Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

B82. White Raven, A2411.1.1.6.



raven (less commonly another vulture bird, or another now black bird the size of a crow) was first white and then turned black. Below are lists of ethnic groups by motive variants, followed by summaries of texts also by options. The options are not alternative.

Due to conflict, misunderstanding, and a special combination of circumstances in the process of creating or coloring birds, the Raven or other vulture turned black.

Melanesia. Fergusson.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Sema.

Burma - Indochina. Viets; Khmers.

The Philippines. Bontok-igorot; apayao; isneg.

China - Korea. Chinese [at least four entries, no area specified].

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Karachayevtsy; Balkarians.

Japan. Japanese; Ryukyu (northern).

Eastern Siberia. Yakuts; Evens.

SV Asia. Russian Ustye; forest and tundra Yukaghirs; coastal Koryaks.

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos (Naukan); Kodiak; Chugach; Northern Alaska Inupiate; McKenzie estuary; copper; caribou; netsilic; igloolik; Labrador Eskimos; Baffin Island; Polar Eskimos; Zap. Greenland; SE Greenland; Angmassalik.

Subarctic. Kuchin; upper tanana; atna; slevi; chipewayyan.

NW coast. Eyak; bellacula; quakiutl.

The coast is the Plateau. Comox.

The Midwest. Ojibwa; western marsh crees (northern Manitoba).

Northeast. Iroquois (the band is not a decree.).

California. Yurok; karok.

Big Pool. Gosiyute.

Guiana. Varrau.

Chaco. Chamacoco; caduveo.


raven turned black with soot, heat, and beatings, was dipped in resin, and accidentally got dirty.

West Africa. Hausa [rhino bird]; mosi [rhinoceros bird].

Southern Europe. Italians [thrush].

Western Europe. French [thrush]; Dutch [crow, magpie].

Western Asia. Saudi Arabia.

Australia. Cariera; Kamilaroi; South Australia.

Melanesia. Bukavak.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Chyns; garo.

South Asia. Munda; haria; oraons.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Java, East Timor.

The Philippines. Tagaly.

China - Korea. Chinese; yi.

The Balkans. Romanians [thrush].

Baltoscandia. Finns; Estonians; Lithuanians; Latvians.

Turkestan. Dungans.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Mongors.

Eastern Siberia. Yakuts.

Amur - Sakhalin. Nanais.

SV Asia. Russian Ustye; forest yukaghirs; Chukchi.

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos (Sirenics).

Subarctic. Tagish; southern tutchoni; inner Tlingit; taltan; chipewayyan; beaver. See A. Kuchin; slevi.

NW coast. The Tlingits.

The coast is the Plateau. Quinolt; halkomel; Puget Sound; coutene; western sachaptin; ne perse.

Northeast. Naskapi; (cf. seneca).

Plains. Blacklegs; assiniboine; teton; hidatsa; northern sheyens; arpahoes; arikara; kiowa; kiova-apache.

Southeast USA. Caddo; chirokee; (hichiti); seminoles; choctaw.

California. Mattol; pomo; yokutz; salinan.

Big Pool. Southern Utah.

The Great Southwest. Western Keres (Akoma).

NW Mexico. Huichol.

The Northern Andes. Kogi.

Chaco. Caduveo.


raven changed color after pecking on carrion (garbage) or fish.

North Africa. The Berbers of Morocco.

Western Europe. The Flemish [Noah sent a white crow to look for land; he arrived late in the evening all black and smelly because he began to peck at the fallen cow; Noah told him to be black]: Van den Berg 2000, No. 101:117- 118.

(Wed. Western Asia. The Old Testament [after 40 days, Noah opened the window of the ark he had made and released a crow, which flew off and flew in until the earth was drained of the water; then released a dove from him to see if the water had come down from the face of the earth; but the dove did not find rest for its feet and returned to him in the ark; and hesitated for another 7 days; and again released the dove from the ark; the dove returned to him in in the evening; and behold, a fresh oil leaf in his mouth; and Noah found out that the water had come off the ground; he hesitated for another 7 days, and released the dove; and he never returned to him]: Gen. 8:6-12).

Burma - Indochina. Burmese; Palaung.

Taiwan - Philippines. Cebuan.

The Balkans. Romanians; Bulgarians; Bosnians; Slovenes; Serbs (?).

Central Europe. Western Ukrainians; Poles; (Russians).

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Georgians.

Baltoscandia. The Sami.

Volga - Perm. Komi-Zyrians.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Khakas (Sagai people).

Western Siberia. Muncie.

Eastern Siberia. Far Eastern Evenks.

The Midwest. Timagami ojibwa.

Northeast. Iroquois (the band is not a decree.).

Big Pool. Eastern shoshones.

The Great Southwest. Jicarilla; oriental keres (Cochiti).

(Wed. Honduras - Panama. Bokota [vulture's paws and head turned red]).

Guiana. Makushi.

Chaco. Mokovi.

Other options.

North Africa. Berbers; Tunisian Arabs.

Sudan - East Africa. Shilluk.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Palau.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Rengma.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece.

Baltoscandia. The Finns.

Amur - Sakhalin. Nivhi.

NW Coast. Eyak.

California. Mountain bowls.

The birds were painted, the crow was left black, painted black or dumped in ash.

Melanesia. Fergusson (coluvava) [raven and Kulokulo bird (does it look like a dove?) were friends; the raven invited K. to paint it and did it well; K. undertook to paint the crow, but only smeared it entirely with charcoal; the raven chased K., and she shouted "uu-uuu" and "wawawa"]: Guderian, Guderian 1999:4.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Sema [The Lizard and the Weaver quarreled; the Lizard called for help from all the crawlers, and the Weaver called all the birds for help; after a long struggle, the Eagle defeated the King Cobra; the birds shared its meat; the Raven (Corvus) macrorhyncus) smeared himself with bile, turned black; Minevit (Pericrocotus speciosus) was covered with blood, now scarlet; Ruby-throat (Calliope tsebaiewi?) I was late, got only a little blood, smeared my throat]: Hutton 1968:312-313; rengma [heavenly maidens went down to the lake, took off their birdtails and wings, bathed; one man came early, hid the bird outfit of one of the maidens, she was forced to become his wife; they have a son and daughter; when they are with their mother, they are always capricious, when their father is not with their father; they answered that their father allows them to play with wings; wings in bamboo under the roof; the mother put them on, promised to lower the ropes for the children, flew to heaven, took the children; the husband is looking for her unsuccessfully; the white raven asks to paint him black; for this he leads a man, brings him to the house in the land of spirits, his wife is in the house; she warns not to go out; he goes out, stumbles upon a cannibal; his wife hides him under 7 copper vessels, but the cannibal finds him, opens her head with a weaver with a sword, sucks juices; wife stayed in heaven, daughter went down to earth, taught people the song (lyrics quoted)]: Mills 1937:180-182.

Burma - Indochina. Vietnam: Cadière 1901 [The peacock invited the Raven to paint each other; the Raven was the first to paint the Peacock; then the Peacock painted the Crow black, adding a white collar around the neck. said he saw people butchering buffalo and had just thrown giblets into the stream; the Raven rushed there, it turned out that there was nothing; the Peacock ran into the forest, since then he has been living separately from the Raven, screaming" How ugly the Raven is and I'm beautiful! "] : 192-193; Karpov, Tkachev 1958 [Raven and Peacock were white, Raven offered to paint each other, and Peacock was the first to paint; when Peacock began to paint the Raven, he heard a pig screeching and a fight drums, began to hurry Peacock to have time to eat pork at the sacrifice; impatiently jumps into a vessel of black paint and flies away]: 177-178; Ho 1967, No. 151 [The crow and the Peacock were white; Pheasant says that we should dress more beautifully for Mr. Tiger's wedding; Peacock suggests going to King Annam's palace to paint, where artists left the colors they used to paint the walls; the crow is gorgeous painted Peacock; he says as if he hears the voice of an eagle, tells him to hide, pours black paint on the Raven; in horror, her voice became hoarse]: 314-316; Landes 1886, No. 85 [Muslim source via Chinese medium (Chinese phrase in the text); The Saint tells a hundred workers to build a ship; sent the Raven to see if there is enough water in the river to lower it; the raven began to eat shrimp and fish; sent the Rooster - the same; the Pigeon - he wrote about what he saw on the sheet, sent it to the saint; the Raven decided to smear black paint so that the Saint would laugh and not punish him; the Rooster too, but half painted red; the Saint turned them into a black crow and a red-black rooster on the pagoda]: 210-211; Khmer [the birds decided to paint, the Heron was appointed artist; finally unpainted she and the Raven remained; in the evening she asked the Raven to paint it first; when she began to paint the Raven in response, she spread the coal and, unwittingly, smeared it all in black; in the morning the Raven saw herself, rushed to Heron; since then, herons have been hiding from crows in the forest during the day, getting food at night]: Foshko 1981, No. 8:38-39; palaung [naga princess I-ran-ti took the form of a girl, went to earth, met the Sun; Seven days later, he returned to heaven, leaving her his chariot; I. laid three eggs; the Sun sent I. a bag with a letter and a wonderful jewel, giving it to the golden crow; he stopped pecking carrion, the fisherman found the bag, replaced the treasure with a pebble; the Raven brought I.'s bag, who found a simple stone inside, threw it at the Raven; the Sun, as punishment, painted the Raven black, ordered him to live on earth; I. in In the guise of the naga, she returned to the ground, throwing her barrette and three eggs; the barrette and two eggs turned into placers of gold and precious stones; the third egg was stuck at the fork in a tree floating along the river; it was found elderly spouses raised a born boy Kok-ya; his Sun Father sent him an onion; his naga mother sent her daughter to the ground from her marriage to the naked, K. married her, she gave birth to a daughter; K. killed an ogre bird; the naked wife forgot that she should not be completely immersed in water, became a snake again while bathing; told her daughter to make clothes striped like snakeskin, gave the clothes the color of snakeskin, touching it; people began to copy these patterns; K. became the ancestor and king of the Palauns]: Milne 1924:379-383 in Obayashi 1966:51-54.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Java: Kratz 1973, No. 5 [the crow was white, the Sanca snake was terribly poisonous, and the Laki snake was harmless; the crow promised L. to become poisonous; asked S. to show how poisonous it was; she spat poison, all the living on the other side died; the crow brought a leaf, asked L. to swallow the poison; S. did it, said that she had no more poison; the crow took the leaf and told L. to swallow the poison; other snakes licked this one the leaf also became poisonous, although smaller; the leaf itself was also burning; S. chased the crow; she asked the dyer to paint it black and S. did not recognize it], 18 [the crows were white; one crow she took feathers from the peacocks, but the peacocks did not accept her, and the crows also refused; she began to fly alone, but the young crows liked it, they began to paint each other and turned black; when the old crows died, only blacks are left]: 32-34, 114-116; East Timor (Viqueque) [Friarbird wants the day to be seven days and night the same; the crow wants them to alternate quickly; hit Friarbird rubbed the Crow with ash on the head; Friarbird rubbed the Crow with ash since then]: Forth 2007:511-512; (cf. East Timor [Friarbird wants day and night replaced each other quickly; Gray Dove wants a year-long night, then an ordinary day; Friarbird shoved the Pigeon, which fell into moss, became the color of moss]: Pascoal 1967:212 (translated from Forth 2007:511); oriental Flores (Sika): Arbdt 1932:24 [The world is dark; the bird Oä: let night and day follow each other quickly; the bird Rawa: let the night last for year and day for year; when angry, O. poured solution on R. indigo, she turned black; R. scalded O.'s neck with hot porridge, she became bald].

