Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Introduction
Bibliography
Ethnicities and habitats

B42Q. The Big Dipper is a wagon.

.15.-.17.26.-.31.34. (.35.40.)

The Big Bear is a chariot, a wagon.

Latins, Italians (everywhere in the north, rarely in the south), Spaniards, Catalans, Portuguese, French, Walloons, Bretons, Irish, British, Germans (Rügen Island, Upper Palatinate, Swabia, Switzerland), Dutch, Friesians, Sumer, Babylonia, Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Hungarians, Slovenes, Serbs, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Romanians, Moldovans, Gagauz, Poles, Kashubians, Luzhitans, Czechs, Slovaks, Russians (Pskov, Tula, Voronezh, Penza, Saratov, Samara, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Ryazan, Kursk, Oryol, Don Krai), Nekrasov Cossacks, Belarusians, Ukrainians (Chernigov, Kiev, Yekaterinoslav, Poltava, Volyn, etc.), Rumei, Urums, Terek Cossacks, Armenians, Hittites, Scandinavians, Danes, Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders, Estonians, Livs, Lithuanians, Latvians, Prussians (probably), Darhats, (Nenets, NW Greenland).

Southern Europe. Latins: Allen 1899 [Ursa Major — Plastrum, Plaustrum — Woz]: 427; Sen. Med. 310-315 [Medea by Lucius Anney Seneca (1st century); choir: “In the old days, no one watched the stars run away/from the stars, which the air is dotted at night, /I did not know the benefits. Those born then /Hyad did not know how to avoid the ship/And the Deer Goat dangerous rays/And the Carts in the edge of the cold heaven/Behind which the old man, Boopas, wanders” (trans. C. Osherova)]; Italians [the designation of the Ursa Major as wagons is everywhere in Italian Switzerland, Friuli, Lombardy, Veneto, Piedmont, Emilia Tomagna, Liguria, less often in Tuscany, only in Abruzza, Calabria]: Volpati 1933a: 464-465; Italians [Carro, “The Wagon”]: Allen 1899:427; Portuguese [Carreta, “The Carriage” at Camões]: Allen 1899:427; Catalans [Ursa Major - Carro; the wagon is formed by four bucket stars, and the three handle stars are formed by horses (Cavalls)]: Amades 1930:225; Spaniards [Carro]: Mladenova 2006:75.

Western Europe. French: Kabakova 1998, No. 23 (Gers) [Big Dipper — King David's Chariot]: 36; Krappe 1938 [Big Dipper — Chariot: David, St. Martin, Abraham, Toe Boy (Poucet), Souls, etc.]: 145; Sébillot 1904:30 (Poitou) [King David's chariot carrying souls; Alcor is a driver], 31 [Haute-Loire: B. Bears are a four-wheeled wagon, oxen, a driver; Alcor is a rat that gnaws on reins; Moselle (canton of Pays Messin): the cart is drawn by three horses, the driver tries to build them smoothly; when he it will succeed, the world will end]; the walloons [in the constellation Ursa Major, peasants see a cart on four wheels (four bucket stars), three horses (bucket handle stars) and a Pôcé chariot ; — little star above the second star]: Paris 1875:1; Bretons [“The Slanting Cart” because it has wheels of different sizes; it is dragged by three horses, Alcor is a driver]: Sébillot 1904:31; English- Saxons, 10th century. [“unenlightened people call this constellation “Carles-Wæn”]: Allen 1899:420; the British [Charles wain]: Grimm 1882:151; Werner 1912 ["I've only discovered once that the informant singles out Ursa Major, and even then not our entire constellation, but three stars π, and α, known here as Charles's chariot horses]: 195; Irish [King David's Cart]: Allen 1899:426; Goths ["Charles's Cart"]: Allen 1899:428; Germans: Allen 1899 ["The Wagon, “The Sky Carriage,” the carriage on which the prophet Ilya ascended to heaven; before the adoption of Christianity” Wotan's Cart”; Irmines Wagen at the Saxons]: 428; Potanin 1899 [Heerwagen, Herrenwagen, Wodenswagen (Wotan's Chariot)]: 153; Germans (Rügen Island) [“De Dümk” was so small that horses climbed in his ear; he did something bad and people cursed him; now he is a coachman in a heavenly wagon — a star in the Big Dipper — where the bucket's handle bends; and rides day and night]: Haas 1903, No. 160:146- 147; Germans (Upper Palatinate) [Big Dipper — Heerwagen, Drawagon]: Schönwerth 1858, No. 10:80; Germans (Swabia) [Sky Wagon (4 wheels, 2 horses and coachman) goes to Jerusalem]: Meier 1852b, No. 260:235; Swiss [Herrawaga]: Potanin 1899:153; friezes [Ancient Frisian wein, wain 'cart, cart'; in Frisian popular views gouden wein 'God's wagon, wagon ' '— Ura Major; Middle East Woenswagen's 'Wotan's Cart']: Wirth 1933:181; {Ura Linda Chronik is a 19th century fake, but the Frisian name for Ursa Major is probably true}) ; Dutch [late 1470s manuscript: Woenswaghen, Woonswaghen]: Grimm 1882-1883 (1): 151.

