Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B48. Predators are becoming herbivores.

(.10.) .

Harmless and herbivores were or could become dangerous predators.

(Wed. SW Africa. Nama [wild animals were human, dancing, dragging passers-by to the abyss, dumping them, eating them; Haseb began to dance with them, the moon and stars came out of his chest, and the sun came out of his back; he threw cannibals into the abyss, ordered them to turn into antelopes of various species; indicated where plains and mountains would be, sweet bulbs would grow in the Velde]: Schmidt 2001:131-135 in Kotlyar 2009, No. 90:95).

Sudan—East Africa. Dinka [the cow had sharp front teeth; when she fell from the sky to the ground, she hit a tree, broke them; now her teeth were only for gum; the dog saw the cow fall, laughed, she had became mouth to ear]: Katznelson 1968:138.

South Asia. Bondo: Elwin 1950 [cows ate people; Mahaprabhu knocked out the cow's teeth, made it dumb so that it wouldn't quarrel with the dog, introduced beef consumption]: 143; 1954, No. 36 [cows ate people; Mahaprabhu caught a cow, tied it, starved it until it promised to serve people, not eat them]: 358; Hill Saora [the cow went to eat people; Kittung knocked out her upper teeth, did all animals are dumb]: Elwin 1954, No. 10:342; Santals [hares first ate humans; people came to Thakur and asked for help; Thakur called a man and a hare; the hare claimed that humans eat hares, the person said the opposite; T. told the hare to look at the kita tree for a whole year; if at least one leaf falls from it during this time, the hares will have the right to eat humans; let people under the same conditions look at korkot tree; on the last day of the year, one leaf fell from the korkot tree and the man brought it to T.; seeing this, the hare bit off a leaf from the kita tree, but T. noticed the deception; he rubbed the hare's feet with cotton wool and told him to be like a leaf picked by the wind; therefore, Santals eat hares without being clean with all their giblets]: Bompas 1909, No. 161:412-413.

Volga — Perm. The Bashkirs [the ferocious Tsar Katil disassembles the girls for himself and his associates, tells the rest to drown; calls the bull to kill the Ural Batyr; W. tames the bull, his hooves split, his horns bend, upper teeth fall out, bulls become domestic, acquiring their current appearance]: Sagitov 1981:41-47 (=Sagitov 1987:58-59).

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Mongols [the camel ate people, it had maral horns; one khan put a wooden stick in his nose, tied a leash, and carried firewood and dung on it; a maral (Cervus Elaphus), who has had horns like a reindeer (Cervus tarandus) went to the wedding of a lion and a tiger, asked the camel for a horn for a while; he did not return it; the camel now looks around, raising his head high, if not a maral; maral loses its horns every year because strangers]: Potanin 1881, No. 27:167-168; South Altai Tuvans [Tarbagan was the best shooter and ate human beings, as evidenced by his iron under with a mouse; he shot a crow, and only cut the tail of the black kite flying after it; he missed so angry that he bit off his thumbs, blew up the ground and disappeared into the hole; no longer hunted humans, but He himself became the prey of hunters; Arkhar asked Tarbagan who won the competition, who replied that Man; Arkhar cried so much that he had only two eyes left]: Taube 1994, No. 51:271-272.

The Arctic. Central Yupik (hall. St. Michael) [people breed, kill too many animals; the Raven and the First Man send reindeer to kill people; they gnaw on people with their sharp teeth, then return to heaven; people cover the dugout with reindeer oil and berries; berries are sour, deer shake their heads, their teeth fall out; new teeth are not dangerous]: Nelson 1899:460; Northern Alaska Inupiate (Kobuk River) [caribou ate people; when the old woman's son was eaten, she smeared her with cranberry juice {probably not cranberries, but a shrub of the same Vaccinium family with red berries}, the caribou began to bite her, the sour juice caused her teeth to fall out, but one fang The caribou has been hidden in the upper jaw (it's easy to find it there); so caribou's fangs will reappear at the end of time]: Cleveland 1980:35-36; copper: Jenness 1924, No. 70 [1) the first caribou man carves out of wood; he kills everyone with his big teeth; man knocks teeth with a stone, caribou becomes timid; 2) the first Caribou had teeth that wolves gave them; once a male, female and cub they bit to death a person; another person knocked out their teeth, making them harmless]: 80; Rasmussen 1932 [caribou had teeth, a woman was bitten to death; after this incident, their teeth were knocked out]: 228; igloolik (hall. Fox) [woman makes caribou; first they kill people; she turns their fangs into horns, knocks out their front teeth, makes caribou timid; then less fast; people can now hunt them; Mother Caribou stays with them forever]: Rasmussen 1930a: 67-68; Baffin's Land [a woman makes a walrus out of her sealskin jacket, a caribou out of her pants; crowns a caribou head with fangs, a walrus - horns; caribou kills a man; a woman gives fangs to a walrus, caribou horns, makes the caribou head flat, tells people to be afraid]: Boas 1901b, No. 3:167-168; Labrador Eskimos [a woman who has everything pushed around, wanted to die, then wanted to become a stone; the raven flew over her three times and croaked, she petrified; Superguksoak made her shoes a walrus and her pants a caribou; the spots on her caribou skin were the ones which were on clothes; the walrus first had horns and damaged kayaks, and the caribou had fangs, he killed hunters; S. did the opposite]: Hawkes 1916:160;.