The Philippines. Apayao [The Crow and the Oriole agree to paint each other; the Crow brightly colored the Oriole, and she made it black; since then, crows and orioles have been chasing each other]: Wilson 1947b:100 (quail . in Ho 1967, No. 148:312-313); bontok igorot [two friends decided to tattoo each other; one did it nicely and the other smeared it black; they got into a fight, the first became a lizard, the second crow]: Ho 1967, No. 147:311-312 (apparently the same text without specifying an ethnic group with reference to L.L. Wilson. The Skyland of the Philippines, p.156-157 in Eugenio 1994, No. 241:392; Isneg [Iguana and Raven decided to tattoo each other; Raven did it properly and Iguana said she heard dog barking, poured black paint on the Raven, ran away]: Ho 1967, No. 149:313.

China - Korea. Chinese (at least four records, provinces not listed). The Raven Colours the Swan. Whoever painted birds or another bird pours black paint or mud on the crow or Crane. Since then, that black (or part of its feathers are black): Ting 1978, No. 232A*: 41.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Karachays [The Crow and Owl were white, the Raven offered to paint each other; Owl liked the coloring book, she also made the Raven beautiful; then she envied her, poured all the soot on her, flew away; the crow turned black, promised revenge]: Dzhurtubayev 2007:24; Balkarians (Western 1060) [the owl and the crow were white, they decided to paint each other; the crow painted the owl beautifully; then the owl painted the crow beautifully; afraid that it would be more beautiful than herself, poured out the remaining soot on it and flew away]: Malkonduev 2017:143-144.

Eastern Siberia. Central Yakuts: Kulakovsky 1979, No. 9 (no place of recording, first published in 1923; central?) [The loon was black, like the Raven; envious of the other birds' colorful outfits, they decided to decorate themselves with different patterns; the Raven decorated the Loon with "river iron"; Loon went to look into the water and dived; Having guessed treachery, the Raven hit her sacrum with his beak and cut it in half; the Raven remained black, and Loon was colorful and with twisted legs, i.e. with a flat sacral bone]: 73; Ergis 1964, No. 22 ( Ergis Heritage of Khangalas Ulus, 1930) [The Loon was black as the Raven; envious of the other birds' colorful outfits, they decided to decorate themselves with a variety of patterns; the Raven was the first to do so; Loon went to look into the water and dived; guessing about treachery, the Raven hit her with his beak and broke her sacrum; the Raven remained black, and Gagara was variegated, but with twisted legs]: 92 (resume in Ergis 1967a, No. 49:170; retelling in Ergis 1974:216-217; Sivtsev- Omoloon 1976:23; Sivtsev, Efremov 1990:15-16); Evens [the crow and the owl were friends and were white, decided to paint; the crow tried for a long time, the owl liked it, but she decided that it was boring to paint for a long time; She told the crow to close her eyes while she was painting it, poured black paint on the crow and flew away; since then, the crow hates the owl]: Robbeck 2005:203-204.

Japan. The Japanese, including the north of the Ryukyu Islands: Ikeda 1971, 249J I. The White Raven asked the Owl to paint it. II. (1) He was mistakenly painted black. (2) The raven came last among the birds and then asked for one thing or the other, testing the Owl's patience. (3) While it was being painted, the Raven twitched with excitement and moved, Owl ran out of patience. III. Now seeing the Owl, the Raven attacks her, so she hides during the day. IV. Hawk asked for a favor, but didn't pay. The Raven was painting, now, seeing the Hawk, he croaks, demanding payment. In these versions, the Hawk and the Raven can change roles]: 60-61; Japanese: Markova 1956 [the owl painted the birds; the raven asked to paint it beautifully; the owl planted it in a pot of black ink; the raven promised to take revenge on her; now the owl is afraid of him and hides during the day]: 105; 1991 [The crow is tired of the white outfit; the owl offers any dress, but he wants an unprecedented color; then Owl dyes his clothes black; The raven is angry, and since then he rushes to the Owl, during the day she hides in hollows]: 241; 2000 [The owl was a dyer, God told her to paint the birds in different colors; the Raven was the last to have the Owl left black paint only]: 83.

SV Asia. Russian Ustye [Loon asks the Raven to fill her, he paints her with beautiful specks; blindfolded the Crow, smears him with all soot; sits on the water, he manages to hit her tail, now she flattened there]: Azbelev, Meshchersky 1986, No. 78:214; tundra yukaghirs [Chomga asks the Raven to paint it, promises to paint it later; while the Raven sleeps, he smears him from head to toe with charcoal; Raven chases Chomga, hits her with a stick; she falls into the water and stays there because the raven broke her tail bone]: Jochelson 1926:275 (=Jochelson 1900:327; retelling to Slobodin, Slobodina 1998:105); forest Yukaghirs (p. Ridiculous, Verkhnekolymsky District) [all birds are invited to the wedding of Owl and Little Goose's daughter, are painted; the Crow paints Gagara, now asks to paint her; she first painted Chomga, then The crow is bad; they began to fight; the crow broke Gagara and Chomga's lumbar bones; left alone, she painted herself entirely black]: Nikolaeva et al. 1989 (1), No. 5:27-31; coastal Koryaks (Karaginsky dialect) [The raven was white; asks Loon to paint it with tar better than other birds and animals; Loon stumbles, a bucket of tar overturns on the Raven, he has been black ever since; Crows attack Gagar, forcing them to leave their land at sea]: Zhukova 1988, No. 49:173.

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos (Naukan) [two options; Owl and Raven are white, decide to color each other; The Raven painted the Owl long and diligently, the Owl poured black paint on him when he closed his eyes eyes; crows and owls have been at odds ever since]: Menovshchikov 1972:53-54; 1985, No. 6:32-33; Kodiak [the leader's son follows five geese; they turn into girls, swim in the lake; he hides the youngest's clothes; she gives birth to him a son; his sister calls her a goose; she puts on her feather outfit, takes her son and flies away; her husband comes to Bird Heaven for her; sees a tree splitter along the way; chips turn into salmon and trout; his wife agrees to live with him if he does not leave the house; he looks into another house, where the birds dress up and paint; the Seagull and the Raven have not yet finished this procedure; in In panic, she paints it whole black, it white; birds are reluctant to take it back to the ground; the raven carries it, falls, turns into a floating log; the person turns into a white whale]: Golder 1903, No. 10:98-104; stranger [The Raven is about to marry Duck; he was white, asked to be made as handsome as she was; Duck agreed, but then the kayak appeared, the Duck said that won't be able to finish the painting; the Raven replied that she should just smear it with charcoal; The duck did it, dived into the water]: Birket-Smith 1953:64; Northern Alaska Inupiate: Lucier 1958, No. 4 (noatagmiut ) [The raven wants to be invisible to the animals it hunts; first he paints Loon, makes black spots around her neck; Loon asks him to close his eyes, paints it all black; says he can't dive, but will hunt on black rocks]: 92-93; Gubser 1965:250 (nunamiut) [Raven and Loon paint each other; G. asks V. to close their eyes, paints him completely black; Raven throws at Loon ash, that neck turns black] in Kleivan 1971:19-20; McKenzie's mouth [Raven and Loon paint each other; first G. makes the Raven black; man scares off both, G. doesn't have time use other colors]: Jenness 1924, No. 20 [first the Raven paints Loon speckled, makes it a yellow beak]: 47 (translated as Menovshchikov 1985, No. 139:337); Ostermann 1942:106-107; Ostermann 1942:106 in Kleivan 1971:19; brass: Jenness 1924, No. 44 [The Raven is angry that the Seagull is stealing his food; the Seagull paints his Duck black, they used to be white], 45 [The Raven tattoos Loon speckled, the beak paints yellow; Loon throws soot from the fat at the Raven, it is now black]: 71; Rasmussen 1932 [the white Raven and Loon tattoo each other; G. throws soot from fat at the Raven]: 223; caribou [Raven and Loon paint each other; Loon doesn't like how she was painted; Raven spits on, making him black; Raven pounding Loon on the hips, now she goes in transit]: Rasmussen 1930b: 87; netsilic [Raven and Loon tattoo each other; V. loses patience, throws ash at G., making her back gray; G. throws fat soot at V.]: Rasmussen 1931:399; igloolik : Boas 1901b, No. 19 (West coast of Hudson Bay) [like the Eskimos of Baffin Land; Raven and Loon frame each other's clothes with black specks]: 320; Kroeber 1899, No. 13 [Hawk painted the Raven speckled; when a man approached them, Hawk knocked over the soot vessel, the Raven turned black; he had previously speckled Hawk]: 174; Rasmussen 1930a [like the Eskimos Baffin Land; Raven and Loon tattoo each other; V. throws flint at G., now she can barely walk]: 277; 1930c [Loon smears Crow with excrement]: 39-40; Labrador Eskimos: Hawkes 1916 : 160 [The Owl and the Raven quarrel; the Owl knocks the lamp over the Raven, making it black]: 15; Turner 1894 [a man paints his sons Gagara and the Raven; V. laughs at what G. looks like; he runs into shame water; V. does not want to be painted like Loon]: 262-263; Baffin's Land (Cumberland Sound): Boas 1888 [The Raven makes black and white clothes for the Owl, the Owl makes white clothes for the Raven; he does not sit quietly while trying on; in his hearts, the Owl overturns grease and soot on him]: 641; =1894b, No. 5:49; 1901b, No. 39 [as in Boas 1888; they adorn each other's clothes]: 220-221; polar Eskimos [children (=birds) paint each other speckled; the man frightened off Falco rusticolus, who knocked over fat and soot on the Raven (commentary in Kleivan 1971:14)]: Holtved 1951, No. 61b: 92-93 (translated into Menovshchikov) 1985, No. 208:418); West Greenland [Raven and Loon paint a friend]: Kleivan 1971:13 [Loon is annoyed that the Raven has smeared her legs black, smears him black from head to toe], 14 [The crow is not I like that Gagara painted it white; now she paints it entirely black]; SE Greenland [like in Zap. Greenland; annoyed that the Raven is not sitting still, Loon paints it entirely black]: Kleivan 1971:12-13; Angmassalik: Kleivan 1971 [Raven and Loon are both white; coloring each other beautiful spots; The Raven is dissatisfied, as long as it demands to be corrected until it turns out to be completely black]: 11-12; Thalbitzer 1923, No. 279 [Loon asks the Raven to paint it; then paints the Raven, that dissatisfied; then he smears it with soot]: 529-530.

