Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B75A. The sounds of the creation era: the human voice.


You can still hear the voice of a character who lived in the era of creation (most often a woman who turns into an echo; A1195, The origin of Echo).

Western Europe. Germans (Bavaria: Upper Palatinate) [after his father's death, the forester's son went abroad to look for work; he saw a beautiful woman at the well, she offered to stay with her; told her not to look at if there was a thunderstorm; they have 7 children; in the 14th year of marriage, her husband looked through the keyhole and saw his wife in the bath, she was a fish below the waist; she said that he did not wait a little until the age of 14, then he would have stayed a woman; flew away with her children; the howling of the wind is their voices]: Schönwerth 1858:194-195.

Melanesia. Loyalty Islands (Lifou) [the young man was returning from a hike, sat on a rock, asked him to rise, he grew up, he found himself on top of a high cliff that he could not get off; there he has coconut trees; when someone nearby talks, he answers, it's an echo]: Hadfield 1920, No. 1:225-226.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Maori [(zap. H. Beattie on South Island); Rona married Hine-Aroaro-te-Pari ("Cliff Maid"); while he was fishing, Hoka descended from the sky, converged with H.; R. waited for him, killed him, cooked a certain part of his body, gave eat to his wife, said she ate; she chased him, he hid the children in the rocks, and he rose to heaven himself; now he can be seen on the moon with a calebasa lying in front of him; the children have become spirits living inside rocks; when someone screams they repeat their words (echo)]: Best 1982:281.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Khasi [the boy is born after the death of his father; stepfather does not love him; once killed him, cooked food from his meat, hid his bones, but left his fingers; mother ate, saw her fingers, rushed into the abyss ; her tears gave rise to the river, her screams to the sound of a waterfall]: Bertrand 1958:133.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Nicobars [Shoan is the son of a fisherman, they were caught in a storm, his father drowned, the whale told S. to sit on him, brought fish and marine animals to the country, he is their leader, he has a daughter Giri; she met S.; S. promised get her a mirror, G. brought him home, but they did not believe his story; he grabbed a mirror, ran to the shore, he was killed; since then, on a moonlit night, fishermen have heard the voice of G. calling her husband]: Roy 2001, No. 6:15 -17.

China - Korea. Chuan Miao [father decides to get rid of his lazy son Nie Ta; tells him to climb a tree, cuts him down, leaves; the son returns with a tree; asks his father to forge him an iron sword weighing 120 pounds; meets and comrades a ditch digger in a rice field, a grass carver; each one takes turns cooking; a demon comes, eats rice; the NT himself remains, grabs the demon; he promises to give his daughter; gives, but tells a "little demon" (son?) bring a fan, waves to them, three friends find themselves on a rock, a big demon brings them back; NT asks the demon's daughter to replace the fan; next time, the demon's fan is powerless, and NT sends the demon to the rock; when People are calling him now, hearing a response from a cliff]: Graham 1954:229-230; Chinese (southern China) [Lu Yin came down from heaven to become emperor; his earthly mother asks for a statue in the temple why do all the statue bow to him; receives an answer, decides that she should no longer thank her neighbor for borrowing salt or bread from her; the neighbors are afraid that after becoming emperor, LI is executing those who He was not given his time, and in general he executed everyone; upon learning of this, the Jasper Emperor sent Gromov (Donnergrafen) to take away LI's imperial body and give the body of a beggar in return; when Thunder had already changed everything, LEE's mother told her son to fall with his mouth to the night pot; the Jasper emperor ordered him not to change his mouth because he was unclean (thunders are afraid of sewage); becoming poor, LEE went on a journey {more all episodes are related to with certain place names, but they are difficult to identify}; people built a pagoda, LI asked for permission to build one floor; he was not allowed; the pagoda has 8 tiers in the morning {the pagoda's body must have an even number faces and an odd number of tiers}; people removed one, then the tiers became 6; realized it was LI's jokes; elsewhere people raised water to irrigate the field, LI asked them for tea; they said that they had and He did not have enough, he would help him work better; LI ordered that there should never be water in this field; so far, the water supplied there immediately disappears; on Mount LEE sat down to hide his need and pricked against a tree; tore down their tips and told them that these plants no longer have sharp tips; elsewhere, where there is a big house, a rich feast was held for LI; LI: the house is large, the tower is high, you can easily carry the dead ; people are offended; old man: Am I going to die? LEE: Only once every 1,000 years one death, once every 10,000 years a couple dies; since then, people in this family have died in very old age, and a child only once every thousand years; elsewhere, LI has also been treated generously; he did so that people in this family know how to share values (Kostbarkeiten Bescheid); during the rain, LI and the carpenter took refuge in a cave; the carpenter advised LI to talk less; he said that the cave would now collapse; the carpenter put his staff against the ceiling, but the cave collapsed; since then, an echo has been heard - LEE answers]: Eberhard 1941, No. 102:185-189.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece [Hera punished the nymph Echo: she could not speak herself, but only repeated the words of her interlocutor; Echo fell in love with Narcissus, but was rejected by him and hid in the forest; since then everyone Repeats the words he heard]: Ovid.

