Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B42T. The seven stars of the Ursa Major are animals.


All seven stars of the Ursa Major (not just the bucket stars) are considered to be the figure of an animal - a bear, an elk, a deer, a ram, a camel, and a dog.

Tuaregs [camel], Spanish [bear], Italians [bear], Portuguese [bear], Latins [bear], French [bear], Jews [bear], Phoenicians [bear], Arabs Front Asians [bear], Karen [elephant], Burmese [elephant], Thais [elephant] (?) , Ancient Greece [bear], Russian written tradition (Afanasy Nikitin), Russians (Arkhangelsk, Olonetskaya, Yekaterinburg, Vladimirskaya, Vologodskaya, Volkhov District and Lake. Ilmen, Pskov, Petersburg, Novgorod, Penza, Perm, Tambov, Tverskaya, Yaroslavskaya) [elk], Russian written tradition [elk], Belarusians [elk], Lezgins [dog], Megrels [bear], Sami [elk], Mordovians [bear], Chuvash [bear], Marie [bear], Forest Nenets [elk], Mansi [elk], Northern, Eastern and Southern Khanty [elk], Northern Selkups [bear], Ainu [bear], Markovo [elk], Koryaks (reindeer and coastal?) [reindeer], Itelmen [elk], Aleuts [reindeer], Asian Eskimos (Sireniki, Naukan) [reindeer], St. Lawrence [reindeer], central Yupik [reindeer], Alutiik {and Chugach and Kodiak?} [reindeer], Bering Strait and Northern Alaska Inupiat [reindeer], copper [reindeer], netsilic [reindeer], caribou [reindeer], Baffin Land [reindeer], igloolik [ reindeer], West Greenland [reindeer], ingalik [elk], chilkotin [bear], quarry [bear], kutene [bear], northern paiyut [mountain sheep], eastern keres (Sia) [bear], zunyi [bear] ], (tova [bear]).

North Africa. The Tuareg [The North Star is a stake to which a camel (Little Dipper) walking around is attached; his mother, the Ursa Major, is watching him]: Bernus, AG-Sidiyene 1989:144.

Southern Europe. Spanish, Italian [Ursa Major - Bear chased by hunters]: Monroe, Williamson 1987:15; Portuguese [Ursas Major and Ursas]: Camões in Allen 1899:421; Latins [Ovid's "Mournful Elegies" (Line of Era): "A small beast and a large one, one of which directs the Greek way of ships, the Phoenician path the other/You, all of which see from the top sky,/Do not immerse stars in the waters of the sunset seas (trans. S.A. Osherova)]: Ovid. Trist. IV. 3. 1-4; ["Medea" by Lucius Anney Seneca (1st century); Medea to herself: "As long as the sky is in balance, /As long as the world goes through a constant circle, /And there are no grains of sand, and there is no day behind the sun, /Stars at night they follow, and Arct {arctos} is dry/It runs from the waves, and the rivers run to the seas, /Until my anger is full of punishment /And will increase" (trans. C. Osherova)]: Sen. med. 401-407; [in search of poison, Medea turns to heaven: "Come down to me from heaven, a snake like/The huge river has constrained two beasts/In mighty loops - bigger and less/ (Shines the first for us, the second for the Sidonians)" (trans. C. Osherova)]: Sen. med. 694-697; [Medea: "I violated the laws of the universe:/The sun was shining among the stars, and the Bears {ursae}/touched the sea. I mixed the course of time" (trans. C. Osherova)]: Sen. Med. 757-759; ["Astronomy" by Marc Manilius (1st century): Two Bears]: Manil. Astr. I, III, V.

Western Europe. The French [Big Dipper is a bear chased by hunters]: Monroe, Williamson 1987:15.

Western Asia. Jews, Phoenicians, Arabs [everywhere - "bear" (Dub, Dubbe, etc.)]: Allen 1899:423.