Subarctic. Tanaina [the caribou had bear fangs; the raven filled his pockets with sour cranberries, the caribou bit him a couple of times and his fangs fell out; put a rolled birch bark into his nostrils; caribou found a sense of smell, ran away, with He senses people ever since]: Tenenbaum 1984:103; Tagish [Mountain Sheep leads Beaver to the edge of a cliff; Beaver pushes him down; Baran's wife kills her husband with an ax, mistaking him for another victim; Beaver turns her into a sheep, tells her to eat grass, not people]: Norman 1990:113; inner Tlingit (mother of an informant Tagish, but she herself has only spoken Tlingit since she was 5 years old) [woman married to two brothers; they try to make her racket skis many times, each time she puts them under her head for the night and the skis are untwisted; her stomach becomes huge, she asks her husbands to move away; they see mountains, how does she give birth to animals; the first to leave is an elk (? moose), he had grizzly fangs, she took them out, told him to eat willow branches, told him to shed his horns every year; then caribou is born; let the male shed his horns every year, let the caribou eat moss; mountain ram — let him eat grass; grizzly; she tried to take out his fangs, but he did not give it; wolf; rabbit, began to eat twigs; the animals lived with their mother for a year, she was tired of them; made a swing out of skin, tying ropes to four mountains; heavy animals pierced the swing; she left, her tracks remained in some places]: Cruickshank 1990:44-48; tagish, inner tlingit, southern tutchoni , helmet [Animal Mother gives birth to commercial animals; rocking them on moose skin between four mountains, gives them current features; before that, the Rabbit had horns; Animal Mother gives them to the Moose ; scary fangs from the upper jaw Moose gives the Grizzly]: McClelland 1987:257.

The coast is the Plateau. Shuswap [a huge Moose stands in the Thompson River, swallows the back of the boat; Tiisa lets himself be swallowed, hurts Moose's heart, he dies; T. brothers fresh the corpse, helping T. get out; T. says that moose will no longer eat humans]: Teit 1909a: 646-647; Thompson [many animals now hunted by humans ate people themselves; Coyote meets such a predatory Moose, turns it into a current one]: Teit 1917b, No. 3:3; kalispel [the monstrous Moose sucks people into himself with his breath; the Coyote asks his wife Mouse to dig a way to him underground; suddenly appears in front of him, the Moose is frightened; invites Moose to attack people together; undertakes to carry his knife, kills Moose with it, turns him into an ordinary moose]: Teit 1917, No. 5:117; coutene [Deer bit and ate people; Coyote pulls out his fangs, Deer becomes herbivore]: Boas 1918, No. 63:187; Linderman 1997, No. 7:64-69.

The Midwest. Winnebago: Radin 1956, No. 17 [someone threatens the Hare to kill him; when he leaves the house, he sees that it is a Frog with long teeth; he knocks them out, says that frogs can no longer cause people harm], 22 [animals gather for advice; The hare asks everyone how they want to live; The elk wants to eat people, has long teeth; the hare gives him sour fruit, his teeth fall out; the elk agrees to eat himself]: 80-81, 87-88; menominee: Hoffman 1896 [The rabbit asks birds and animals who will eat what; the deer wants to eat people, makes fangs out of its ribs; the hunter kills him himself; Rabbit: You'll eat grass and twigs]: 201; Skinner, Satterlee 1915, No. II34 [The deer had fangs, he wanted to eat people; God makes ribs out of these fangs]: 411; chippewa [a young man kills an ogre, turns his two children into buffalo, puts grass in their mouths; you will not eat people, but your people]: Barnouw 1977, No. 24:125; Sauk [Visakia hangs a bag of sour berries behind his back; The deer pierces its teeth into him, thinking it's W.'s body; he doesn't like the taste, he decides not to eat people anymore; his upper teeth fall out; people have been eating deer ever since]: Skinner 1928, No. 8:150.

