Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B64. Bony fish.

.21.32. (.34.) .35.-.37.39.-.41.43. (.52.)


bones in the body of fish are the result of a fight, battle, military expedition; these are arrows pierced into them (gill holes from pierced arrows), or small bones are fragments original large bones.

Minyong, Komi-Zyrians, (Tofalars), Ents, Taimyr Nenets, Northern Khanty, Kets, Dolgans, Sym Evenks (b. Ket), Western Evenks (Ilimpic in Chirinda, Podkamennotungusky), Yakuts, Evens, Orochi, Nivkhs, Forest Yukaghirs, Northern Alaska Inupiat (b. Kobuk), taltan, shuswap, sanpual, okanagon, kutene, yakima, (totonaki).

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Minyong [the son of two Stars died, fell (a shooting star) into the water, hit the top of the water spirit, he ate it; the Bat reported this to the Stars; the War of the Stars against fish and frogs began; gill fish holes — star arrow tracks]: Elwin 1958b, No. 7:346.

Volga — Perm. Komi-Zyryans [pike (sir) was created by Oml, but Yong inserted a cruciate bone into her head, after which pike became considered his creation, and people could catch and eat it; pike and The ides waged war among themselves, shooting at each other with bows; yazi shot pike in the head and pike shot ulcers in the tail; therefore, pike has many bones near the head and ides near the tail]: Konakov 1999:340.

(Wed. Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Tofalars [Capercaillie and Pike argue who will reach the stone on the opposite side of the lake faster; Capercaillie arrives first; angry Pike shot a stream of water at Capercaillie, hit his feet; c since then, the capercaillie's leg bones seem to be split and then fused together]: Sherkhunaev 1975:234).

Western Siberia. Entsy: Sorokina, Bolina 2005, No. 9 [lying in the plague, Deua shot, cooked, ate seven birds; urinated, urine became a river; relieved himself right in the plague; swam along the river in a boat, stopped at stone; the mother of the pikes bit his genitals, he fired all his arrows at her, bandaged his wounds, swam to people, said he was frostbitten; people did not believe it; the pike was bony because it had arrows D.], 29 [= Barimich 2014:632-633; The partridge shot from the shore at Pike, which shot at the Partridge from below; since then, Pike's back has many bones — Partridge's arrows; there are also many bones in the back and legs of the Partridge — Pike's arrows] 30 [The pike bit the Sturgeon, the Sturgeon hit Pike with his rough body; fired an arrow in her back, so the pike's bones diverge on both sides]: 48-49, 147, 148; Taimyr Nenets: Nenyang 1997:146-147 [ Perch and Pike got into a fight; Pike could not bite through the scales of the Perch, ran away, the Perch shot after, the arrow went down the back, since then the pike bones in the back have been split], 147 [The partridge began to shoot arrows at the Pike, with since then, they have been sticking out along the pike's back, she has many small bones in her back — Partridge's arrows; Pike shot Partridge from below, small bones in the partridge's legs are Pike's arrows]; northern Khanty: Lukina 2010 (the upper reaches of Kazim, Ai-Kuryokh) [pike fought against partridges, capercaillies and wild deer; you can't eat pike and the one it fought with on the same day (“we eat, but we can't”)]: 225; Ulyashev 2011 ["by In mythological times, pike fought ulcers with ulcers; pike began to win and fired arrows after fleeing ulcers, which is why they are so bony]: 258; chum salmon (pos. Kellogg) [the crucian carp was lazy to get food, swam at the surface, started shooting at the capercaillie; all the arrows hit the capercaillie in the legs, these are numerous claws on his legs; the capercaillie responded by shooting at the crucian carp, arrows hit all parts of the body, now there are a lot of bones in the crucian carp; the crucian carp got scared, dived, began to live in the mud, does not meet capercaillie]: Nikolaeva 2006:170.