Burma - Indochina. Karen [The Big Dipper is an elephant, the same among Burmese and Hindus; the North Star is a mouse that climbed into an elephant's trunk; this Elephant and Mai-la-ka (Southern Cross, some animal) used to live in the middle of the sky, but got into a fight; M. grabbed the Elephant by the tail, and he by the thigh; they threw each other in different directions and found themselves at opposite ends of the sky]: Mason 1865:235; Thais {in The constellation was not identified in the text} [two poor brothers received from Phrá In a means to revive the dead; revived the princess, the eldest married her; contrary to the ban, the wife opened the box with by magic, the Month immediately stole the remedy; the husband sent the chicken back; it asked people to beat gongs and drums to help her fight the Month; but disappeared and became the Pleiades; the same with the elephant ( It has become seven stars in the Daawcháa constellation), a pig (Daawmu constellation) and a turtle (Daawphég constellation); the last is a frog, it fights the Month, and people make noise to help]: Plenge 1976:121-122).

The Balkans. Ancient Greece. The king (and eponym) of Arcadia Arkas is the son of Zeus and the nymph Callipso; Z. turned K. into a bear to hide from jealous Hera; after becoming a hunter, A. almost killed his mother, mistaking her for a wild bear; Z. turned A. and K. into the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor (Paus. VIII 3, 3); Allen 1899 [in all ancient sources from Homer to later Latin authors, the constellation is associated with the Bear]: 419-421; the Greeks [Ursa Major is a bear skin nailed to the sky, when it was still low above the ground]: Mladenova 2006:79.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece. The king (and eponym) of Arcadia Arkas is the son of Zeus and the nymph Callipso; Z. turned K. into a bear to hide from jealous Hera; after becoming a hunter, A. almost killed his mother, mistaking her for a wild bear; Z. turned A. and K. into the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor (Paus. (VIII 3, 3).

Central Europe. Russian written tradition [the first name "Elk" in relation to the Big Dipper was recorded in Afanasy Nikitin's "Walking Across Three Seas"]: Petrukhin 2003:69, Semenov 1994:117; Karpenko 1992 [Afanasy Nikitin, KHAN 35: "Hair and Cola woke in the dawn, and the Elk stands with its head to the east"]: 194; Russians (Arkhangelsk) [Cassiopeia - Ostyatskaya Moose (as opposed to) one) t Bolshoy - "an apple; when someone wants to pick it, an apple tree grows; a real one, Ursa Major]: Anikin 1994:88; Russians: Ruth 1987 [the name of the Big Dipper "Elk" in Arkhangelskaya, Olonetskaya, Yekaterinburg, Vladimirskaya, Vologodskaya, Volkhov District and Lake. Ilmen, Pskov, Petersburg, Novgorod, Penza, Perm, Tambov, Tver, Yaroslavl, Siberia]: 17; Svyatsky 1961 [the name of the Big Dipper "Elk" in Irkutsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Kostroma, Arkhangelsk, Olonets, Pskov, Novgorod]: 117; Russian written tradition [Afanasy Nikitin's Going Across the Three Seas (1460-1470s); Chronicle: "In India Besermensky in the Great Beder looked at the Great Night on the Great Day Volosyny da Cola entered the dawn, and the Elk was the head to the east"; Troitsky (Yermolinsky) interpretation: "In India Besermenskaya in the great Bederi looked at the Great Night on the Great Day Volosyny da Cola in the dawn, and the Elk stood with his head to the east"; Sukhanovsky rectification: "In India, Besermen, in the great Bederi looked at the Great Night, Da Cola's hair entered the dawn, and the Elk was standing with his head to the east"; translation: "In Bidar the Great, in Besermen India, on the Great Night of Great Day, I watched how The Pleiades and Orion entered the dawn, and the Big Dipper stood with her head to the east"; publishers' comment: "Afanasy Nikitin gives the Russian names of the constellations Pleiades, Orion and Ursa Major, showing that he He reads the starry sky well. The mutual position of the constellations named by Afanasy Nikitin indicates that it could have been observed at Bidar's latitude around May"]: Lurie, Semenov 1986:13, 26-27, 38, 53, 168; Belarusians [ one of the names of the Big Dipper is Sakhachi (associated with the Russian "Sokhaty"]: Sanko 2004:453.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Lezgins [Big and Minor - Big Dog, Smaller Dog; Big Bear also "bucket"]: Rizvanov, Rizvanov 1990:41; Megrels ["Bear"]: Andrew 1878:104.