Western Asia. Sumer, Babylonia: Anikin 1990 [Sumersk. MUL. MAR. GID. DA, Akkadian eriq (q) u (“cart, wagon”)]: 22; Curtic 2007:239-249 [Fox — “The Star Standing on the Drawagon's drawbar” (g Ursa Major, Alcor); associated with Erra, the god of war, anarchy, famine, and plague, sometimes identified with Nergal; the connection with Erra seems to be due to the negative attitude towards the fox in Mesopotamia], 295-301 [MAR.GID.DA — “The Cart”, “The Great Cart”, the Ursa Major constellation, one one of the most revered astral deities in Ancient Mesopotamia]; Ossendrijver 2016 [Big Dipper — “wagon”, “sky cart”]: 7.

China — Korea. Ancient China: Sima Qian 2004 (1986): Chapter 27 [Bei-Dou - “North Bucket”; the Dou constellation (“bucket”) is the emperor's {heavenly} chariot, it moves in the center and controls four sides { heaven}; Fu-xing (Alcor) is a “helper”; if it moves away and shrinks, managers and subjects move away from each other and weaken]: 115-116, 261-262 (comm.), 268 [(comm.); cf. also the constellation “Zhen” (” Chariot”) - β, γ, δ, ω Raven]; Didier 2009 [Eastern Han, 151 AD; 7 stars of the Big Bear bucket (bucket on the left, handle on the right); inside the bucket on the platform there is a sitting figure in profile; this is Di; under the platform, a snake curled into four rings (like four wheels); {if it's not even a wagon, then at least an object inside which the character sits, not an animal or character group}]: 154-155 (also Harva 1933, kuva 22:133).