Subarctic. Kuchin: McKennan 1965 [all the birds were gray, the Swan was the chief; the Raven offers to paint; the latter paints Loon, does not use bright colors; for which Loon and other birds dumps him in ash; all birds still laugh at him]: 92; Leechman s.a. (p. Porcupine) [the birds did not differ in color; seeing colorful pebbles at the bottom of the river, Coyote decides to paint the birds; everyone agreed, the Raven doubted, was the last to come when all the colors were over; Raven said he took some of each paint, let Coyote paint patterns on the brown background now; he is naughty, makes Coyote redo the work; agrees that Coyote try the last remaining paint; it turned out to be black]: 226-230; Khan (Eagle) [The Raven paints the birds; Coot promises to paint the Crow with bright colors, but smears it all with charcoal; he throws white clay at it, she has white spots remain on the head and back]: Schmitter 1910:26 (=1985:39); upper tanana [Raven paints birds]: Rooth 1971:310; atna [The Raven invites Loon to paint it; draws it for her beautiful necklace; G. is a bad artist, makes the Raven black; runs to the middle of the lake; V. throws black dirt on her head]: Smelcer 1997:23-24; slevy [birds paint each other; Raven throws black paint at Loon, which has a black head ever since; angry birds dump the Raven in ash, he suffocates, since then he has been screaming, kraa, kraa]: MacNeish 1955:37; Chipewayan: Birket-Smith 1930 [birds have no names at first; others tell the Raven to call him Black Beak; he is dissatisfied, dragged, smeared with soot, dive into the water themselves; the crow manages to grab the Rook, he smears him too black; others emerge, he throws chalk at them (?) , gives names to everyone]: 89; Boas 1916 [Dene makes the Crow black after he is dissatisfied with the color given to him]: 665; Lowie 1912 [all birds are white; the person decides to paint them; paints Loon in black specks, others in different colors; promises to paint the Raven like Loon, he doesn't like it; then he paints it entirely black; runs away with the other birds, the Raven after them, catches up with the Rook, paints it black; builds a long fence to separate deer from people; whoever paints birds sends an Owl to follow; people come to the pen; the raven drives everyone who approaches the entrance; Arctic foxes slip, free deer; Raven makes deer skins invulnerable to arrows; breaks the spell when promised to leave him the giblets of dead animals]: 184-185.

NW coast. Eyak [all birds are white; Raven and Loon paint each other; V. makes Loon a beautiful black necklace; without finishing work, asks to paint it now; G. is a bad artist, V. turns out to be all black; chases her, driving her into a lake; throws black mud on her head]: Smelcer 1993:69-70; bellacula: Boas [Masmasalanish and his three brothers paint birds living in the sky; Raven flies to heaven, wants to be painted first, not happy with the color; deities make it black] 1895, No. 1:241; 1916:665; MCIiwrath 1948 (1) [The raven should have been the most colorful, but everyone is dissatisfied, demands to be repainted; Alkuntem orders to shower it with ash, it turned black]: 386; Quakiutl: Boas 1910, No. 18 [Omean (Raven) paints birds and animals; the flood begins, O. in a hurry, the Raven only rubs the Seagull with white clay]: 233; Boas 1916 (neveti) [Omean paints the birds; then rubs the Seagull with clay and the Raven with coal; everything is flooded with the tide; those who did not have time escape now live on water, others on land]: 665.

The coast is the Plateau. Comox [Kumsnō'otl ("our big brother") descended from the sky; destroys monsters, turns ancestors into animals and stones; paints birds; The raven wants to be more beautiful; gets bored by his requirements, K. paints it black]: Boas 1916:665.

The Midwest. Ojibwa [the giant killed everyone, the grandmother hid Manabazoo in a hole from the teepee pole; M. made all the animals out of the ground, revived them, released them into the forest; greased the boat to swim across the resin near the giant's house; bribed the guards - made the whale the greatest fish, gave poison to the snakes, painted them; gave the bears (like the whale) tobacco; fed the parrots, they did not raise the alarm; they reported that the giant's vulnerable place under a scythe at the back of his head; M. hit this place with an arrow, took out the paints, released the birds from captivity, painted it; the woodpecker made it beautiful for help, left the crow and the crow black for ridicule; the squirrel showed where is the bag with the hearts of the dead people; on the way back, M. and the squirrel were swallowed by a whale; M. pierced his heart with an arrow, released black paint; the grandmother saw it on the water; M. told the birds to hammer a hole outside the whale, M. and the squirrel went out; M. painted the seagull white, gave claws to the crowd, made the leader of birds; on the feast, M. gave voices to the birds; the squirrel carried their hearts to the graves, M. revived people; gave the squirrel the right to all nuts; people named M. Hiawatha, "All the Father"]: Blackwood 1929, #3:329-332; Western Marsh Cree (northern Manitoba) [Goose and Raven decide to color each other; Wesukechak has only black paint left; Raven colored The goose with beautiful specks; the goose painted badly, the Raven chased him, the goose threw the remains of paint at it, the Raven turned all black]; steppe crees [Vesakaicak offers waterfowl closing his eyes to dance; paints them before dancing (the origin of the coloring of the species); the water chicken opens her eyes, V. steps on her tail, making it flat]: Clay 1978:43-47: Ahenakew 1929:331.

Northeast. Iroquois (the band is not a decree.) [naked birds gathered for advice, decided to ask the gods to give them body cover; when the feathers are ready, no one wants to follow them, only the Turkey-buzzard agrees; he was clean, but on his way he had to eat carrion; when he found feathers, he took the best, brightest ones, but it was difficult for him to fly in them; after trying on different outfits, he decided on the clothes he wears now; although ugly, he flies well; brought robes to birds]: Smith 1883:79-80.

Plains. Sarsi: Curtis 1976 (18) [The old man gives Muskrat a piece of land, asks him to run around until he grows up; but he does not grow; then he tells him to dive; for the fourth time, the Muskrat brings clay from the bottom; The old man rolls it into a ball, tells Zuika to run around, the earth grows; the old man creates earthly inhabitants; Vorona makes it out of coal, for other materials have come out by then; sarsi is the last to make, turning skin flakes into them]: 180-182.

California. Yurok: Kroeber 1976, No. E1 [Vohpekumeu steals salmon and acorns from two women in the sky, brings them to the ground; falls asleep between two trees; the trunks thicken, V. is inside; everything woodpeckers and other birds punch a hole; V. rewards the Woodpecker with a red tuft, the Crow paints black], J1 [as in E1; steals only acorns, hides in a hollow, the hole overgrows; the offended Raven throws several birds into the ash, they turned gray]: 266, 317; Sapir 1928b, No. 8 [to get feathers for birds, they kill a huge bird with feathers of all colors; each bird gets its own color; The raven insists that he be made completely red; then he is made completely black; he gets angry, rolls some birds in the mud]: 258-259; karok [The Coyote asks the stump why he is on the road He hits him, his arms and legs get stuck in a stump; woodpeckers and other birds hammer the stump, free the Coyote; for this, Coyote paints them; When he wanted to paint the Raven, only black paint remained]: Kroeber, Gifford 1980, No. II24:173-174; chupa [the hero falls asleep in the hollow; the hole overgrows; the little woodpecker comes to hammer; flies away when he hears a voice inside and is frightened; two larger woodpeckers make a hole; the hero paints birds, the crow paints with charcoal]: Goddard 1904, No. 1:131.

Big Pool. Gosiyute [Coyote first painted the Raven white, then gray, but he didn't like it again; called back, made it black; thought it was so good]: Smith 1993:38.

Guiana. Varrau: García 1993, No. 44 [it was not night, she was in one man's bundle; his sister's younger brother, out of curiosity, opened the package, it became dark; he began to cry, ran, turned into a Tobesia bird; the owner of the night was found by darkness in a palm grove; he went, illuminating the way with a torch, and came to the young man, the master of the sun; as he was pulling the sun by the rope tied to his house, night fell when he let go - day; (or rather, he could do it); the owner of the night gave him a woman, for which the owner of the sun released the sun for 6 o'clock; the owner of the night decided that this was not enough, but he did not have another woman; carved the Usidamani woman out of wood; the owner of the sun could not get along with her because she was wooden; told the Monkey to make holes in his body, he could not; the Woodpecker did; when he made a vagina, blood splashed, painted his head red; the woodpecker called Simocu, painted it whole red; the parrot only painted his breast; gradually the blood began to change color, so the rest of the birds dyed in different colors; when the blood turned white, the Heron and other now white birds came; when the blood rotted, the Vultures came, turned black, disgusting]: 151-152; Wilbert 1970, No. 172 [owned Imanaidorotu at night, by the sun - Hphphiarotu; I. kept the night in a scarf in a basket; in his absence, his wife's brother, a boy, opened the bag; darkness came, the boy turned into an owl; I. came to H., in that house dancing, music; when H. wanted the sun, pulled it up on a rope; H. gave her a day of 6 hours, for the second he promised to give a normal one, 12 hours; I. did not have a second girlfriend, he carved her out of wood; her name was Usirumani; H. could not sleep with her, asked the woodpecker to make a vagina; all the birds were smeared in the leaked blood; a crane in white blood, a raven in the curled black blood]: 377-379.