Baltoscandia. The Sami [the name Sarva ("elk") refers to Ursa Major or Cassiopeia in different areas; according to Juhan Turi, this constellation includes Cassiopeia, Perseus, and part of Auriga]: Pentikä inen 1997:118.

Volga - Perm. Erzya [Neshke-Pazyn-Ovto - "the bear of the god Neshke; N. controls the average beekeeper, i.e. the world; rides a bear, a honey lover]: Potanin 1883:711 (the location of stars in Mordovia interpretation of the Big Dipper in Saint 196:115); moksha [ofta - "bear"]: Potanin 1883:711; Marie [Ursa Major - Shordo-Shudyr (Moksha Deer constellation)]: Shkalina 2003:81.

Western Siberia. Forest Nenets (Nizhnevartovsk District) [Tyaptukage (a heavenly goose with anthropomorphic features) chased a seminoid moose along the Milky Way; after catching up, he tore off his three legs; the seminoid elk became Big Dipper, and humans can now catch moose]: Semenov 1994:115; Mansi: Lukina 1990, No. 110 [Mos-Hum heard that the Menki were chasing a six-legged moose; jumped out of the cradle, drove himself , cut off two hind legs; the road he drove was the Milky Way, the elk was the Big Dipper; when the moose had six legs, people could not catch up with it]: 297; Munkácsi 1908 [a young man from the forest drove sixth moose; asked Num-Torum to give him four legs, because six-legged people would not be able to chase; the elk was in the sky (Ursa Major), the ski track was the Milky Way, the home of forest people was the Pleiades]: 251- 253; 1995 [same; hero - mos boy; Pleiades - household of the mos man]: 112-116; Rombandeeva 2005, No. 43 [Moose had six legs, arms, no one could catch up; Moskhum went skiing, cut off with a sword The elk has hind legs, they fell nearby - four dim stars to the right of the Moose constellation; the elk has a convex rear since then; the elk has seven stars, the Moskhum Ski Track is visible in the sky]: 305-307; northern Khanty: Gondatti in Potanin 1893 [a six-legged elk lived in the sky; Noomi sent the hero Mos-Hum, who cut off two legs and threw him to the ground; the heavenly elk was the Ursa Major, the Milky Way, the path he drove Moose M.]: 385; Lukina 2010 (Kazimsky, A.M. Moldanov) ["The power of ho is also our people. He was chasing a six-legged elk, now stars in the sky. I cut off two of his legs with a sword so people could catch up. Kurng Voy is the Big Dipper, the song is about her." The power of ho hot - Pleiades (A.M. said: "Where there are many stars". T.A., who knows the starry sky well, explained that these are the Pleiades]: 222; Eastern Khanty (Tromyegan River) [father-in-law laughs at Torum's son, believes that he is a bad hunter; he is struggling to catch up six-legged moose, cuts off a pair of legs so that future people can catch up with moose; attached his skin to the sky, ordered him to mark the dawn; he nailed the moose trail on which he walked with the tip of a bow to the sky so that people guided; brings meat to his father-in-law, tells him to get lost and die]: Honti 1978 in Lukina 1990, No. 8:67-69; southern Khanty (Irtysh) [Tunk-Pokh chased a six-legged moose across the sky, cut off two hind legs; Big Dipper - elk, Milky Way - ski track]: Patkanov: 117 in Okladnikov 1950:299; northern Selkups [cannibal bear Kyshka-Porya lived between Pur and Taz; elder, middle son they follow her, disappear; the youngest kills two "dogs" (also bears) guarding her house, kills her, cooks pieces of meat, puts the chopped corpses of her brothers in the same pot, returns to her father; brothers they come to life, come home; Kyshka-Porya turns into the constellation Ursa Major]: Pelikh 1998:57-58.