Japan. The Japanese [an old woman catches a melon in the river, cuts across, a Uri-hime girl inside; the old people leave, don't tell her to open the door; damn Amanokaju asks for permission to stick his finger, hand, enter, calls her to collect persimmons; sheds only her bones and peel; when W. climbed the tree herself, A. ties her there, takes her form, comes to the old people; they marry the imaginary W.; they marry the imaginary W.; they go along the way through a persimmon grove, they find the real W.; A. was cut, his head was thrown into the buckwheat field, his legs were thrown into the miscanta thickets; now these plants have red roots]: Markova 2000, No. 24:100-103, 474 [note; according to others versions, A. eats a girl, turns into a mountain echo after death]; Okinawa [a poor single fisherman caught a stingray and saw that his mouth looked like a vagina; after copulating, he threw the stingray back at sea; a few years later, a fisherman heard someone call him, "Dad, dad!" ; it was his son, a half-human, half-fish; his son said that his mother was waiting for him and advised him to ask only for a pumpkin vessel; at the bottom of the sea, the woman fed the fisherman well, greeted him with dance and music; When he returned to the shore, the fisherman realized that he could ask the Calebasa for anything - money, rice, a house; the fisherman healed richly and happily; another fisherman was rich, became jealous; when he found out what was going on, he also caught stingray and copulated with him; however, as a result, he was speechless, but his penis began to talk; his wife was surprised and went to the shaman; he advised him to catch the bull and tie it to a tree, "penis disease" will pass to the bull; the bull has gone to the mountains, this "disease" has passed from it to all animals and plants; now it is an echo]: Madoca Hammine, personal message. (English translation from the published Japanese original).

SV Asia. The Chukchi ["Mountain Echo" (enm-taa) lives in the mountains; he has a stony body, eyes and mouth on his chest; she also appears to be an agile woman running across the mountains; in one of the fairy tales, she goes out marries a man; her former wife kills her, she turns into Mountain Echo; "Forest Echo" (ott-taa) lives in poplar forests; he has a wooden body without arms and legs, like a tree trunk]: Bogoraz 1939:40 (=1907:329).

The Arctic. Baffin's Land [the girl rejects her suitors; people leave her; she stands on a rock offering to marry her; everyone walks by; she turns herself into stone; her voice is still heard, it's an echo]: Boas 1901b, No. 6:172-173.