Northeast. Penobscot [Gluskabe gathers animals to see if they are dangerous to humans; A squirrel the size of an elk has scary teeth; G. squeezes it to its current size]: Speck 1935b, No. 17 : 49; malesite [The squirrel was like a lion; Gluscap asked him what he would do when he saw a man; he rushed to a stump, tore it to pieces; G. made the Squirrel small; asked the Bear; leaving, he looked around how the bears were doing it now; G. killed a huge beaver, broke its dam; var.: episodes with a squirrel and a bear during a meeting at which G. called the animals to see if they were dangerous for people]: Jack 1895:193; Seneca [grandmother tells his eldest grandson that his father is Wind; he comes to the Wind, gets a bag; on the way he looks inside, the animals that were there jump out, run away; at home, the grandmother sees animals, gives them names; the young man himself creates a pond with fat; animals dive (or do not dive) there, depending on whether they are now fat or skinny; The deer says that they will become bite hunters; his upper teeth were removed; the same goes for other horned animals]: Beauchamp 1922:215-216.

Plains. Sarsi [{cf. Arikara}; The old man drew rivers to the south, his wife to the north, the Old Man was smoother; his wife decorated her lands with lakes and forests; the old man sculpted people without fingers and replied that as chips float up, people will be reborn after death; the wife replied that then the earth will overflow, let them die for good, like a stone going to the bottom; and let there be fingers; Old Man made bison kill people; his wife objected: let the bison serve people as food; the old man taught people to hunt buffalo, shoot at the stain on the shoulder blade, where the skin is thin and the meat is soft; so this spot is called “human flesh”; the old man went south and his wife went north; the old man lay down to rest, the dent on the ground is still visible; the bird shot him in the side, he jumped up, ran where lay down, there were blood stains that became ocher deposits; both rose to heaven, the Old Man became the sun, his wife the Moon]: Dzana-gu 1921, No. 1:3-4; blacklegs [people ate grass, bison ate people; The old man (Napi) establishes the current position]: Lowie in Wissler, Duvall 1908, No. 6:23; assiniboine [bisons kidnap a man's wife; he meets her; she warns the buffalo, they're his torment; his brother finds and heals him; his wife turns into a bison, kills people; the husband runs to distillation with bison; people's lives are at stake; wins; the wife is killed, burned; since then, the bison has not been killed people]: Lowie 1909a, No. 52:213-215; mandan [Moose has sharp teeth; son of the Month replaces them with beans]: Bowers 1950:202; hidatsa: Beckwith 1938, No. 46d [moose ate people; Coyote beats Moose, that becomes herbivorous; people don't eat a piece of fat near an elk's neck; it's human fat accumulated when Moose was an ogre]: 302; Lowie 1942 [girl goes out in the Months; her son digs up in the sky the rhizome, making a hole into which the ground can be seen; he and his mother descend on a rope of tendons, the Month kills the mother with a stone, the boy is unharmed; lives with an old woman; kills monsters; comes out of the hollow bald man, screams, all the meat becomes bitter; the young man has become a spider, climbed a tree, turned a bald man into a harmless owl; the white Raven warns the buffalo about the appearance of hunters; the young man became wounded bison, brought the herd to people, went to the steppe himself, pretended to be dead; crows and magpies flocked, the last was their leader, the White Raven; the young man caught him by the legs, plucked him; he flew away; the young man threw one into the air the feather, it turned into a white Crow; the young man painted it black; people have tiny eyes and mouths, the young man expanded them; knocked out the predatory moose's larger and larger teeth, left two; finally turned into Morning Star]: 4-6; Shayens [bison ate people; Magpie, Hawk, other birds offer a running competition, the losers will eat; win; people have been eating buffalo ever since]: Grinnell 1892:161- 162 in Edmonds, Clark 1989:184-185; Kroeber 1900, No. 2 [runners paint themselves before the competition (the origin of bird and animal coloring)]: 161-162; Erdoes, Ortiz 1984 [bison and humans agree to run racing; winners will eat losers; people put birds instead of themselves: Hummingbird, Lark, Hawk, Magpie; young Bisonikha overtakes the first three; Magpie takes over the baton at the finish line, wins, so people don't hunt it; before the competition, all animals and birds painted (the origin of their current coloring book)]: 390-392; southern sheyen [bison kidnaps man's sister; that comes for her; his calf nephew promises to help; 1) identify his sister and all her relatives (the calf throws grass on his ears, pulls his left ear himself); 2) roll the hoop (the person stops at cliff, bison falls down with acceleration, breaks his neck); 3) racing; Bisons invite birds to participate, Thunder helps humans, he wins; so now people eat buffalo and other animals, not people's bison; man knocks on wood, people come out; he teaches men, his sister women, how to live]: Curtis 1976 (19): 147-148; arpaho [A month hears a girl expressing a desire to marry him, and the other wants a bright