(Wed. Eastern Siberia. Central Yakuts (Moruk Nasleg of Megino-Kangalassky Ulus) [hunter (Orion) chasing an elk (B. Bear?) , drove him into the sky]: Ergis 1974:135; Western Yakuts (Olekma) [son of heaven Hallaan Wala skied a deer and left a road (trail) in the sky, i.e. the Milky Way]: Potanin 1916:97 c Ergis 1974:135; Evenks: Osharov 1936b, No. 17 (Turukhansky Krai) [Moose Hoglen stole a day on the ground and carried it across the sky; Mani chased him on skis; the first arrow flew past from the left, the second hit; M. returned the day, carried it across the sky as long as his elk carried; this happens every day]: 282; Anisimov 1959:11-12 (Podkamennaya Tunguska) [Moose Haglen (Haglun) - Big Dipper; goes into the thicket of the heavenly taiga for a day, is not visible; at night she goes to the tops of the ridges; the Ursa Minor is the calf H.; the moose is chased and killed by three hunters; the next night he remains in live calves go out with their offspring and everything repeats itself]).

SV Asia. Markovo [three brothers and three sisters skied after the moose; the elk rises to the sky, they follow it; the elk turns into the Big Dipper, the catchers six stars near her]: Dyachkov 1992:232; Svyatsky 1961 ("Anadyr Krai", apparently recorded from Russians) [three brothers and three sisters chased the elk on skis; he ran through the air, became the constellation Ursa Major; brothers and sisters until they still catch up with him in Nebungelic, Olonetsok, Pskov, Novgorod time runs to the water to drink; while drinking]: 119; Koryaks (reindeer and coastal?) : Bogoraz 1939:29 [Big Dipper - "wild bull deer"]; Krasheninnikov 1994 (2): 160 [Ursa Major - Yeluye-kying, i.e. wild deer]; itelmen [The Big Dipper is named which means elk in translation]: Grebnitsky in Potanin 1883:942.

Japan. Aina [the man won, dismembered the bear, threw parts of the carcass into the sky, they became the Big Dipper; he himself is the North Star]: Spevakovsky 1988:65-66.