Subarctic. Inner Tlingit [two brothers and a dog were carried away on an ice floe; they smeared the edges of the ice floe with dog blood to prevent it from splitting; they came to people with tiny mouths and ripped open women belly to remove the baby; the boys widened people's mouths so that they could eat normally, taught them how to give birth; the brothers went home, met a giant, hid from him in a cave; he asked for help - another the giant took his wife away; threatened to cover the exit with a stone if his brothers did not go with him; the eldest went, the youngest refused, he was overwhelmed in the cave, now his voice is an echo; rabbits for the giant are moose the boy killed two, the giant was able to eat only one jaw; then the giant killed two moose, for him they were rabbits; the whole tree for the giant was a stick, the muskrat was a louse; the giant made an ax out of the beaver's fangs, gave it to the boy; another giant was fishing, the first to kill him; the giant's wife threw her breasts over him, they crushed him; the boy cut them off, the giant's wife died; the giant killed the twin babies, took them the wife is the daughter of the first giant, who is just her period; sent the boy home, giving a stick pointing the way; gave a bear dog, allowed him to kill, keeping his shoulder blade; in the morning there is always meat on his shoulder blade; boy returned home]: McClelland 2007 (3), #135:610-617.

California. Chukchansi yokutz [the Cannibal's basket is covered with resin inside; the Cannibal carries the children in it, devours them; the boy urinates, the Cannibal decides that it has rained, hides under a tree; the boy grabs a branch, runs away; people set fire to the basket on the Cannibal's back; the Cannibal burns, runs to her cave, people beat her to death; it turns into an echo]: Rogers, Gayton 1944, No. 19:204.

Big Pool. Western shoshones [a mountain spirit woman asks a woman to let her hold her little boy; takes him away; feeds him with her snot; stretches his penis and copulates with him; the boy runs away; A robin man cuts off a long penis; the boy's genitals look normal; the spirit turns into an echo]: Smith 1993:138-139; chemeuevi [when leaving to collect seeds, the Turtledove leaves Sandy A fly to watch over her newborn son; the wind woman imitates her voice, takes the baby from the babysitter's hands, takes it away; the Turtledove punished Mukha by squeezing her, now she has an elongated body; the boy becomes a young man; he has to copulate with the Wind woman so often that his penis becomes heavy and long, he cannot run; he meets four girls, his relatives; they make his penis normal, tell him hang the game high in the tree, run; the archery hides it in the arrowhead, shoots it; the other hides it in a pile of arrows; jumps out of the cave with it when the pursuer runs into it, closes the entrance; woman turns into Echo]: Laird 1976:158-159; Southern Payutes: Lowie 1924, No. 24 [Hiob (Dove?) runs away from his wife Tumbianoyo; people in two parking lots can't hide it; the man in the third parking lot puts out his long penis; T. stops chasing, wants this man to be his husband; they copulate among the rocks; the rocks close, the man jumps out, T. stays inside, turns into an echo]: 195-196; Powell 1971 [A witch calls a girl with a little brother in her arms; she thinks it's the mother's voice; the Witch carries the children in the basket; people find the Witch sleeping, save the children; the Witch asks the Rattlesnake to hide her, climbs into her stomach; the Snake crawls away, throwing off its skin; The witch stays inside skins, turns into an echo]: 93-94; Utah: Powell 1881 [Gorlinka leaves her daughter to watch her little son; the witch takes the child, turns him into a man, makes her husband; mother's brother Eagle finds they, lures the Witch out of her refuge, takes their nephew, who becomes a baby again; the Witch asks the Rattlesnake to hide her, climbs into her stomach; the Snake crawls away, throwing off its skin; The witch inside her skin turns into an echo]: 45-47; Sapir 1930, No. 6 (Uintah) [Gorlinka tells her little daughter to look after her brother; the Spirit Woman (JD) comes, tells the girl to give her a baby, takes him away; the mother comes back, kills daughter; the boy grows up, hunts deer for the railway, she regularly copulates with him; Gorlinka's brother Eagle tells the young man to leave the killed deer high in the tree, gives him a feather, liver, stomach; the railway loses time pulling off the deer (she manages to catch the carcass with a loop of her pubic hair); the young man leaves a resin penis on his bed; ZhD uses it, pieces of her lungs stick to the resin; she chases Gorlinka and her son throw a pen (fog), liver (ice), stomach (rocks); run to his grandfather, the young Rattlesnake; he hides the fugitives in his bag; sits with his penis exposed; ZhD rushes to copulate with him; he throws things and fugitives out of the house, tells the walls to converge; the railway remains in the rock, turns into a mountain echo]: 507-513.