Chaco. Caduveo: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990a, No. 30 [(Riveiro 1950, No. 8:140-142; comm. Ribeiro: 14: some of the spilled blood formed a rainbow); three children always play late; a painted vessel with flowers in it descends from the sky; children climb after them, the vessel begins to rise; mother clings to the last boy's leg; his leg comes off; blood stains the sky, since then there has been a red stripe on the horizon (at sunset); all the birds were white; they come to swim in a pool of blood, take on color ; The vulture can't stand the heat, wiped off with coals, turned black], 31 [the children play late, then lie down in the yard; the old man shouts to others that the creature (bird?) comes down from heaven and takes children away, but parents don't pay attention; children sing when they get up; the old man grabs the creature, sticks to it; parents grab the old man's leg, it comes off; they collect blood in vessel, birds are called to swim; Vulture could not bear the itch, was lying in the burnt grass, turned black; other birds acquire colorful plumage]: 55-56, 57-58.

The crow (crow, magpie, thrush, etc.) turned black with soot, heat, beatings, was dipped in resin, and accidentally got dirty.

West Africa. Hausa [the rhino bird was white, lived next to the creator of Ubanguiji; he decided to teach people how to extract iron and make tools out of it; the rhino bird did not approve of this, reproached blacksmiths for that they were digging the ground for ore, etc.; they smeared it with black dust and cut off their tongue so that he would not complain to the creator; some genera of blacksmiths consider this bird to be their patrons, while others should eat it meat to become just as patient and faithful in marriage]: Mariko 1984:121-123; mosi [the rhino bird was white; wise; two people did not greet him and four others greeted him; in next time he didn't greet those two either; they were ashamed, they wanted to sprinkle dust on their heads, but the dust was from the forge, black, fell on the rhinoceros bird and it turned black]: Tauxier 1917:503.

Southern Europe. Italians: Kabakova 2006, No. 117B (Lombardy) [On the last three days of January, the bride and groom went across Po to get married; the river was covered with ice, they crossed to the other side; returning The next day, they saw that the ice was still standing and went; however, the wife fell through and died; her name was Merla], 117C (Piedmont) [there were warm sunny days in mid-January, the whitebird they flew with the chicks into the field; she met white-bearded January, and she laughed at him - he and his three snow sellers (St. Anthony on January 17, St. Gaudence January 22, St. Julius January 31) she is not afraid, since her chicks can already fly; furious January thought he still had January 29, 30 and 31, let it fall cold and snow; the thrush and the chicks hid in the chimney, turned black; the days from January 29 to January 31 are called thrush days and are especially cold days]: 179, 179-181.

Western Europe. The French (Ain, west of Lake Geneva) [Thrush saw Magpie's diamonds and gold jewelry; she explained that all this could be obtained from the Underground Prince; only take nothing without permission you can't; The thrush flew there, but when he saw the treasures, he grabbed it; a monster appeared, breathing smoke and fire; the thrush escaped, but turned black with soot]: Kabakova 1998, No. 55:72-73; the Dutch [crows and magpies were white, quails had a long tail, and the greenfinch kept the inn; the crow, magpie and quail drank all the beer there, but nothing to pay for; the crow and magpie flew out the chimney and got dirty with soot ; the greenfinch stepped on the quail's tail and it broke off]: Soer 1979:45.

Western Asia. Saudia [people in the waterless desert sent a crow, a dove, and a partridge to look for an oasis; the raven found and decided to keep everything alone; when he returned, he said that there was only one desert in the south; but the dove and the partridge also went there and brought good news; people came to the oasis and were convinced that the crow was lying; for this they painted it black; the pigeon was rewarded with red henna, and the partridge was surrounded with charcoal eyes]: Taibah, MacDonald 2016:1-2 (=Bushnaq 1987:218).

Australia. Cariera [two Eagle Brothers and their sister's son Raven hunt together; Eagles keep all valuable meat for themselves; The Raven hid the fattest kangaroos; the Eagles began to search for the stolen goods in the cave, the Raven closed they were there, returned to camp; his wife's uncle was his mother-in-law, communication with them was forbidden; he began to move his bed closer to his uncle's wives' beds, saying that where he lay there were ants; lay down and got together with both women; the Eagles returned dumping him in ash, telling him to be black from now on, to eat carrion; the Raven makes his characteristic scream]: Radcliffe-Brown 1914:169-170 (retelling in Waterman 1987, No. 4169 (3): 110); kamilaroi [everyone eats meat raw, blood marks around his mouth; Raven explains that his face is clean because he cuts meat finely with a knife; they don't believe him, he is invited to corrobori, Shingle-back and Sleepy-lizard (both Lizards?) they dance, shouting the words of an obscene song and defecating, while jumping, excrement flies to the sides; the Raven is so enthusiastic that the Gur-gur hawk manages to grab his purse, in which fire, escape; The raven is chasing, the fire falls on the grass, it lights up; the raven is lying on the grass, trying in vain to extinguish the flame; it turns black, only white circles remain around the eyes]: Mathews 1908, No. 6:304-305 (quoted in Waterman 1987, no. 1975 (1): 70); South Australia [the white Raven asked the Crane for fish; he still replies that the fish is not ready yet; the Raven tries to steal the fish, the Crane hits his eyes, the Raven falls into the burning grass; turns black and its eyes white; in revenge, inserts a bone into the sleeping Crane's tongue, which can now only make inarticulate sounds]: Parker 1897: i in Dixon 1916:292.

Melanesia. Bukavak [the eldest of four brothers goes hunting, his dog chases a pig, the old woman says that the pig is not wild, but hers, tells her to come to her; asks to carefully get the coconut from the palm tree; gives it to by yourself; if the dog chases the beast, you must put the coconut in a clean place, only then run after the dog; the dog drove the iguana, the man threw the coconut; when he returned, a woman, but ugly; the same with two more brothers; the youngest puts the coconut carefully, his wife is beautiful; the brothers decide to kill him; when they catch fish, they drain the water from the dam, pile it on the younger branch; at home, the youngest's wife turns into the wooden stick that the tarot pulls out, the brothers do not find it; the rat drinks water, helps the youngest to free himself; the youngest and his wife pretend to forgive their brothers; one day the younger one calls the elders to be male home, catches their eyes with baked tarot soot; they turn into crows, fly away; the youngest takes their wives]: Lehner 1931a, No. 6:48-52.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Chyna [The crow brags about its colorful plumage; wins the competition by choosing a shorter path, is recognized as queen, becomes even more arrogant; birds ask for a pen for divorce; Crow agrees, plucks itself; birds smeared it with coal, it turned black]: Kasevich, Osipov 1976, No. 18:77-79; garo [goddess Noreknak Norekdim gave birth to various gods and various living beings, except people; among them son Salgra (sun) and daughter Misi Susime (moon); when they were children, they quarreled about their future marriage partners and sprayed duct wax on each other; Salgra immediately washed himself, and MS decided to wait for his mother to show how her brother treated her; her mother came and told her to go wash immediately; but the wax could not be washed off, he remained (on the face of the moon); NN gave birth to various animals, then plants; the MC also invited her to give birth to fire; NN went to the goddess of death and stepped on something prepared for a funeral fire; then conceived fire; giving birth to him, died; MS got angry and threw fire far into the lower world; sent a servant to the seventh tier of the lower world to bring a mat; the deceased was placed on a mat for the first time; two roosters were tied to her toes; now it is Dohsutot constellation; feathers were also stuck at the head - now they are comets; two beauties came, MS turned them into Castor and Pollux; we must light a funeral fire; MS sent a crocodile for fire; swimming across across the sea, the crocodile could not withstand the heat and dived, the fire returned to the lower world; the crocodile remained in the water, burns on its back remained; then the squirrel carried fire on its tail, lowered its tail into the water, the fire again returned, the squirrel's tail turned red; MC sent her younger brother for fire; the fire still did not go, but explained how to extract it by friction or carving - then his servant would appear; the funeral fire set on fire, now it is the constellation of Pegasus; Cassiopeia is the body carried to the fire; the sacrificial bull was led; he was afraid of the noise and ran away; his hooves were the Milky Way; the raven cleaned the dishes at the end of the ceremonies, got dirty and turned black; everyone who now has black faces was then smeared with soot; the bat penetrated the Sun's wife, the Moon, and smeared her too; the Sun chased him until he disappeared into the cave, where now his descendants live; the Sun has made animals, birds, insects, reptiles speechless so that they would not complain or beg not to kill them]: Rongmuthu 1960:205-212.

South Asia. Mundari [in the sky, the sunny god Singh Bong feels the heat, it's the asuras who heat iron furnaces on the ground; he sends birds to Dingchua (Dhechua; in Leuva 1963, p.143: king-crow) and Kerketa (in Leuva 1963: shrike - shrike) ask to work only day or only at night, but the asuras smeared the first with coal dust and the second with iron ore dust, the first since then black, the second gray colors; then the SB sent a golden vulture and a silver vulture, the asuras hit them with a hammer, poked them with mites; then the lark and the crow are the same as king-crow and the shrike; then two (in Leuva - four) brightly colored birds; the first was bought in saffron water, the second was stretched out its tail; then the SB himself went down, pulled off the skin of a person working in the field, came to the asuras in the guise of a scabies patient young men; defeated young asuras in a ball game (he broke their iron balls with chicken eggs); the stoves began to work poorly; SB (in the form of scabies) advises sacrificing a chicken, a goat, then himself; comes out from the oven in glory and gold; advises the asuras to get there and their wives to fan the flame; male asuras burn, the SB raised the women by the hair, threw them; who fell where and what became the appropriate spirit]: Roy 1912: xx-xxxvii retelling in Leuva 1963:133-138); asur [beginning with the departure of Mundari ambassadors; the deity is Dharam Raja-Saikh Raja; the middle is not retold; at the end brother and sister are not they enter the oven, inflate their furs; when bones fall out of the oven, brother and sister catch up with D., ask for a way to feed them; he gives them a bottle pumpkin seed; the grown pumpkins are cut into pieces, from them lentils, corn, etc. legumes, mustard (Elusine Corocana, Panicum Militare, Phaseolus Roxburghii, Vigna Catiang, Dolichos Biflorus, Cajanus Indicus, etc.) appear]: Leuva 1963:138-139; haria [Pronomosor sent a fiery rain to destroy people; sent birds to see if anyone survived; dhechua sat on a charred tree, turned black; kuhu sat on trees and then on the ground, became black- brown; lipi - to the ground, turned brown]: Elwin 1949:181; Orahons [12 Lodh brothers and 30 Asuras began to melt iron; smoke rose to it; Dharme sent a swallow to burn stoves or day or night, but not all day long; the asuras pulled the swallow's feathers out of its tail, smoked it; D. sent a crow, the asuras and smoked it, also turned black; the quail was smeared with ash, now gray; the heron was smoked they stretched out her neck; then D. sent a young man (they say his son), who settled with childless old people, after which they had plenty of grain and poultry; the young man played with the asuras and always won: his the chicken eggs are intact, and their iron eggs are splitting; he climbed into the oven, did not burn, but came out holding gold bars; the lodha and asura men jumped into the oven, burned; the women demanded that D. himself now about He cared for them; he turned them into spirits of forests, groves, fields, waters, mountains; they will torment people (cause illness), and people will sacrifice them]: Hahn 1906, No. 46:85-86.