Eastern Siberia. Sym Evenks (b. Ket) [the pike kept deer, lived in the village; enemies attacked, she threw herself into the water, hiding property in her head; enemies' arrows hit the back, became numerous bones; the bones in the head look like a deer hoof, palm tree, harrow and cross; therefore you can't eat a pike's head]: Lukina 2004, No. 3. 12:72; Western Evenks (Chirinda, 2007) [Partridge and pike fought, shot at each other with bow arrows; since then, the partridge has its legs, and the pike has a lot of bones in its back — these are pierced arrows]: Duvakin 2013; Western Evenks (Podkamennaya Tunguska): Suvorov 1956:61 [the pike lived in the taiga, killed everyone; the capercaillie shot her in the back, the arrow became her spine; the pike's arrows pierced the capercaillie's stomach, became his legs; Oxery threw the pike into the water, it stayed there], 64 [the crucian carp started shooting at the capercaillie, now there are a lot of small bones in his legs; the capercaillie also started shooting, the crucian carp now has bones all over his body; the crucian carp threw the onion and lay down]; Evens [fish used to go to land to eat berries, and partridges swam in the water; they ate seaweed, it caused them worms, many died; pike: you ate moss, you didn't share it with us, we won't go to land again; the pike shot the partridge in the eyes, since then the eyes partridges are red; partridge arrows hit the backs of pikes, so there are bones that look like arrows; pike: I'll go into the water, if you go into the water, I'll eat you]: Robbeck 2005:193-194; dolgans: Popov 1937 [Pike and Partridges quarreled, fired arrows at each other; pike arrows pierced the Partridges's feet, they are no longer meat, only long bones are arrow poles; Partridge arrows pierced Pike in the back; there are now a lot of bones — tips; firing all the arrows, the parties reconciled]: 38; Yermakov in Sangi 1989 [the country of Partridges was covered with snow, they flew to the willow on the river bank; Pike say that this is their possession; Partridges and Pike shoot arrows at each other; then reconcile; the arrows in the backs of the pikes turn into fork-shaped bones, and the legs of the Partridges into fused sinewy bones]: 148-150 ( Quail in Efremov, Alekseev 2000, No. 4:183-185; Central Yakuts: Kulakovsky 1979, No. 8 (no place of recording, first published in 1923; central?) [Pike and Grouse fought by firing arrows at each other; the first hit the legs from below (from the water) and the second from above (from land) in the back, so the black grouse in the legs and the pike in the back still survived ossified arrows]: 73; Ergis 1964, No. 28 (central, Kachikat nasleg of Khangalassky Ulus, 1935) [Grouse and Pike fought by shooting each other with a bow; the grouse shot from above and hit the pike's back with an arrow; the pike shot from below and hit the grouse's legs with arrows; these arrows are still held by the same on the back and the other on the legs]: 96 (summary in Ergis 1967a, No. 41:169; retelling to Sivtsev-Omolloon 1976:28; Sivtsev, Efremov 1990:19); (cf. Priklonsky 1890 [Phalaropus rufescens Bris. little cockerels died from pikes; Ai-Toyon told the pike to live in the water; when the cockerels approach the water, there will be thunder so that the pike go deeper and do not touch petushkov]: 169).

Amur - Sakhalin. The Orochi [Rudd and Herring both want to climb the river, not live only at sea; they fight; Rudd wins; herring arrows remain in the rudd, and rudd arrows in herring]: Aurora, Lebedeva 1966, No. 7:134; nivhi [the Pike and Rudd dispute ended with bow shots; Rudd's arrows are stuck in Pike's back, and Pike's arrows are still sticking out of Rudd's tail ( Manuscript fund of the East Asian Ethnography Sector of the IIAE FEB RAS. Materials by G.A. Otaina. ITEM 5. L. 1-2)]: Fetisova 2003:180.

SV Asia. Forest Yukaghirs (p. Ridiculous Verkhnekolymsky Ulus of Yakutia): Zhukova, Prokopyeva 1991, No. 4 [fish and birds became enmity; birds shot fish from above, and fish from below at birds; those who got more arrows now have many bones ; fish hit more arrows in the gurney {Russian dial. the name of fish from the sturgeon family}, crucian carp, chebaku - they now have a lot of bones in their backs; capercaillie, hazel grouse and partridge fell the most from the birds of arrows]: 147; Nikolaeva et al. 1989, No. 6 [The capercaillie is angry with the fish, shoots at them; they respond in kind; now the Capercaillie is painted with spots — these are the arrows of the Wheelchair (Chukuchan, Catostomidae) and Pike; Wheelchair's tail — solid bones; Pike is stained — Capercaillie's arrow marks (=Kurilov 2005, No. 21:265-267)], 10 [Pike and Wheelchair (Chukuchan, Catostomidae) quarreled, shoot at each other; Pike's arrows at the Wheelchair's tail , Wheelchair's arrows at Pike in meat; Perch is the chief of fish, stopped the battle (=Kurilov 2005, No. 20:263-265)]: 31-33, 47.