Ecuador. Colorado [a cannibal stalks a boy; he whistles when Thunder kills her; in extreme heat, this whistle can still be heard]: Calazacon, Orazona 1982:68.

Western Amazon. Aguaruna [Ajáim went to the station, met a pregnant woman, killed him, gutted it by the river, found an egg in his stomach, put it on a stone; a duck (Phalacrocoracidae) took him away; Etsa was born from it ( sun); one day he got out of the water, came to site A. and began to eat hot pepper, which was sweet for him; A. sent a snake to find out who was on the site; E. ran away from the snake, but then A. caught him and brought him to him; E. began to live with him; A. tied seed bells to him; when E. grew up, A. made him a small sarbakan; E. shot flies, then A. sent him to hunt for birds; E. brought them, A. ate; made them for E. big sarbakan; E. soon shot all the birds, the last was the hummingbird; the dove tells me not to shoot, says that A. killed E.'s mother; made a vessel (rather a wind instrument) out of her head, blows at it; E. he crept up and saw that it was; his mother's skull rolled up at E.'s feet, tears were dripping from his eyes; E. called A. into the forest: there is a fruit tree to which deer go; E. throws his spears more accurately; tells A. send his wife to the station; he killed her himself, turned her into a deer, only a human head; E. cut her off, and told his wife A.'s digging stick to be responsible for her; A. ate a deer, and when he returned from the bath, E. gave him a head his wife; A. grabbed his spear, but it turned out to be rotten, and E. pierced A. with his spear; a flower grew out of A.'s penis, hummingbirds began to flock to it, A. caught and ate them; to take A. to take A. to where he was not could eat, E. called for help from pauhil, toucan, woodpecker and peacock (Pipile cumanensis, sem. Cracidae); at first A. shouted: as heavy as a stone, the birds could not lift it; then he was promised two women and A. began to scream: light, light; he was placed on the island, but he ate all the fish; this place called Tunkín; left one hand on the ground - same, fishing with one hand; you can still hear his screams when he is hungry; the Leistes militaris (Pexites militaris) bird fumigates sick or dead and brings A. to eat; A. sings, birds flock to him, sitting on trees]: Chumap Lucía, García-Rendueles 1979 (1), No. 1:39-45.

The Central Andes. The cries of an old cannibal woman falling from the sky echo mountain gorges. Prov. Caruas (dep. Ancash) []: Arguedas, Izquierdo Rios 1947:133; Conchucos (dep. Ancash): Mejia Xesspe 1952 [four versions; during a drought, parents put their son and daughter in a bag, throw them into the abyss; the bag clings to the thorny bush; The swallow can't, Condor brings the bag to the valley, to Chavin de Huantar; The swallow shows the children a potato field; his owner is old Achkay; she fattens the boy, gives the girl stones to eat; kills the boy, he screams, she explains what she is looking for in his head; tells his daughter to send the girl to bring water in a leaky vessel, push her into a boiling pot; the frog teaches the girl what to do; she plugs holes, brings water, pushes the old woman's daughter into the cauldron, puts his brother's bones in the bag, runs; A. eats his daughter; Condor hides the girl under her wings, the Skunk in the hole; the Fox, the Deer, and other animals also hide; The dove puts the bones in the basket, says not open; the girl opens; there is a living brother, but he turns into a white dog; Vicuna gives the girl a golden rope, she and her brother climb to heaven; she turns into the Evening Star, he into the Pleiades or The Morning Star; the old woman Vicuña gives a straw rope; the parrot cuts it; A. falls, asks his own to spread a cloak for her; her screams can still be heard - an echo; her blood turns into a lake, her body turns into mountain; hands and feet in cacti; blackberry nails; nettle hair; eyes in potatoes, ulyuku; teeth in corn; toes in eye and mashua; etc.]: 238-242.