The Balkans. Ancient Greece: Allen 1899 [Homer calls Ursa Major the “Chariot” in Achilles's shield; as in Odyssey 5]: 426; Gigin 1997, Vol.II.2 [of the seven stars of the Ursa Major the first two took on bulls, the remaining five represented the image of a cart]: 35; Hom. Il. XVIII. 485-489 [On the shield of Achilles, Hephaestus also depicted the constellations that crown the sky; /The Pleiades, Hyades, and the power of Orion were visible, /Also the Bear, the one also called the Wagon; /She walks across the sky and Orion is stealthily watching, /And only one is not involved in swimming in the waves of the Ocean” (trans. V.V. Veresaeva)]; Hom. Od. V. 272-277 [on Odyssey: “He vigilantly watched the Pleiades also watch Boopas approach late, /Also, the Bear, what is also called the Wagon. /She walks across the sky and stealthily watches Orion, /And only one is not involved in bathing in the waves of the Ocean./With her Calypso, the light between the goddesses, told Odysseus/The way to agree, leaving her on her left hand” (trans. V.V. Veresaeva)]; [at Hom. Il. XVIII. 487 and Od. V. 273 uses the terms rktos 'bear, bear' and μαα 'four-wheeled cart, cart' (other than a two-wheel combat chariot and called rμα)]; [“Apparitions” by Arat Soliysky (c. 315 — ca. 240 BC): “Two Bears are running around /They are running in conjunction with the axis, for which they nicknamed them “Carts”. /They hold their heads invariably at each other's loins, /The shoulders of one shoulder are flush with the other, /They look to the sides, however, nasty. Believe it, /From Crete, they ascended at the behest of the great Zeus/To heaven, as a reward for being a baby/Beside the ideological spurs on the fragrant Dict/ They hid it in a cave and there for They fed for years; /Meanwhile, the Kurets were distracted by the Dictean Kron./Distinguishing them, one was named Kinosura, /Helika was the name of the other. According to Helik, the men of the Achaeans/In the sea of open ships, they determine the direction, /And the Phoenicians surf the space, trusting Kinosure. /It is true that Heliki is clear it is easy to guess the outlines: /It is fully visible immediately with at nightfall; /But Kinosura, although small, is more convenient to helmsman, /For it rotates in a smaller circle: /It is with her that the Sidonians check the infallible path. /Between the Bears it is like a river stream, /Winding is a great wonder! — Dragon” (trans. A.A. Rossius)]: Arat. Phaen. 26-46; [“Helik rushes after her, as if chasing her/Arktofilak — people call him Boopas, /For they think he rules the Carriage Bear” (trans. A.A. Rossius)]: Arat. Phaen. 91-93; [Astronomy, attributed to Guy Julius Gigin, who lived at the turn of the era: “The Ursa Major, according to many, resembles a wagon, which is why the Greeks named her Hamaxa. The reason for this legend was the following: the first sky observers to determine the number of stars in each constellation called her not Bear, but Voz, because out of seven stars, two that seemed to be the same and the closest ones were taken for bulls, while the remaining five represented the image of a wagon. Therefore, they decided to name the nearest constellation to it Boopas, which we will discuss in detail below” (trans. A.I. Ruban)]: Hyg. Astr. II. 2.2; Hungarians: Andrew 1878 ["The Cart"]: 104; László 1975 [Göncölszekér (“Conrad's Cart”)]: 391; Erdödi 1968 [“Conrad's Cart”; Alcor — Kisbéres, “little carter”]: 113; Gładyszowa 1960 [Peter's Cart, Jesus's Carriage]: 54; Sebők 2007 [Big Dipper is Conrad's cart (Göncöl); her gulf broke, everyone refused to help, so G. went to sky]: 107; Kálmány 1893 [Big Dipper — “St. Peter” (Szent Péter szekere), “Gönczöl's oder Dönczöl's Wagen”, “God's cart” (isten szekere)]: 30; Mándoki 1965 [gypsy girl (Alkor) carried straw (harl) on Karlovy Voz; scattered along the road, the Milky Way was formed; 128-129: other similar records, according to which the Big Dipper was a cart, the Milky Way was scattered straw from it; the straw was carried by either gypsies or St. Peter; 130: St. Petra is crooked, because when he was carrying straw, wolves attacked, oxen rushed, the wagon turned over, but the oxen continued to run and the crumbling straw formed the Milky Way]: 127-130; Macedonians [Bolshaya Bear - Wagon, Crooked Wagon, Big Carriage; in Staro Nagoricani: a carriage with four wheels drawn by two oxen driven by a woman (Mitsar) with a child (Alcor)]: Tsenev 2004:83; Bulgarians: Bonov 1976 [the young man went with a cart drawn by two oxen to get firewood; straightened oxen in the forest, let