Subarctic. Taltan [fish from the Stickine and Taku rivers meet and fight, injuring each other (the origin of the appearance of different species); sucker bones were broken by a club and now its meat is full small bones]: Teit 1919, No. 20:242.

The Arctic. The Northern Alaska Inupiat (Kobuk River) [Pike and Mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis, of the ray-finned family) began firing arrows at each other; the pike was facing and Mudsucker dodged the arrows; all Pike's arrows hit his tail, which now has a lot of bones, and his arrows pierced Pike all over his body, with few bones in his pike's tail]: Cleveland 1980:18.

The coast is the Plateau. Shuswap [Fish and Birds, led by Black Bear and Wolverine, fight against the inhabitants of the sky; only Wren's arrow pierces the sky; Earth's warriors climb a chain of arrows; Bear quarrels with Wolverine, knocks him down on the ground; earthlings are broken, the stairs fall, Pisces and Birds jump down; Pisces who fall on the rocks are crippled: the skull of the sematsai fish has flattened, kwaak has broken his jaw, tcoktcitcin bleeds his mouth, sucker broke all bones (the origin of the anatomical features of fish species); those left in the sky are killed and become stars]: Boas 1895, No. 3 (ntlakyapamuk) [short version]: 17; Teit 1909a, No. 57:749; sanpual [fire in the upper world; Woodpecker or Chickady shoots at the sky, makes a chain of arrows; The bear is the last to climb, breaks the chain; returning to earth with fire, people- animals fall; arrows pierce fish, they now have lots of bones]: Clark 1953 [in different versions of Chickady, Little Woodpecker, Great Woodpecker, Flycatcher makes a chain of arrows; Eagle Chief sends a Dog to scout and the Frog, those lazy, do not find fire; the Beaver pretends to be dead, hides the coal under his claw, puts fire in trees on the ground]: 189-192; Ray 1933, No. 11 [the fire was in heaven; the leader gathers animal people, orders to shoot at the sky, make a ladder out of arrows; arrows do not reach the sky; Woodpecker does not participate, makes a bow from an elk's rib, arrows from Canadian irgi branches (Amelanchier arborea, serviceberry); reports To the Golden Eagle, that the Bald Eagle says nasty things about him and vice versa; Eagles fight, feathers fly, Woodpecker uses them to feather arrows; to make tips, his grandmother sends him to Flint and Solid Stone; Woodpecker tells everyone that the other speaks ill of him; Stones fight, shards fly, Woodpecker uses them; when the chief tells them to shoot at the sky again, the Woodpecker hits, his arrows form a chain; everything climbed into the sky, the Golden Eagle was ahead, the Grizzly was the last; he took a heavy bag of food, the lower arrows broke off, the Grizzly remained on the ground; everyone in the sky found fire; the hosts chased, that the chain of arrows was broken; the eagle ordered each of the birds to put an animal on its back and lower it; the woodpecker (Sphyrapicus varins, Sapsucker) did not fly off, but jumped, broke his nose, since then he had he was flat; the fish slipped from Magpie's back; he had arrows with him, they pierced his body, so the fish had a lot of bones in their bodies; the Chief and Grizzly shared the fire, gave Firefly and Hummingbird, who spread the fire around the world], 12 [Excrement is sent for fire first; dogs eat it in the sky; the Beaver pretends to be dead, grabs coals; fire owners urinate to extinguish the fire; it's raining, but the fire is kept]: 152- 153; Okanagon: Teit 1917c, No. 5 [Earth's inhabitants decide to go to war against the inhabitants of the sky; only Chickady (Wren?) you manage to plunge an arrow into the sky, then shoot arrows one at the other's tail to make a chain; Black Bear and Grizzly quarrel, the chain breaks to half; the Earth's inhabitants are defeated, start to descend, see that the chain does not reach the ground; fall, break or maim; fish are particularly affected, Sucker has broken all his bones]: 85; Hill-Tout 1911 [people decide to get fire with sky; only the Tsiskakena bird manages to make a chain of arrows; when the Snake climbed, he was asked where the Frog was, he pointed to his stomach; the Beaver lets himself be caught; when it starts to fresh, the Eagle flies by, distracting the attention of the inhabitants of the sky, the Beaver blows away the fire; when they climbed down, the chain broke; the catfish fell, crushing its jaw; Sucker smashed his head to pieces, all the animals hit him to the bone to repair the head]: 146; yakima [The eel, on whose side snakes, worms, and salmon play against bone fish; the bet is dice; the fish win, so they have a lot of bones and the eel is boneless]: Hines 1992, No. 10:49; coutenay: Boas 1918, No. 50 [Brother Muskrat's widow rejects him; he kills her, lies that the unusual arrow that hit her was fired from the sky; Coyote and others are shooting, their arrows are not they reach the sky; only the Hawk Brothers arrow has pierced the sky; they make a chain of arrows; it is a little short, the Raven puts its beak instead of the lowest step; everyone goes up, not waiting for Wolverine; he breaks the stairs; Muskrat builds a village in the sky, fires arrows as if there are many enemies in the village; the deception is revealed, the Muskrat is killed; those who come catch the Thunderbird and kill the Thunderbird; those who become after that birds, get its feathers and go down; Bats and Flying Squirrels plan on blankets, Coyote on their tail; Catostomus commersonii has jumped, crashed, so it now has many small ones bones; Little Woodpecker and some of the other warriors return across the horizon]: 73-77 (Quail in Clark 1966:146-149).