star to be her husband; his brother Sun prefers the Frog because she does not wrinkle her eyes when she looks at him; The month turns into a porcupine, the girl follows him, climbs on a tree that goes to heaven becomes the wife of the Month; the Sun brings the Frog; the frog is going to get water, takes a vessel; The month invites the wife and the Frog to compete who chews a piece of gut better; wife It crunches pleasantly for months, the Frog cannot gnaw its gut, crunches with coals, black drools; she is offended, jumps on her chest for a month, she has been seen there since then with a water vessel; the Month has two wives, a woman and Bisonicha, each with a son; sons and wives quarrel; the Month warns the female wife not to dig a deep hole by digging roots; she digs, makes a hole in the sky, sees her native village; weaves a rope from the tendons, climbs down it; The month throws a stone, killing his wife, but the child falls and remains alive; sucks a dead mother's breast; grows up; a man notices traces, leaves a bow and arrow, the boy picks them up; the man has difficulty grabbing him, brings him to the parents of the deceased woman; the Month reproaches the Bisonikha wife for what happened; she and her son leave; the Month follows them; every day the bison is killed one of them (one of the brothers of the wife of the Month) to feed his son-in-law; each time they collect bones in their skin, the bison comes to life; the Month peeks, piercing a hole in the tipi, sees the father-in-law hit the snag, from there a man jumps up, runs, Bisons kill him for food; A month secretly makes bows, goes to hit the snag himself; first a woman provocateur pops up, a month hits her, now her nose is injured, The month is not lets it go back; people go out, the Month gives them bows; tells them to hunt buffalo and Bison to become bison; father-in-law's hat will become head and spine, bird claws will become horns, hailstones will become eyes, round teeth elk — teeth, eagle feather — tongue, deer hooves — hooves, moon-shell — voice, wampum — larynx, water turtles — kidneys, navajo cape — intestines, bast — tendons, eagle feathers — shoulders, root aquatic plant — penis, foam on water — lungs, vine pod — heart]: Dorsey, Kroeber 1903, No. 134:321-329; arikara {cf. sarsi}: Dorsey 1904d, No. 12 [Bisons are like humans; when people come out from under lands, Bisons surround them, drive them into a crevice, kill them, eat; the young man overheard the Bisons talking in their village; a stranger told him to make bows and arrows, give them to men; coming out of the ground, people started shooting at the buffalo themselves; they ran, became buffalo; when they ran away, they grabbed the pieces of human material they had prepared, they became part of their bodies], 13 [bison like people, but with tails and horns; hitting poplar, in which the hollow, summons people out of the ground; Cut-Nose is always the first to come out, he is on the buffalo side, then runs back; other people go out, the bison catch them, kill them, eat them; one young man succeeds run away; the daughter of the buffalo chief becomes his wife, teaches him how to make many bows and arrows, give them to people who come out; people shoot, bison run, grabbed pieces of human meat, turn into buffalo; arikara don't eat meat from under the shoulder blade is human meat attached to the body of bison]: 39—40, 40-44; Grinnell 1893b [the first bison ate people]: 127; Parks 1996, No. 3 [animals and birds killed people, animals burned them; A young star descending from the sky hits animals with arrows; they hide water from him, he threatens spring peeper to kill him, he makes a hole in the bottom of the river, the water returns; after pacifying the animals, the Star returns to heaven], 4 [bisons killed and ate people; the young man in a dream is two star men, told to teach his tribesmen how to make bows and arrows, arrange a running competition, its outcome will decide who who will hunt; a horse (which also represents wolves, coyotes, bears, eagles) defeats a bison (which also represents all wild cats); since then, people have been hunting buffalo and caring for horses; four horses take seats in the sky at four ends of the world; V.: black, Yu.: palomino, Z.: hnedaya, S.: white]: 125-127, 128-130; Comanches [warriors disappear; Witch Doctor and Witch Doctor (ZZ) believe that deer are to blame; at the entrance to the cave, a guard deer knocks, a bison comes out; while the guards change, the ZZ knocks themselves, prisoners come out; ZZ defeats the deer, tells them to be the prey of hunters]: Barnard: 99-100 in Archer 2000:149-150; Kiowa-Apache [see J19 motive; a monster chases a girl, the Thundertaker kills him, takes a girl as his wife; his first wife The Sun kills a new one, takes babies out of her womb, throws one into ash, the other into the river; the Thunder revives his wife, with the help of one son, lures the other out of the river; does not tell them to walk in certain directions; they go, defeat monsters every time; they defeat the Deer, the Bison, who were killed with their eyes; turn them into hunting objects; a woman plays, always wins, pushes people off a cliff; brothers win, push her against herself; injure the Thunderbird, breaking her wing; Thunder hasn't killed a lot of people since then]: McAllister 1949, No. 6:30-44.