them graze; the bear ate one ox; the young man harnessed her into a wagon instead of an ox ( Mitsar); she twitched to the side all the time — perhaps because a little dog barked at her all the time (Alcor); {the source is not clear; in Kovachev 1914:24 the same, but the dog is only mentioned, not it is said that she barked at a bear}]: 22-24; Popov 2003 (Novo Selo, Vidinsko) [The Big Bear and the Ursa Minor were two wagons going in different directions; where they met, they stopped forever]: 271; Rakowski 1859 [And the stars, peasants and shepherds of sheep, know the following. The bright star, which in the evening from the east and seems to move west, is called Vechrna (krvan kran in Turkish). It warms until late in the evening and is not visible after. After her, a star called Moma (Girl) or Virgo, who is in the south, rises in the evening. A third, quadruple star or cross, which also rises in the evening and appears to the south. The other three stars, played by Kolyazi, the Companions, come from the East. After that comes Kokoschka, or Klovachka (Chicken, or Hen), which is seven stars. The so-called Ralitsa (the upper part of the plough) does not follow. These are six stars and they look like a ralitsa. It is followed by a star called Svinar (Swineherd), surrounded by many small stars. They are followed by Zornitsa, or Dennitsa, which expires at dawn. In addition to those, there is a constellation in the North called Cola (Woz); 4 stars are considered a cart, 2 stars are two oxen; the second star, which is slightly south, is human, and the second is smaller, which close to the ox, as if sticking to it, [p. 21] says it's a wolf. They say he returns to the same place in the evening. The second constellation, which rises right above the head of a man from Three Stars, is called Svredil (drill) because it resembles a drill. Another reddish star that rises from the northeast is called Popova Zvezda. When it rises, sheepdogs already eat fast on Friday night to Saturday. Hymen (Myakina) is the name of the aerial phenomenon that stretches across the sky (the Milky Way) and is said that one Christian ran out of chaff and did not go looking for it, but stole a basket her godson's chafs, and while she was carrying it, she woke up, and then to convict him that he had sinned, the chaff was recorded in the sky, these stargazers say about Zornitsa that she had been gone for a long time, and when Rises before dawn, shines as long as the month shines]: 20-22; Bulgarians, Serbs, Slovenians [Ursa Major and Minor - “Big Wagon (Cart)” and “Small Carriage”]: Mladenova 2006:72-73; Slovenes: Matičetov 1973 [“St. Martina”]: 88; Valjavec 1867 [Varazdin: “This is the wagon you can see in the sky, Elijina kola's wagon; remained in heaven when Saint Elijah and his horses went to heaven”; Nedelyantsi: Kolna zviezda (Wagon Star) goes to Drava every morning to drink water]: 221; Serbs [four bucket stars are a wagon with two oxen, a man and a wolf in front of them]: Janković 1951:144; Slovenes: Kropej 2012:121 [in Dalmatian Slovenia Ursa — “plow” (Kulla na nebi), in Slomšek — Nebeški voz, in Stritar — Voz na nebu, “Ilijina kola”, in Bojini — “St. Ilya”, in Pivka — “St. Martin”, in Žiri — Cowhide, but more often the Big Carriage], 122 [St. Martin was carrying firewood from the forest; the wolf jumped out, swallowed the ox, broke the globe, so the Ursa Major's forging handle was now crooked; St. Martin harnessed the wolf instead of the ox he ate; but the wolf always pulls the wagon to the forest and the ox out of the forest (Potepan 1872:259—260)]; Matičetov 1972:53-54 [The Big Dipper is a “wagon”, Little Dipper —” small wagon “], 66 [the first and second stars of the bucket handle are ox and wolf harnessed into the wagon], 71 [=Kropej 2012:122]; Bulgarians, Romanians, Hungarians [The Big Dipper is the wagon on which the thief stole the straw that formed the Milky Way]: Mladenova 2006:77; Romanians: Mladenova 2006:74 ["big wagon”, “wagon with four oxen” and “small”, “with two oxen"], 158 [Big The Bear and the Milky Way — “a cart of straw"]; Volpati 1933b [Ursa Major and Minor — two wagons on which Traian carried captured Dacians along the Milky Way to Rome]: 38; Moldovans [Karul Mare 'Big Bear', Karul Mick 'Little Bear' (car 'cart; chariot', mare 'big; great', mic 'small; weak (about sounds); young')]: Borsch et al. 1961: 277; Albanians ["big wagon” and “small wagon"]: Mladenova 2006:75; Bulgarians, Croats, Slovenians, Romanians [three star bucket handles - drawbar]: Mladenova 2006:76; Gagauz people [arba]: Moshkov 1901:55.