The Philippines. Tagals [the Culeto bird had a beautiful crest and the Raven (s) was white; agree to fly - who is taller; Culeto hit his head against the sky, tearing off his scalp, and the Raven's feathers burned when he approached the sun]: Eugenio 1994, No. 237:287 (=Rybkin 1975, No. 123:277-278).

China - Korea. (Apparently only one record, area not specified). The raven borrows feathers at the wedding. An ugly but kind bird receives feathers from others as a gift and becomes beautiful. The crow chases her out of envy, but falls into the resin and turns black (Ting Nai-Tung 1978, No. 224:41); yi [the raven brags about its colorful plumage, does not want to deal with other birds; fire asks - what kind of bird is he; the fire is silent; the raven rushed at him and has since turned black]: Coyaud 2012, No. 5:36-37.

The Balkans. Romanians (Muntenia) [the thrushes were white and lived in the garden on poplars; one day in January, the thrush decided to fly; the chicks were worried that it would freeze; the thrush replies that January was about to die , and with it frost; January became angry and frosty; the thrush huddled into the pipe and turned black; three days later January lost its breath, and the thrush returned to the chicks]: Kabakova 1994:214.

Baltoscandia. Finns [The raven was white, turned black when he went to eat soup in a smoky pot]: Aarne 1912, No. 90:16; Estonians [the white Raven refused to help when the Universal Father was digging rivers; for this he dipped it in tar and made it black; the magpie was only warmed with an iron rod; the Raven has only one white feather that he hides; it has all the wisdom of the world]: Wiedemann in Dähnhardt 1910:316; Lithuanians [The crow bit off the Frog's tail; angry God ordered the Raven to be bathed in tar]: Kerbelite 2001:77; Latvians (Livonia) [God ordered rivers to be dug and only the raven did nothing; then smeared himself with mud, and the plover, on the contrary, washed his face; the raven passed the plover's work as his own and Father God forbade the plover to drink from the river; now he screams when it is not raining; God told the crow to remain black forever]: Brivzemniax 1887, No. 37:41-42.

Turkestan. Dungans [the crow was as beautiful as a peacock, with colorful feathers; she did not build a nest in autumn; it was cold, she asked the magpies not to let her in; when they saw the torch thrown by the hunter , the crow tried to set fire to the forty's nest; the birds were alarmed, the crow swept, accidentally set fire to its feathers; fell into the snow, put out the fire, but the feathers remained black]: Yusurov 1970:256-257.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Mongors [The dove was the king of birds, the advisers were the Crow and the Owl; not happy that everyone honors the Sun (roosters scream in his honor, flowers bloom); the Raven suggests covering the sun with leaves , Owl - eat it; they fly to eat the Sun, but the Owl's stomach is broken, it lingers; The dove flies into the house of the Sun, it opens its eye, the Dove is incinerated; the Raven rushes to flight, turned black with the heat, and he used to be white; an owl hides in the forest, afraid to look at the sun; Phoenix is made king of birds]: Stuart, Limusishiden 1994:129-130.

Eastern Siberia. Central Yakuts (2nd Nakharinsky Nasleg of Megino-Kangalassky Ulus, 1945) [The crow was white, the last to fly south, the first to return; refused to explain to the other birds how it did it; then they threw it into the fire; it turned black, but its secret was never shared]: Ergis 1964, No. 24:93-94 (summary and link to an additional archival version in Ergis 1967a, No. 39:168-169; retelling in Sivtsev-Omolloon 1976:37-39; Sivce, Efremov 1990:26-27).

Amur - Sakhalin. Nanais [old man's wife: the earth cannot contain people, there is too much water; old man: we must pave the way to another land and make the sun shine more; people have died from the increased heat of the sun; the crow hid behind the stone, leaned out for a drink, turned black; part of the jackdaw's body remained closed, now it is black and white; the water has evaporated, it is now possible to draw on soft stones; the animals received a picture on the body and they began to distinguish between them; the dog understood people and talked herself; the woman hit her mouth against the couch, since then dogs have not talked; the river flowed in both directions; woman: people's children in the upper reaches will become lazy, their children too, let the river flow only from top to bottom; a man has tempered the heat of the sun; people have settled; the Aktankan family comes from a woman and a tiger; people have learned everything]: Sem, Sem 2020, No. 16:104-108; Nanais [there were water and sky; the crow flew to the sky to the Sun to ask for earth; the Sun gave a piece, the Raven swallowed it, flew back, regurgitated, a piece of the Sun fell too deep, opened the way to the boonie (the afterlife); people began to die; the crow turned black, burned on its way to the Sun; then Magpie flew, turned around, so not everything was burned; brought land, life, healing trees]: Shanshina 2000:28.

SV Asia. Forest Yukaghirs (b. Ridiculous) [The Raven comes to the Partridge; they agree that both are provided with food; the Partridge says it is ugly to steal from the traps of the poor; the Raven comes in the absence of the Partridge, kills her children; The eagle summons the birds for advice; the Duck says that she saw the Raven dragging something; the Seagull, the Woodpecker, and the other Duck are sent to bring the Raven, the Eagle tells him to beat him, he confesses to what he did; three months later wakes up, but stays black]: Jochelson 1926, No. 2:247-248; the Chukchi [the world is dark; they decided to send not the Fox for the sun, but the White Crow; she flew to a girl playing with two balls - bright and pale; offered to play together, rolled back the balls, they became the sun and the month; the crow was burned and turned black]: Kozlov 1956:34-35.

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos (Sirenics) [Partridges entrusted the White Crow to guard the chicks; he trusted the Fox, who ate many; the Partridges beat the Raven, he turned black]: Sergeyeva 1968:51-52.

Subarctic. Tagish: McClelland 2007 (2), No. 36c [Thunderbird (Ganook) owns water; Raven (Yéil) argues with him who is older; they are sailing in boats, G. puts on a "fog cap", J. loses orientation, admits that he is younger; puts excrement on him, it melted warm, G. believes that he is dirty, runs away to wash, J. drinks all the water with the fish, flies into the chimney; G. tells the spirit the hearth grab it, J. turns white black], 73b [people catch halibut with pieces of fat; the raven dives, takes off the bait; one person hooks it off, tears it off, brings it like an amulet, decorates it with feathers and in fluff; the raven makes his nose out of poplar wood, sticks it with resin, comes with others to look at the curiosity; leans over the fire to melt the resin; when the fake nose falls off, puts his back; before flying, he smoked over the fire, turned white black]: 203-204, 360-361; southern tutchoni: Workman 2000:50-51 [The raven warns animals about the approach hunters; people starve, the Raven eats corpses; Äsúya (Beaver) pretends to be dead, tells his wife to cover the imaginary corpse with branches; after making sure that the woman is gone, the Raven goes down to peck the corpse; Ä. grabs it, breaks its wings, drags it home, burns it alive; throws the coals away; they turn into a crow; Ä. tells him not to disturb people from now on, he becomes small and black], 120-121 [big white The raven warns animals when hunters are coming; wants people to starve to death, he will eat corpses; one person quietly got out of the house, killed an elk, fed the others; when the old man dies, his corpse was left as bait; the crow was caught, hung in the chimney, it turned black and small]; inner tlingit: McClelland 2007 (3), No. 139 [the raven goes to peck blueberries, leaves an eye as a watchman: if he sees a boat, let him call; the eye calls, but it is not a boat, but a floating log; the raven beats his eye; when he called again, the raven did not go to see; the people in the boat took their eyes away; the raven came to the village, asked the old woman if she had heard of the eye; she sent him to a teepee, the man showed the crow's eye (apparently not knowing who was in front of him), the raven put it in his eye socket, flew out the chimney; in the chimney he got entangled by the ropes and smoked, since then the crows are black], 168b.ii-iii [The raven comes with birds to the owner of the water; says that enemies in the forest want to capture slaves {the birds pretend to be in are the enemies of the forest?} ; the owner of the water goes to fight off enemies, the Raven drinks all the water, flies into the chimney; the owner stops him, smokes him, he turns black; when he flies out, the Raven creates rivers and lakes {obviously regurgitating water}]: 624-625, 736-737; taltan: Teit 1919, No. 1.3 [Kanu'gu owns fresh water; the white Raven comes to cut wood for him; when K. sleeps, puts excrement in his bed; offers to wash him with urine; splashes urine into his eyes, grabs water (not described how), flies out but gets stuck in the chimney; K. smokes him, the Raven turns black; finally, the Raven flies out, spreads (by spitting it out of your mouth?) water on the ground], 1.25 [The raven makes the first lake; the pot-bellied man drinks it; the Raven asks the Snipe to hole his belly with his beak; the lake fills up again; the raven draws water into his mouth, flies and spits out, creating many fish lakes]: 201-203, 219; Chipewayan: Lowie 1912 [all birds are white; the person decides to paint them; paints Loon black specks, others in different colors; promises the Crow He doesn't like to paint like Loon; then he paints it entirely black; runs away with other birds, the Raven after them, catches up with the Rook, paints him black; builds a long fence, fencing him off deer from people; whoever painted birds sends the Owl to trace; people come to the pen; the raven drives everyone who comes to the entrance; Arctic foxes slip, free the deer; the raven makes skins deer invulnerable to arrows; breaks the spell when promised to leave the giblets of dead animals]: 184-185; Petitot 1886 [The old raven woman hides animals; Owl finds them; Wolf, Fox can't penetrate her; Blue Jay releases animals; the old woman saved her life; for this she broke the bone shell that covered the bodies of ungulates], No. 16:379-281; beaver [The raven drives animals underground, holds with a door made of fat; the Night Hawk watches him; people break the door, releasing animals; The raven covers the bodies of animals with a bone shell, only the nose is vulnerable; but he suffers from hunger; makes ribs to animals]: Goddard 1916:250-251.