Southeast USA. Caddo [bisons ate people; only Vulture was not afraid of them; the Coyote leads people to another world, closes the door behind him, letting in only a few buffalo that had not yet tasted human beings]: Dorsey 1905, No. 25:50-51.

The Great Southwest. In addition to lipans: the son or sons of the Sun kill a monstrous moose or antelope, among other monsters; an opossum or mole digs an underground passage to the heart of a lying beast. Hicarilla [Son of the Sun kills a monstrous moose; turns his children into ordinary moose]: Mooney 1898a: 204-205; mescalero: Hoijer 1938 [A woman-Painted White lies under a cloud, gives birth Enemy Slayer (HC); hides him from the Giant; he tries to take meat from the HC, offers to shoot at each other; misses, UV arrows break four flint covers on the Giant's body one after another, they kill him; every time UV goes to kill another monster, his mother says it's dangerous, and he replies that he is dangerous himself; Bison kills with his gaze; Gopher digs four underground passages for UV under lying Bison; where the heart gnaws its hair, says his children are cold; UV pierces the heart; Bison breaks three moves with a horn, dies; UV fills his intestines with his blood, wraps them around himself; Eagle takes it away, throws it on the rock to his children; HC kills three chicks, leaves the fourth, who can fly; he replies that the father will arrive when it rains, the mother is the same; HC kills both; descends on an eagle, kills it; Orlov's feathers turned into all kinds of birds; the Owl killed with his gaze, the Owl's house was guarded by Gophers; UV entered the Owl's cave, killed everyone there with a club; UV goes to the killer antelope; fires four arrows of different colors in four directions; each time a cloud of the same color appears there, and Antelope runs there; gets tired; UV tells her to become just an antelope, and people will hunt her]: 183-188 (antelope episode: 188); lipan [hero fires arrows in four directions; columns of smoke of corresponding colors rise from there: B: black, U: syn., Z: yellow, C: white; monstrous the antelope runs for smoke, gets tired, the hero kills it, tells it to serve people]: Opler 1940, No. 1:18-19 [Enemy Slayer hero], 28 [parents marry a Crocodile; he kills and transforms an antelope, bakers, woodpeckers]; Navajo: Klah 1960 [two sons of the Sun kill monstrous antelopes; two are kept and told to feed on grass]: 14-15; O'Bryan 1956 [one episode extermination of monsters The eldest of the twins; 12 antelopes ate humans; The older brother kills 11, the latter tells them to be hunted]: 93-94; eastern keres (Sia) [Maaseve and Uyuev - sons of the Sun; kill a monstrous antelope; throw pieces of its meat on four sides; tell future antelopes to eat grass, become human food]: Stevenson 1894:54.

Southern Venezuela. Yanomami [the Battleship had fangs, but the Jaguar did not; the Battleship wanted to eat the Jaguar; he offered to hunt him, let him give him fangs for a while; the Battleship gave it, the Jaguar ate it and left it fangs to yourself]: Polykrates 1967:282.

NW Amazon. Tikuna [The deer was a cannibal Jaguar; Dioi hits him in the jaw; his fangs come out on the other side of his head in the form of horns; the anteater ate humans; D. twists his legs, stretches his face]: Nimuendaju 1952: 133.

Eastern Amazon. Urubu [red deer (ancestor, grandfather of deer) rushes at the hunter, kills; many die this way; Maïra, when the deer rushed at him, took out his upper teeth, left only in his lower jaw indigenous paws were replaced by dry knots (i.e. hooves); deer have been hunted ever since]: Ribeiro 2002:626-627.