Central Europe. Poles: Allen 1899 ["Heavenly Cart”; three stars of the bucket handle — three horses in a zug]: 428; Gładyszowa 1960:51 [bucket — wagon, three-star handles — drawbar], 57 [(Upper) Silesia: Alcor and Mizar — “little chariot above the drawbar”); central Poland: “you can see three Auriga horses and a cart”, which suggests the idea of the Alcor chariot; then the transfer of the name Furman (typical for Western and South- western Poland) to the entire constellation Ursa Major], 58 (western and southwestern Poland) [driver Lucifer went to hell, broke his drawbar and can't go any further]; Kolbuszewski 1895 [On this wagon — according to According to legend, a pious son took his mother, a great sinner, to Inferno. However, Christ did not allow this to happen by sending an archangel to keep his forgetful son and teach him, because children should not condemn and condemn parents. Before the holy archangel carried out the assignment, the son and mother rushed to the Inferno, hit the corner of the first gate with a drawbar, broke it in half, and can now be seen in the sky. Enlightened by a heavenly messenger, the ashamed son straightened his horses and let him go. Then, after serving his sentence with his mother, he was released]: 175-176; Niebrzegowska 1999 [Ursa Major — “big cart with a crooked drawbar”, “carriage”, “drawbar carriage”, “drawbar cart”; 1) the guy was taking to Jewish kinship, came to Hell, God carried them to heaven; 2) Michael the Archangel threw the Antichrist (Lucifer) wagon from the sky, breaking its drawbar]: 147-148; Kashubians: Gładyszowa 1960 [Alcor and Mizar —” charioteer on the drawbar”)]: 57; Gulgowski 1910 [Big Dipper — a “wagon” (vŭz) with a drawbar on which the charioteer (fŭrmŭn)]: 24-25; Luzhitans: Gładyszowa 1960:51 [“the driver has three horses and four wheels”], 57 [Alcor — “driver”]; Poles, Slovaks [Ursa Major and Minor - “Big Cart” and “Small Carriage"]: Mladenova 2006:72-73; Slovaks [ Big Dipper - “voz”; vypučki - furman from Germany]: Ivašina 2008:28; Czechs: Andrew 1878 ["Who"]: 104; Gładyszowa 1960 [Alcor is the “driver” next to the “drawbar” (Micar)]: 57; Russians (Pskov, Estonian borderlands) [Big Dipper is a cart (but the main name is Moose)]: Avilin 2019:42; Russians (Tula, Chernsky U.) [The Ursa Major constellation is called King David's chariot. This chariot takes the souls of the dead righteous, after worshiping God and His Holy See with angels, to paradise, and he is on Mount Zion in Old Jerusalem, in King David's palace. So many righteous souls are blissful there, as many as flies, which sometimes happens in our huts in summer. The Orion constellation is called “radiance”. The Pleiades constellation is called vissajars. Vissajars have been in heaven since they tortured forty brothers for Christ's faith. (Protasovo). Vissazhary or stozhary is the eve of the Mother of God (Polzikovo)]: Kolchin 1899:9; Russians (Voronezh Region) [Big Dipper — GYPSY CART]: Tyurina 1972:53 (citing diss. R.V. Herolyants); Russians (Penza) [Woz, Chariot, Kolymaga, Zozlatskaya Cart, German Truck]: Bondaletov 1983:204; Nekrasov Cossacks [Arba]: Serdyukova 2005:26; Belarusians: Avilin 2015:218 (Western 2007) [Big Dipper — Elijah the Prophet's Chariot], 220 (Western 1998) [Ilya was riding a troika, carried his horses, became stars, one by one; and four stars were four wheels like a cart] map 8 [“wagon”, etc. — “carriage”, “horse with a cart”, etc.; mainly south, west and north-west of Belarus]; Vaishkunas 2004 [the main name of the Big Dipper in the Belarusian-Lithuanian border is a pan-European 'WHO']: 173; Kaspyarovich 1927 (Selets/Syalets, Chashnik District, Vitebsk Region) [Big Dipper — Ilya (Ilyin Voz)]: 145; Pyatkevich 2004 [Big Dipper — Vazok, Vazok, Karets (bucket), focuses on the seasons of the year; Orion — Kasar (mower), near the village of Kholmech — Matavila (motovilo) ), and the Pleiades — Rashata (sieve), serve to determine the time at night]: 282; Serzhputouski 1998, No. 26 (Mozoli, Slutsky y. (Minsk governorate) [There is always a cart in the north, carrying bears. The Antichrist will ride this Carriage before the end of the world and lure truthful people to forget God]: 31; Russians: Nikonov 1973 [Big Dipper — “cart”]: 375; Potanin 1919a (Tula) [Big Dipper — Tsar David's Chariot, which takes the souls of the righteous to paradise]: 84; Ruth 1987 [names associated with the wagon in Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Ryazan, Kursk, Oryol, and Don, generally in southern Russia]: 17; Fomina 2002 [“The all-Russian cosmonym Telega comes from an appellative borrowed from the Old Mongolian language — telege (n). But it is not known among the Mongols in the meaning of “Big Dipper”” {Known, see below}]: 21-22; Ukrainians: Manzhura 1890 (Aleksandrovsky and Novomoskovsky U. Yekaterinoslav Gubernia) [There are countless stars in the sky, but the dawn is two: dawn and evening: they are already like Christ was born... The road (the Milky Way) leads to Jerusalem and Crimea: as they ran from gentlemen, they walked along it. On the Road, it is in Rozsokhy {Branching} that there is Krinitsa {well} — four stars, and the Girl with buckets came from her — three stars. There is also a Woz — four wheels and three horses in a zug. There is a little Woodyla star between the far front and second horse: when they eat, it's the end of the century. The cart, as it rises in the middle of summer, stands up with horses, and by dawn it turns its horses down. The harrow has three stars in one turn, and four in the other, and a three-star breathing hole to it. There are also: Chepigi, Kvochka (Stozhary)]: 148; Potanin 1899 [1) (Afanasiev); Big Dipper — “Voz”; four bucket stars — wagon wheels; two handle stars — two oxen, the third — a driver; a small star — dog; she tries to gnaw through the harness and thus disrupt the entire structure of the universe, but before the end of the world she will want to drink, run to the water, at which time the belts grow together again; 2) (Grinchenko 1895, Chernigovskaya Lip.); there is a small star near Voz Dog, which seeks to get to one of the stars of the tail of the constellation; when something gets and gnaws through something, there will be the Last Judgment]: 414; Savchenko 1906 (Kievskaya) [ The constellation Ursa Major is called the “cart”; this is the cart that the prophet Elijah took to heaven and which he uses to ride across the blue sky during a thunderstorm; the wheels of this cart knock produce thunder]: 105; Saint 1961 [Chernigovskaya: the horses of the heavenly Carriage jumped out of the team, ran in different directions; “elsewhere in Ukraine”: Woz — four wheels and three harnessed horses; between the far front and the other — a bridle ( Alcor); when they “cross over”, the world will end; Yekaterinoslavskaya: “A mole dog (from the mole family”; Alcor) gnaws at the horse's bridle; when he gnaws, the light is over”; Volyn: Alcor is a field a mouse that wants to eat a snack on the buildings near the Wagon, but cannot cope with it and runs to the water from time to time to drink; while drinking, the buildings become thick again; when the mouse has a snack on the buildings, it will end of the world]: 113; Rulikowski 1853 (Vasilkovsky y. (Kiev governorate) [Big Dipper — Horse Cart]: 174; Ukrainians: Kostyantin Rakhno, personal report 2007 (Poltava) ["my grandmother (originally from the village of Sviridovka, Lokhvitsky District, Poltava Region) knows from the constellations Chumatsky Shlyakh (Milky Way), Viz (Big Dipper), Divka carries water — three zerki in a row” {obviously, the Orion Belt}]; Karpenko 1992 [on the star map of 1699 Kopievsky Ursa Minor is called “Lesser Voz”]: 190; Chubinsky 1872 (Podolsk Gubernia, Litinsky Uyezd) [the constellations have the following names: “voz {Ursa Major}, kvochka {Pleiades}, chepiga {Belt Orion}, mowers {Orion Belt}, girl carries water {Orion Belt}, apiary {Pleiades}, cross {Swan?} , morning and evening zornitsy” {?}] : 14.