NW coast. Tlingits: Kamensky 1906 [Kanuk invites Ale to his island, treats him with fresh water; E. talks about the creation of the world, K. falls asleep; E. puts dog droppings in his bed; K. got dirty, ran to wash; E. took water into his beak, rushed into the smoke hole, got stuck; K. smoked it until it turned black, then let it go; E. flew spewing water, so all the lakes and rivers appeared]: 77- 78 (English translation) Kamenskii 1985 [Ganook, Yéil]: 62)]; Veniaminov 1840 in Romanov 1997 [The petrel owns fresh water; the Raven puts dog feces in his bed, says he is dirty; the Petrel runs out from home, the Raven drinks water; gets stuck in the chimney; the Petrel makes a smoky fire, the Raven turns white black; when free, flies, spitting out water; streams and rivers with salmon appear]: 513- 514; Boas 2002, № XXV.1.5 [The raven was white; his wife was the daughter of the Woodpecker Chief; the Raven tried to steal resin from the Woodpecker, stuck; he was put in a box, covered with tar on his eyes, thrown into the sea; he asks Seagull for help, but she only relieved her need; then took pity, lost fat, Raven cleaned the resin but remained black]: 616; Golder 1907c: 293-295; De Laguna 1972:847; Smelcer 1992:45-46; 1993:34; Swanton 1909, No. 1, 31:4, 83; Tlingits: Boas 1895, No. XXV [The raven steals resin from his wife Woodpecker; sticks; glued from the inside to the box, let him go to sea; The Seagull saves him, spits fat in his face; in as a result of the adventure, he turns black] .1.5 (=1916, No. 170:578; =2002, No. XXV.1.5:616), No. XXV.1.19 (=2002:622-623) [The raven turned himself into a woman, Norka into a baby, came to the Seals, married his son chief; marries the Seal; one day makes her imaginary baby scream, tells her husband that something bad will happen; strangled her husband, goes to grieve at his grave; one person saw: there the raven is biting corpse; the crow was hung in the chimney, since then it has been black]: 316, 319; quakiutl [see M38A motif (inept imitation); The raven walks around the guests; the bear holds his hands over the fire, the fat drips from them into empty shells placed on the coals; the Raven asks for a return visit; his wife Squirrel frightened the last salmon to the coals; the raven sits above the fire until it turns black, and his hands shrunk into claws (the origin of the appearance of crows)]: Clutesi 1967:63-69.

The coast is the Plateau. Quinolt [the Xwone'xwone trickster and the Snail changed their eyes; it turned out that the Snail was keen, and S. had ordinary eyes; the Snail married the Blind Crow; gives her one eye first, then the other eye ; blinded, the Snail does not cut down the tree, but the supports of the house; the house falls and burns, the Crow has time to fly out, turns black]: Farrand 1902, No. 2:92; chalkomel [old woman Kaíia (Wolverine) began to wash the salmon caviar, halves turned into two girls; they grew up, K. pretended to die, told her to leave her in the boat, put her belongings next to her; tightened her skin, painted herself, made her horn and hammer her penis and testicles; came to her granddaughters under the guise of a young man; in the morning, the girls' vulvas were sick, they suspected deception; the next night they began to tickle her imaginary husband, found out the grandmother's laughter; tickled to deaths; came to a blind old woman at the cradle of her daughter's baby; pretended to wash the baby, carried it away, put a block; the daughter took the mother on her back, almost caught up with the kidnappers, but as soon as she threw her mother off, the path was long; so twice; the mother left her, told her to become an edible rhizome; the mother's husband, a stone under which salmon hide; squeezing out her son's diapers, created a new boy out of his urine; both grew up met while hunting; the mother told the youngest to play with the eldest so that he could see a sign on his hand; having learned the truth, the eldest went to burn the kidnappers who had made him his husband; put the youngest good on her chest was white hair, she became summer clouds, her child a robin; the eldest angry had black hair, she became winter clouds, her child became a crow; sparks became snowbirds; the mother wanted to make the Sun the eldest, but easily covered his light with a diaper, so she made it a Month; the youngest shone brightly, became the Sun; var: the kidnappers were not burned, the eldest became a sturgeon, the youngest sucker; the younger brother sat by the fire , melted, becoming urine again]: Hill-Tout 1904b: 342-345; Puget Sound [The Gray Eagle owns the sun, moon, stars, fresh water, fire; the raven is snowy white, the Eagle's daughter invites him to her house father; he steals all valuables; strengthens the stars in the sky; splashes water, creating lakes and rivers; the smoke from the smut in his beak makes his feathers black; he drops it, the fire stays with the rocks]: Lyman in Clark 1953:150-151; coutenay: Boas 1918, No. 65 [The raven hides the buffalo, people are starving; the Beaver pretends to be dead, the Raven goes down to peck at him, is caught, brought into the house; screams the Coyote, flies out through chimney; Magpie notices which way he flew; Rabbit and Hare come to two old women; turn into a puppy and a stone; one old woman wants to throw the puppy into the water, the other picks up; picks up and stone to use as an anvil; in the aisle hang a bubble and a rattle, making a sound as bison passes; young men hole a bubble, pick up a rattle, drive out buffalo; cling their teeth to bull's testicles; standing on the sides, old women hit the bison, flattening its body; bison is now available to hunters]: 213-219, 303-304; sachaptin [see motive k27; Valetits becomes small and ugly; the youngest daughter of Chief Eagle marries him, the eldest marries the Raven; in the absence of his wife, V. regains her appearance; turns bison cakes into bison; kills buffalo; the Raven only picks up heads; leaves with his wife, taking all the animals away; Beaver pretends to be dead, catches the Raven who has descended; people smoke him to black; let him go, or he breaks out himself; V. turns into a puppy, Snake into a stick- digger, Mortar in a mortar; Raven's daughter picks them up; V. barks deer out of the teepee; The raven returns to the village]: Farrand, Mayer 1917, No. 9:157-164; ne perse [see motive K27; younger sister marries an ugly young man, the eldest is a Raven; the young man becomes handsome, the older sister also goes to him; the Raven hides the buffalo; the Beaver tells him to rip his belly open, pretends to be dead, catches the Raven; people hang the Raven in the chimney, it turns white black; promises to say where the bison flies away; Poloz, Pest, Laska come to the Raven; turn into a digger, pestle, puppy; Raven's daughter picks up them; a puppy barks, driving buffalo back to the ground from an underground cave; a digger and a pestle sit on the backs of running buffalo]: Phinney 1934:170-172.

Northeast. Naskapesh [Tchakapesh stirred the fire for frying; Crow offered to help, but the more he waved his wings, the weaker the fire; it turned black and was white; C. told him to eat carrion]: Millman 1993: 134; (cf. seneca [uncle also goes hunting for wild tubers; hides his older nephew Two Fers for fear that he will be kidnapped by Sgano n hses Gowa's daughters; Oneqsas gives the youngest only bad tubers; that night he spies on his uncle calling in the corner of the elder; in the morning he calls him himself; two women come by air in the boat, demanding Two Feathers; he hid, the women promise to come again; in the morning they find a young man , noticing his long hair, they take him west; his uncle comes and cries; Q. catches up with the boat in a stream of smoke, turns back; agrees to let his brother and the women go when they allow them to cut off their pieces flesh to make moccasins that give strength and knowledge; Q. knows that women torment her brother, flies west again in a stream of smoke; stops in a clearing where an old woman, her grandson and two granddaughters live; grandson in everything like Q., becomes his brother; the old woman says that the leader's daughters brought a man, hung him on a pole, tourniquet to make him cry, his tears turn into beads; Q. gives one of the moccasins to his named brother; when they put them into the fire, the chief's daughters feel pain; Q. puts those in the house to sleep, carries the brother out, turns the house into a hot stone, everyone dies; Q. with the old woman and her grandchildren returns to his uncle; the foxes torment him, mocking him and saying, We have come! (as if nephews had returned), throwing coals at the old man's face; Q. hangs the Fox in the chimney, the white one turns red, the nose and tip of his tail turn black; Q. lets go of the Fox, now the fox has the current coloring]: Curtin 2001:185-191).

Plains. Blacklegs [the gray Raven hides the buffalo; the chief asks Napi for help; N. turns himself into a dog, the leader's son into a stick; Raven's little son picks up a dog, Raven's wife a stick; Dog and The stick finds an underground hole, drives the bison out; they go out themselves, clinging to the fur of an old bison; N. turns into a dead otter, catches the Raven, hangs it in the chimney; since then, the crows are black]: Spence 1985:208-212; assiniboine [The crow was a beautiful songbird; proud of her plumage, did not speak to others; Inkdomi as an Eagle became angry, ran into her, her feathers turned black and her voice hoarseness]: Foustar, Blue Talk 1978:25-29; teton: Erdoes, Ortiz 1984 (Brule) [The White Raven warns buffalo when hunters are approaching; the young man hides under buffalo skin, grabs it; one of hunters throw it into the fire, the rope burns, the Raven flies away, but turns black and no longer warns the buffalo]: 395-396; Neuhardt, Brown 1997 (oglala) [see motive K19b; pregnant woman falls from sky, her son Shooting Star (PZ) remains alive; he is brought up by the Lark; the White Raven scares away the buffalo, people are starving; the PZ turns into a dead bison, the Raven goes down to peck at him, the PZ grabs him, smokes in the chimney; The raven turns black, flies away after losing strength; the PZ turns into a boy, lives with an old woman; The thunders take the leader's hand, he promises a daughter to the one who returns his hand; in the form of the PZ king flies to the tipi, where the hand hangs; overturns the cauldron on Iktomi (Spider) and others, takes his hand, returns it to the chief, marries]: 496-513; hidatsa: Beckwith 1938, No. 46b [The raven flies, screams, does the meat is bitter; the Coyote catches it, throws it into the fire; the feathers fly like birds; the white Raven flies out of his bones: I will be back at the end of the world! ]: 300-301; Lowie 1942 [a girl goes out in the Months; her son digs a rhizome in the sky, making a hole into which the ground can be seen; she and his mother go down a rope of tendons, the Month kills mother with a stone, the boy is unharmed; lives with an old woman; kills monsters; a bald man comes out of the hollow, screams, all the meat becomes bitter; the young man has become a spider, climbed a tree, turned a bald man into a harmless owl; the white Raven warns the buffalo about the appearance of hunters; the young man became a wounded bison, brought the herd to people, went to the steppe himself, pretended to die; crows and magpies flocked, the last to be their white leader A raven; the young man caught him by the legs, plucked him; he flew away; the young man threw one feather into the air, it turned into a white Raven; the young man painted him black; people had tiny eyes and mouths, the young man widened them; knocked out larger teeth for the predatory moose, left two; finally turned into the Morning Star]: 4-6; northern sheyens [two girls look at the stars; the first wants a bright star as her husband, the second ordinary; the porcupine lures the first to a tree, from there to the sky, turns into a middle-aged man, takes a girl as a wife; tells me not to dig a white tuber; she digs it up, sees her house in the hole on ground; descends on a grass rope; it is short, the girl falls, breaks; a lark woman finds a boy in her womb, raises her; he comes to his mother's grandmother; gives herself to the water monster swallow it, cuts it from the inside, releases swallowed people; in another village, the White Raven drives buffalo away from hunters, people are starving; the Shooting Star pretends to be a dead buffalo, catches the Raven, smokes him to death in the chimney; marries]: Grinnell 1921:308-312 in Edmonds, Clark 1989:188-192; arpaho [white Raven hides buffalo; first Rabbit, then Moose, Bison pretend to be dead; Raven goes down to bite the bison, caught, hanged in the chimney, turns black; people let him go, follow him, throw the puppy; the puppy finds a door in the mountain, behind which the bison; drives them to the ground]: Dorsey, Kroeber 1903, No. 122:275-276; Arikara [Swallow, then Raven sent for fire to the Sun, but only burned; the raven used to be white; the third bird brings fire]: Grinnell 1893b:126; kiowa [white Raven hides animals underground; Sendeh sends Owl and Dragonfly to scout (their eyes have been bulging since then); turns into a puppy, Raven's daughter picks him up; he opens flint door, drives bison to the ground; turns into burdock, sticks to the bison's hair, the Raven does not find it; turns into a dead moose; the raven descends to peck at it, sandwiched between the ribs, thrown into fire turns black]: Parsons 1929a, No. 9:21-26; Kiova-Apache [the white Raven drives game away from hunters; the Coyote turns into a killed moose; the Raven descends to peck at him, sandwiched between his ribs; The spider lets him go, but immediately pulls him back behind the web; people smear it with charcoal, making it black, telling him to eat carrion]: McAllister 1949, No. 10:53-55.