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos (Sirenics, Naukan), St. Lawrence, Alutiic, Bering Strait and Northern Alaska Inupiate, Copper, Netsilic, Caribou, Baffin Land, Igloolik, Greenland [in these languages have preserved the Proto-Eskimo tuntu ("reindeer") and tunturðuγ ("Ursa major")]: Fortescue et al. 1994:351; Asian Eskimos [Ursa Major - Tuntu ("wild deer"); Eskimo-Russian Dictionary, Moscow, 1971:510]: Anikin 1990:20; St. Lawrence [tunturyuk - Ursa Major (from tuntu - caribou)]: Jacobson 1984:377; Aleuts: Grebnitsky in Potanin 1883 (Commanders) [Ursa Major - Itmakh, Malaya - Itmakucha; under iths - "deer", "elk" in the language of the Unalashka Aleuts]: 942; Jochelson 1990, No. 15 (Unalashka) [digging roots, sister of the Month makes a hole in the sky, sees villages below; weaves a rope, she goes down, marries two men, gives birth to a son; he grows up; before she dies, she tells him how to take to the sky by sunlight (?) ; describes the people he will meet; these are the constellations: Three Stars (Orion), Evening Star (working with the turn of day), Cod Ligaments (Pleiades), Caribou (Ursa Major; at the same time, all stars these constellations are humans, obviously men); the young man comes to the Month; burned by lifting the mat (behind which the Sun is apparently a man); the Old Month gives him clothes for the new, half, old moon; makes it New Month, Dies]: 149-155; Yupik: Zagoskin at MacDonald 1998 (hall. Norton, Lower Yukon) [Ursa Major - Caribou]: 79; Amos, Amos 2003 (Chupik dialect) [Big Dipper - Tunturyag {from tuntupig - "caribou"}]: 329; Northern Alaska Inupiate (Point Barrow) [Big Dipper - Caribou Deer]: MacDonald 1998:79; Copper (Holman Island, Coronation Gulf) [Big Dipper - Caribou Deer]: Jenness 1922:22, Pryde 1995:33 in MacDonald 1998:79; Igloolik: Mathiassen 1928 (Repulse Bay) [Ursa Major - Caribou Deer]: 233; Kroeber 1899, No. 10 (Smith Sound) [Ursa Major - Caribou Deer]: 173; Baffin Island [Ursa Major] - deer or caribou deer]: Boas 1888:643 (=1964:235); Labrador Eskimos [Ursa Major - deer or (more commonly) caribou deer]: MacDonald 1998:80; West Greenland: Egede 1818 [living At latitude 64 o, the Ursa Major is called Tugro ("reindeer"), and the one living at latitude 66 o is Asselliut, i.e. a pole to which tenches are tied during seal hunting]: 210; MacDonald 1998 [in East Greenland, the Ursa Major is a "lamp holder" or "tench frame"; in Western Greenland it is now a "kayak stand", but in the past (18th century) it is Tugto or Tukto ("caribou")] : 80-81.

Subarctic. Ingalic [Lower Yukon Indians call Big Dipper "Moose"]: Nelson in Vanstone 1978:61; chilcotin [a hunter with two dogs drove a bear in the fall; dogs led the owner to a stump, on which a man sat; he was a bear and at the same time Yitai, the constellation Ursa Major; gave the hunter the skins of a bear, marten, and fisherman (fisher); since then he has always caught up with these animals; Yitai returned to heaven]: Farrand 1900, No. 14:30; quarry [time is determined by Yaxte - Ursa Major; the young bear hunter woke up twice, looked at the sky, but Y. barely changed position; the hunter told him that his leg was shorter, so he was moving so slowly; in the morning, the hunter's dog picked up the bear and he chased him all day; saw an old man sitting on a stump; he explained that he was Y., that he was moving slowly, and yet the hunter did not catch up with him; the hunter was ashamed, Y. returned to heaven]: Jenness 1934, No. 66:248-249.

The coast is the Plateau. Kutene [The Big Dipper is a grizzly; the spirits tied her to a pole, the North Star, and she walks around it]: Turney-High 1941:96.

(Wed. Northeast. {In the myth, "bear" is just the Big Dipper bucket}. Mikmak [by Chretien LeclercQ (between 1675 and 1683) [Mikmaq's Big and Minor Bear are also Big and Lesser Bears]: Whitehead 1988:233).

Big Pool. The Northern Payut [the leader's son climbs a high mountain, the rockfall cuts off his way back; his father turns him into the North Star; the Ursa Major and Minor are mountain sheep walking around this mountains and trying to climb up too]: Palmer, p. 79-81 in Edmonds, Clark 1989:130-133.

The Great Southwest. Oriental Keres (Sia), Zunyi [Big Dipper - Bear]: Lankford 2007:133; (cf. tova (Hemes) [Sun's wife Moon went to get water, carried her away by the Bear; kept her in his cave, bringing a rock to the entrance; the Moon gave birth to the son of the Sun; when he grew up, she said who his father was; he pushed the rock away, they ran west, where the Sun was setting; the bear almost caught up with them, but they had time to jump into the hole; the young man went out to defend the Sun Palace, with him another son of a heavenly deity; the first became Morning, the second - As an evening star, they guard places where the Sun rises and sets; the bear was placed in the cold night sky]: Reagan 1927:726-727).