Caucasus — Asia Minor. The Hittites [Heavenly Driver on his star chariot (Ursa Major) came and merged with Earth; Earth gave birth to twins]: Ivanov 1977:123-124, 284 (note); Urums (Donetsk Region) [Choban Araba 'Ursa' (Araba 'voz, arba'; choban 'shepherd, shepherd; otara')]: Garkavets 2000:586; rumei [amax 'voz, supply; Ursa Major '( everywhere); max 'arba (Greek), cart, cart, cart; Ursa Major '(B. Karakuba, M. Karakuba, Bugae); manjar 'arba for transporting mowed bread, straw, hay; Big Bear'; mega amax 'Ursa Major '; chubans 'shepherd, shepherd', chubanyk amax' Big Dipper (B. Yanisol, Constantinople, Styla); Amaxits 'wheelbarrow, wagon; Little Bear' (Sartana, Chermalyk)]: Diamantopoulo-Rionis et al. 2006:22, 124, 126, 129, 240; Terek Cossacks (v. Naurskaya) [Ursa Major — “erandaka” (box) carts; “other constellations for Naurians resemble “chapigi” (plow handles), sickle, cross, etc.”]: Vostrikov 1907:4; Armenians: Abeghyan 2012: 566 [sayl — “cart”; when used as asterism, it says that it has seven stars, i.e. clearly means Ursa Major; Anania Širakac'i (7th century AD) uses the expression “another Sayl”, which suggests Little Dipper], 769 [Sayl — “wagon”, Ursa Major].