Southeast USA. Caddo [see motif J12; Owl and grandmother hide all the water in the same body of water; the White Raven catches grasshoppers noisily; people think he found water; disappointed Coyote dumps him in the mud, now the raven is black; the turtle falls into the crack, calls for help; the Coyote hits it so as not to make noise in vain, now there are cracks on its shell; the flea bites the Owl's mother; she overturns the jug, water flows all over directions; grateful Coyote lets Flea live on his fur]: Dorsey 1905, No. 40:67-69; teals: Kilpatrick, Kilpatrick 1966, No. 1 [Thunders keep fire in a hollow sycamore growing on island; birds and animals take turns trying to steal it, but only burn it (color origin); The water meter spider brings coal]: 386-387; Duncan 1998 [fire must be stolen, brought from afar; The vulture carries coals on its head, the feathers on its neck burn, it sticks its head into the water, extinguishes the fire; the snake carries on its back, turns black, and also dives; The spider brings fire in a clay vessel]: 53-55; Mooney 1900, No. 2 [ as in Kilpatrick; A water meter brings coals in a vessel]: 240-242; (cf. hichiti [The bear calls the Rabbit to visit, fills the beans with the fat that he has cut out of his body; the Rabbit calls the Bear; stabs a knife in his stomach, is seriously injured; the Bear calls the Vulture Healer; that tells him to be left alone with the patient; replies to the Bear that the Rabbit is screaming because he is afraid of treatment; the Bear finds the Rabbit's gnawed bones; tells the orphan young man to shoot Vulture with a bow; kills, hangs over fire; since then, vultures are yellowish in color]: Swanton 1929, No. 35:111-112); Seminoles [two birds (crows) had bright plumage and beautiful voices; when they saw the fire, they rushed watch what it is, fall into the ash, turn black, hoarse]: Gallagher 1994:39; choctaw [when the first people come out of the ground, they're like cocoons; the Great Spirit sends someone to unfold them, straighten them out dicks; someone in the east owns the fire; the Opossum comes, sets fire to his fluffy tail; he is caught, the tail becomes naked; the same is with the Vulture; he puts coals on his head, bald, his skin is red; the Raven He tried on by the fire for a long time, turned black, hoarsened with smoke; the spider grandmother brought fire in a clay vessel; the Bear wanted to take it for himself, burned his paws; people took the fire, began to decorate the dwellings with ornaments, meaning spider legs and fire]: Cushman? (http://www/earthbow/com/native/choctaw /spider.htm).

California. Mattol [The crow was husband, the Raven was the wife; the wife went to collect seaweed and shellfish, left the child, began to eat eggs; the child was carried away by the tide; the husband beat his wife until she turned black and died; the wife's brother beat her husband until he turned black and died; since then the crow and crows are black]: Nomland 1938:119; pomo [the world is dark; the raven (Crow) is white, flies east, brings the sun from there; burned and turned black on the way back]: Clark, Williams 1954:31-32; Yokutz (Wobonuch, Centrall Hills) [the world is covered in water; Tobacco is flying through the air from east to west, flopping into the water; next time The Falcon and the Raven (Crow) place a net under the surface of the water, catch Tobacco; in the same way they catch mortar and pestle; the Falcon pushes tobacco; placing the net in the air, catches Night (turns the net north, west, south; Night Came from the east singing, Close your eyes! ); The Falcon rolled the Night into a ball, the Sun rose, it became light; he smeared the Raven at Night, which turned black, had previously been like a Falcon; wild ducks complain that there was nowhere to sit to rest; Falcon called the animals told the Ducks to dive; they came back, saying that there was land, trees, etc. under water; Duck's wife dived to get sand; Falcon and Raven stretched their net on the water to prevent it from trembling (it's not clear whether water or net) , fumigated with tobacco; The duck came up, losing consciousness, bringing sand under her fingernails; The Falcon brought her to life with tobacco; told everyone to leave when he returned 6 days later; put sand and dirt on her knee, the land began to grow from where the Duck dived; after another 6 days, the waters grew, the waters were draining; to watch the world grow, the Falcon flew north east, the Raven flew west; then flew south, near the waters saw a black man's hut, a dog; these people lived on the ground, did not fly; the Falcon taught them how to make porridge from acorns; the messenger (Falcon?) named those who will become shamans and fly away (with Falcon and Raven?) : Coyote, Puma, Wildcat, Fox, Bear, Weasel; also Owl and Skunk; Condor and Eagle; they all became animals; Coyote and Dog stayed on earth]: Gayton, Newman 1940, No. 39:38-39; salinan [in a woman Chahe has a basket of boiling resin on her shoulder, this is her stomach; she throws people at it; The Falcon and the Raven meet her, she throws the Raven (since then black) into the basket, the Falcon pulled it out, revived it; they set fire to that one woman; she ran north; where burning resin was dripping, mezcal grew]: Mason 1918:109.

Big Pool. Southern Utah [The raven was white, Sünā'wavi decided to make it black; pretended to be dead by sprinkling larvae collected from the carcass of a dead animal; the raven came down to peck the corpse, S. grabbed it, smoked it over the fire, the Raven turned black]: Lowie 1924, No. 18:32.

The Great Southwest. Western keres (Akoma) [players play on people's lives, Kaupata is the most dangerous; the Sun sends his son to change the rules, play only for valuables and jewelry; he wins; carves K.'s eyes, turns them into two bright stars; K. sets fire to the world; birds fight fire, taking on their current color (the raven turns black, the hummingbird flies through the rainbow, becomes colorful); the rain floods fire]: Benedict 1930:62-65.

NW Mexico. Huichol [world in cold and dark; White Eagle flies, finds a sleeping Fire; animal people build a temple for him, bring firewood; Snakes decide to steal it; the Red Serpent has turned black; the Fire has woken up, disappeared into the cave; Scorpion, Vulture, Jaguar, Raccoon and others are trying to get it back, burned (black spots on their bodies); The Deer manages to persuade the Fire to return; it teaches people to celebrate, do arrows, burn vegetable gardens, etc.]: Cunningham 1978:23-26.

The Northern Andes. Kogi: Preuss 1926, No. 9 [the hero wears vulture clothes, white at the time; the vulture chief in human form catches him, gives him to his daughter; the hero lives with her; the shaman locks them in the house and sets fire to him; the hero takes the seeds and shoots of all cultivated plants, flies away with his wife; his clothes turn black; invites his father-in-law and mother-in-law to visit; they go through the area prepared for burning; spouses set fire to him, father-in-law and mother-in-law burn]: 205-211; Reichel-Dolmatoff 1951 (2), No. 6 [together with vulture people and Makú people (Makú) Duginavi lives in heaven; asks the Vulture King to lend him his white clothes go down to the ground; on the ground he cultivates a field (puso a hacer un sembrado), feeds on fallen animals, returns at night; The Thunder People are surprised that he has a lot of food; Téiku ( inventor of axes and machetes) and Nyiueldue (owner of gold, boats, trees) set a trap, catch D., N. puts him in a cage, leaves his daughter to guard; D. turns into a person, converges with a girl; N. closes lovers in the house, sets fire; D. covers the girl with his wings from fire and ash, since then the feathers of the Royal Vulture from the back seem to be charred; when two prepared by D. in advance burst immature calebasses, N. thinks that lovers have burned down; D. brings the girl to his field, where cassava, yams, sweet potatoes; N.'s harvest died from drought; N. sees ants dragging pieces of yam, etc.; comes to the field does not recognize D.; he sends him to the middle of the site to dig cassava, sets fire to the site; N. burns, and Tsar Vultures, who borrowed D. his clothes, comes out of the smoke; see further motif G9, motif K8A]: 38-40.

