at MacDonald 1998 (hall. Norton, Lower Yukon) [Ursa Major - Caribou]: 79; Amos, Amos 2003 (Chupik dialect) [Big Dipper - Tunturyag {from tuntupig - "caribou"}]: 329; Northern Alaska Inupiate (Point) Barrow) [Big Dipper - Caribou Deer]: MacDonald 1998:79; Copper (Holman Island, Coronation Gulf) [Big Dipper - Caribou Deer]: Jenness 1922:22, Pryde 1995:33 in MacDonald 1998:79; Igloolik: Mathiassen 1928 (Repulse Bay) [Ursa Major - Caribou Deer]: 233; Kroeber 1899, No. 10 (Smith Sound) [Ursa Major - Caribou Deer]: 173; Baffin Island [Ursa Major] - deer or caribou deer]: Boas 1888:643 (=1964:235); Labrador Eskimos [Ursa Major - deer or (more commonly) caribou deer]: MacDonald 1998:80; West Greenland: Egede 1818 [living At latitude 64 o, the Ursa Major is called Tugro ("reindeer"), and the one living at latitude 66 o is Asselliut, i.e. a pole to which tenches are tied during seal hunting]: 210; MacDonald 1998 [in East Greenland, the Ursa Major is a "lamp holder" or "tench frame"; in Western Greenland it is now a "kayak stand", but in the past (18th century) it is Tugto or Tukto ("caribou")] : 80-81.

Subarctic. Ingalic [Lower Yukon Indians call Big Dipper "Moose"]: Nelson in Vanstone 1978:61.

The coast is the Plateau. Halkomel (lower reaches of the Fraser River) [Qäls (Kels) travels, turning ancestors and correcting their defects; a young man with dogs chases an elk; K. turned a young man and dogs into stones, an elk into four Ursa Major bucket stars]: Boas 1895, No. III.1:19 (=2002:95); skagit (Nooksack), snohomish (Kamilche, Tulalip) [k w á g w i čə d 'elk; Ursa']: Bates et al. 1994:122; snohomish [The creator stayed at Puget Sound and decided to distribute all the languages there (that's why the Salish have so many) ; the sky was low, trees were climbing into the sky; people were pushing it with poles up; at that moment three hunters drove moose where heaven and earth converged; remained in the sky; hunters - the handle of the Big bucket Bears (dull star - dog); bucket - four moose]: Clark 1953:148-149 (not fully baked in Monroe, Williamson 1987:25-27); twana [Big Dipper is a group of moose walking along winding mountain path; the star next to the last star of the bucket handle is a stalker dog]: Elmendorf 1960:537; puyallup niscually [stars are people; there are rivers in the sky, but about the Milky Way informants did not speak; meteors are star people on the road; in the interior, 4 stars of the Ursa Major bucket are elk, 3 star pens are three hunters, Alcor is a dog; on the coast they don't know about an elk Big Dipper - "vessel with handle"]: Smith 1940:134.

Big Pool. The Northern Payut [the leader's son climbs a high mountain, the rockfall cuts off his way back; his father turns him into the North Star; the Ursa Major and Minor are mountain sheep walking around this mountains and trying to climb up too]: Palmer, p. 79-81 in Edmonds, Clark 1989:130-133.