Baltoscandia. Scandinavians [not directly named Big Dipper, but there are kennings for Odin “vagina verr” (“Mr. Carts”), “valdr vagnbrautar” (“ruler of the wagon road”, i.e. the sky) and “vagna grimnir” and “Vagna Rôgnir” (“Grimnir's wagon”, “Rognir's cart” i.e. Odin)]: Cleasby, Vígfusson 1957 in Viking Age Star..; Danes, Swedes, Icelanders [Stori Vagn , Karls Vagn, “The Big Wagon”, “Charles's Cart"]: Allen 1899:427; Swedes [karlwagn]: Grimm 1882-1883 (1): 151; Danes [karlswogn]: Grimm 1882-1883 (1): 151; Norwegians (Westerolen) [ Karls-Vognen]: Viggo Karlsen, fisherman, Langenes, personal report, 08/12/2010; (cf. Finns [Odins Vagn is a possible source for Finnish Otawa - the name Ursa Major; {more likely - “salmon top"}]: Kuperjanov 2010:55, =2014:165); Livs: Loorits 1926 [Big Bear (“wagon”): an angel was riding a wagon and smashed wheels against the North Star]: 81; 2000 (4) [(the informant lived in Saarem); the man decided to go to heaven on a cart drawn by two horses; walked away in need; at this time, the wolf ate an entire horse and found himself in the harness; the man drove on a cart drawn by a horse and a wolf; the wolf is smaller and weaker; God turned them into a constellation Ursa Major] : 153; Estonians (Võru) [Big Dipper — “Peedo Cart”; wolves are commanded to attack oxen in a yoke; Peedu was driving a wagon with oxen; one was attacked by a wolf; P. harnessed him with an ox, this is Alcor under Mitsar; the wolf pulls into the forest, so the bucket handle is curved]: Hurt (“Eesti astronomia”) in Prüller 196:294, in Kuperjanov 2012:111; Estonians [Urs Major and Ursa Minor — Suur ja V&# 228; ike Venker (“big and small wagons"]: Kuperjanov 2003:133-135; Latvians [Lielie Greizie Rati, “Big Curved Carriage"]: Anikin 1990:22; Vaiškūnas 1999 ["wagon"]: 167; Lithuanians : Kerbelite 2001 [Ursa Major — Grigas's Cart; Virgo's Carriage or St. Ilya caught on the corner — Grigas's Cart appeared]: 64-65; Mitskevich 1955, book 8 [A chariot taller in David's sky/I think I'm ready to set off at the same time/But he can't move that's a grudge! /And they say she did not take David, /She drove angels and even Lucifer, /But his measure overflowed with daring, /When he dared to rise to God's halls. /Mikhail knocked him down, and she cares nothing! /Doomed to lie among the stars until the deadline,/until God removes the harsh vow]: 434; Vaiškūnas 2007:114 [Grigas's wagon; just a wagon; rarely: Perkunas's Cart], 119 [1) God rode on the Milky Paths, Perkunas frightened the horses, the wagon turned over and the drawbar broke; the broken drawbar and wheels are visible in the sky; 2) I rode the wagon for a month and hit the corner of hell, the wagon turned over; 3) by the Sun and her daughter by wagon; once the horses got scared, the wagons turned over, the Sun and her daughter remained in the sky]; Prussians [short extracts from German sources from the 17th and 19th centuries; Düneke (“saddles”), Pudinke (one from the etymology variants — “short man”) to refer to Alcor]: Avilin 2015:76.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Darkhaty: Neklyudov et al. 2010 [the Darkhats call the “cart” of the Mong. tereg. Informant Munchtsetseg, born in 1964, mother Darhatka. Recorded in Choibalasan, Eastern Mongolia]; Kozmin 2008 [Big Dipper — Tergal od (“Star Cart”); {this is material from a large Russian-Mongolian dictionary; it does not refer to darkhats, but since in all the other numerous records, the Mongols have seven men, etc., only the Darkhats are likely to belong to the cosmonym}]: 17.

(Wed. Western Siberia. Nenets (Bolshezemelskaya tundra) [Big Dipper bucket is a reindeer team; the extreme star of the handle is a woman, the second (Mitsar) is a man, Alcor is a load, the pen star closest to the bucket is part teams]: Nikolay Aleksandrovich Taleev, shaman, born in 1969, personal message 22.09.2011).

(Wed. The Arctic. NW Greenland [Big Dipper — “Kale sleigh (character name; plot not preserved)]: Le Mouël 1978:33).