(Wed. Mesoamerica Totonaki (Chicotepec) {it is not clear whether the fins and tail of arrows appeared or whether the arrow simply hit fish} [the man played the violin; the Thunders sent a messenger to him to appear; let him say who allowed him to play, they don't like it; he was asked to sit in a chair and then compete in running; at a distance he saw pajaro de primavera lying upside down; not wanting to go to him to attack, the man hesitated and lost the contest; he was killed and buried; his wife remained pregnant; the Thunders called her and, under threat of death, forced her to miscarry, the child was buried in the yard of the house, from where they ran the town hall; eight days later, a corn shoot grew on this site, and the cob ripened on it; the thunders called a woman and told him to pick it up; she ground the grain, cooked a tamale; he found himself bitter and she threw him into the river; downstream the old woman heard crying and picked up the baby; brought it home, her husband is happy too; the boy grew up quickly, calls the couple parents; asks where he goes father; old woman: take care of animals {fish, but it is more commonly referred to as animals}; these animals lay motionless; kingfisher and other birds that eat fish came to eat them; young man asked him to be allowed to go with his father; started shooting at kingfishers and killing them; promised that now the fish (“animals”) would multiply; the next time he went alone, started shooting fish in the head, they had fins, a tail appeared in the back; tomorrow or the day after tomorrow God's children (i.e. people} will appear, they will need animals {i.e. there must be a lot of fish and they should not be concentrated in one place}; the fish has come to movement {i.e. blurred}; the next day the young man came with his father again; he: how can I catch now; then the young man gave his father a net; people will appear — they will need it; the young man came to the crocodile, he wanted him eat; the young man asked him to open his mouth to get into it, cut off his tongue and said that he would now be called a crocodile; when the lightning flashes, they would read you {i.e. from the crocodile's tongue lightning was made}; the young man told the old woman he knew that he had a real mother and his real father was killed; the young man came when his mother sadly hummed and made clay pots; hiding in a tree, he broke the pot with arrows; she began to swear; he went out to her, told her not to swear and called herself a son; sat on her knees and spoiled her; told the whole story of his father's death and his appearance; he was the cornman on the cob; he assured him that he would not be killed; he opened his father's house and all the violins, guitars, drums and flutes were there; he started playing the violin, the Thunders heard it, sent messengers for him; he volunteered go; when {people} come, you will be called rain/storm clouds, for tomorrow or the day after tomorrow God will increase the number of his children {i.e. people}; and they agreed to be under his control, be clouds, and not who they were; they were given their horses — white clouds, and they were given machetes; and they would produce lightning, scream {thunder} and pour water; in the morning clouds appeared in the east, rained, began thunderstorm; while running, he did not look at the person lying down and ran first; the second test was to eat a lot of corn porridge; he arranged with Agouti to gnaw a hole in the bottom of the porridge vessel; porridge it flowed out, and the Groms believed that the young man had eaten everything; then he took his father out of the grave to revive him; but he should not be afraid; but when he heard the rustle of a fallen leaf, the father was frightened and turned into a deer; now people will eat you, hunters will kill you; this young man is Wonder Man]: Aschmann 1977).