Chaco. Chamacoko [a woman's sons or husband kill her eel lover; sons shoot arrows into the sky, open a door to the sky, or pull the sky closer to the ground; the hole closes when the leg closes the youngest of the three brothers is still hanging down; the mother sends the birds to cut off her leg; paints the birds with colorful blood spilled out of her leg]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1987a, No. 75 [about (77); woman paints birds as they want; then paints herself black, turning into a karau (Mesembrinibus cayenensis), screams, grieving for lost children], 76 [about like (77); a woman paints birds the way they want; The hawk who cut off his leg with black and white stripes], 77 [the husband brought Lalhorha's wife a small eel, let their child play with him; L. put the eel in a pot on the edge of the swamp; eel grew up; the woman knocked on the pot, the eel came out, copulated with her; he spewed eggs instead of sperm; she cooked and ate it, fed it to the child; he does not like these "berries"; he watches his mother, says father; the father calls the eel with the same signal (hitting the pot), cuts off the tail; cooks other eels with the meat, gives it to his wife, tells the son not to eat; the wife guesses, finds a dead eel; the village is empty, everyone ran away, the youngest son was the last to run away; the sky was low; firing arrows, the boys pushed him away; they pierced a hole, climbed into the sky; when the last one climbed, the hole closed, the boy's leg remained hang; the mother saw her reflection in the water, then looked up; tells the birds to cut off their leg; the hawk bites her leg, first red blood flows into the placed vessel, then black, white; when the hawk cut off leg, the sky closed forever; the woman painted the birds depending on whether they sang well; the vulture sang poorly, it was painted with black and white stripes]: 260-261, 267-268, 270-272; caduveo : Wilbert, Simoneau 1990a, No. 30 [three children always play late; a painted vessel with flowers in it descends from the sky; children climb after them, the vessel begins to rise; the mother clings to the latter's leg boy; leg comes off; blood stains the sky, since then there is a red stripe on the horizon (at sunset); white birds come to bathe in a pool of blood, take on color; Vulture can't withstand the heat, wipes off with coals, turns black], 31 [children play late, then lie down in the yard; the old man shouts to others that the creature (bird?) comes down from heaven and takes children away, but parents don't pay attention; children sing when they get up; the old man grabs the creature, sticks to it; parents grab the old man's leg, it comes off; they collect blood in vessel, birds are called to swim; Vulture cannot bear itching, falls out in burnt grass, turns black; other birds acquire colorful plumage]: 55-56, 57-58.


raven turned black after carrion (garbage, fish) began to bite.

North Africa. The Berbers of Morocco [after the flood, Noah sent the Raven and the Dove to scout; the Dove brought olive branches, and the Raven said he began to peck at the animal's corpse; Noah blessed the Dove and made the Raven in black]: Thay Thay 2001, No. 79:93-94.

(Wed. Western Asia. Babylonia (Akkadian version of Gilgamesh) [Utnapishtim escaped the flood; his ship landed on Mount Nitsir; on the seventh day, W. released a dove, then a swallow, both returned; released the crow, who saw the water fall, came back, "croaks, eats and craps"; W. sacrificed to the gods, "as the flies flew off, smelling; Ishtar took off her neck and picked up the large necklace that Ana had made for her, saying that no matter how much this necklace ("azure stone") forgets, he will not forget these days; let all the gods come except Enlil, who tried to destroy people by causing a flood]: Deacons 1961, Table 11, 145- 154:76-77; The Old Testament [after 40 days, Noah opened the window of the ark he had made and released a crow, which flew off and flew in while the land was drained of water; then released from himself pigeon to see if water had come down from the face of the earth; but the dove did not find rest for its feet and returned to it in the ark; and hesitated for another 7 days; and released the dove again from the ark; the dove returned to him in the evening; and behold, a fresh oil leaf in his mouth; and Noah found out that the water had come down from the ground; he hesitated for another 7 days, and released a dove; and he never returned to him]: Gen. 8:6-12).

Burma - Indochina. The Burmese [The sun descended to the daughter of the dragon king Naga; returned to heaven, Naga gave birth to three eggs; the Naga sent the white Raven to tell the Sun that children were coming soon; the Sun let him carry the ruby to buy the kingdom for the children; on the way, the Raven and other birds began to peck leftovers at the halt of the merchant caravan, hid the burden under the bush; the merchant replaced the ruby with manure; unfolding the bundle, the princess died of grief; the Sun scorched the Raven's feathers, which turned black; the abandoned eggs floated along the river, broke; one turned into placers of rubies, the other came a tiger, and the third was a crocodile]: Aung 1957:99-100.

The Philippines. Pampango [two crows live in the Sinukuan Golden Palace with other animals; an epidemic begins; upset S. calls the Voronov to sing; goes looking for them, they peck carrion; he punished them by turning them black and taking away their sweet voice]: Eugenio 1994, No. 236a: 384; cebuan [when Noah's ark landed on Mount Sinai, N. sent the Raven to find out if the water in the valleys had descended; that began to peck at the corpses; N. threw an inkwell at him, breaking his leg; since then, the Raven has been waddling, and after bathing in ink, he turned black]: Eugenio 1994, No. 236c: 386.

The Balkans. Slovenes (Carinthia): Sumtsov 1890a [fairy tale: a hero killed an unclean spirit with his mistress, scattered them cut into small parts across the field; the raven and the crow began to peck for corpses; the raven pecked at one unclean one, so he became black; the crow was both black and white, because it pecked both the unclean and his mistress]: 67 (=Dähnhardt 1910:59); Dähnhardt 1910 [the hero's mother took her lover devil; he killed both, chopped them to pieces, tied them to the horse's tail; the Raven and the Raven flew to peck; the Raven pecked the line, turned black; the crow pecked both, turned black and gray]: 495; Romanians, The Bosnians [the white Raven was released from the ark to see if the flood was over; did not return; was punished by God or Noah, becoming black, bloodthirsty, and doomed to feed on carrion]: Gura 1977:533; Romanians: Beza 1928 [Noah sent a white crow, who began to peck carrion; sent a Dove; the Raven told him to tell God he had not seen him; the Dove smeared his paws with the blood of the corpse, they are now red; Noah told the Raven to eat carrion and be black as black with his anger, Noah, heart]: 133; Gaster 1925, No. 90 [Noah sent the White Raven to find out what the state of the world was in; that horse pecked for three days, and when he returned, he answered Noah that he knew nothing about the state of the world; Noah told the Raven to eat carrion and be black as his heart was black with his anger, Noah; so that the crows would not multiply quickly, they were commanded lay eggs in January and the chicks should hatch in February; at this time the shell bursts from the frost, otherwise the chick cannot break it; when Noah released the crow, there were only peaks above the water mountains; since then, only there, in high cliffs, crows nest]: 278-279; Bulgarians: Rangochev [on the sixth to seventh day after the flood began, Magpie was sent to find out if there was land; she began to peck for corpses, did not return to the ship (gamia); the same raven; The dove found land, smeared its paws with clay (now they are red), came back, received a blessing; the raven was cursed, began to croak, turned white black] in Korotayef et al. 2006:208; Popov 1994 in Korotayef et al. 2006 (Rhodopes) [during the flood Nuah escaped in the ark (gamia); took seeds and various animals with him; two mountains remained above the water - Musala (the most tall in Bulgaria) and Pirin; N. bothered them, sent the Raven to look for land; he began to peck for the corpses; N. cursed him, making him black and ordered him to live in one place (i.e. not to be a migratory bird); N. sent Dove, she found land, smeared her legs, they turned yellow]: 208-209; Serbs [Serbs, talking about an extraordinary or dubious event, say, This has not happened since the raven turned black]: Afanasiev 1994 (1) in Sumtsov 1890a: 67.

Central Europe. Russians (link to Sumtsov) Western Ukrainians [the white Raven was released from the ark to see if the flood was over; did not return; was punished by God or Noah, becoming black, bloodthirsty, and doomed to eat carrion]: Gura 1977:533; (cf. Belova 1999 [the raven is punished by his inability to quench his thirst in July, but he is initially black]: 170-171); Ukrainians, Poles [God made the crow black for not returning to Noah's Ark]: Sumtsov 1890a: 66; Russians (briefly and without reference to the source) [the raven was created white and gentle as a dove; released from the ark, rushed to the carrion and did not return to Noah with the news of the end of the flood; became black and bloodthirsty]: Sumtsov 1890a:66.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Georgians [the boy hears his father going to slaughter his two favorite bulls; runs away with the bulls; the baby drowned at the crossing; the bulls groaned with pity, all around him; God heard, sent the Raven to find out what he was crying about; he said that the crow and rooks were pecking the corpse; God accused the Raven of not pity, made it black; sent a Dove; he pity told what had happened; God made the Dove white and his legs red (the Dove smeared them in the boy's blood)]: Virsaladze 1973, No. 196:267-268.

Baltoscandia. The Sami [a ship sailed to Adam during the flood; Devil tried to catch on A.'s wife's dress, A. knocked him down; after three years, God Yimmel sends the White Raven to search for land; he sits on a floating corpse, bites it; J. tells the Raven to be black, always hungry; sends Dipper, she finds a blade of grass that has taken root in the water, brings it; now she is called Yimmel chuzai , Jimmel the Bird]: Czarnoluski 1972:53-56.

Volga - Perm. Komi-Zyrians [Noah sends a crow and a pigeon to find land; the raven, falling, returns black]: Fuchs 1921:221 in Ulyashev 2011:245.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Khakas (Sagai) [Kudai created 10 men and 9 women; of all the birds, only the Raven agreed to fly for mo γ u su (eternal water) to revive them; on the way back, I was tempted by carrion, spilled part of the water; as punishment he became black, and people lost their immortality]: Dyrenkova 1929:123.

Western Siberia. Mansi: Lukina 1990, No. 105 (northern Mansi) [an old woman and an old man live on a tundra hill, water is around; an iron loon dives from the sky, on the third attempt brings earth in its beak; when she breathed it, her throat burst (there is now a reddish spot in this place); the iron crest (called the second loon) also dives, her head bursts (there are reddish feathers there); the earth grows; the old woman and the old man send the white crow to find out if it is big; the third time he bites the dead, returns black; the old man tells him to eat carrion; (then the old woman gives birth to Taryg-Pesch-nimala sov, aka Mir-Susne-Hum , "a man watching the world"; see motif A4; he visits distant worlds, gets wives; the old man is Torum, his wife is Kaltas)], 106 [the same beginning]: 258-259, 272-273; Dunin-Gorkavich 1911 [water first; God tells the lula (loon) bird to get the earth, it did not get it; little lula emerged three days later, blood with liquid earth in its beak; the earth began to grow, trees appeared; God created a man ("pyris") and a woman ("ekwa"); to find out how big the earth was, pyris sent a white crow; while the cauldron was brewing, the raven flew around the ground and returned; the next day, he sent pyris again the crow, which came back only in the evening; sent it the next day, the raven returned only on the third day and black, because he saw the carrion and began to bite it; since then the raven has been feeding on carrion; for getting the lula the ground, the Voguls do not hit it, they do not eat it; he went to look for the end of the earth himself, but he was tired and returned; he made a horse out of wood, but he did not like it; then he forged 7 wings for the horse - the horse flew in circles; forged the eighth wing, flew for a long time, did not find the end of the earth; when he returned to the yurt, he noticed that the fire in the dude was barely smoldering; he extinguished it with his foot; the equa sitting in the yurt had become an old woman, began to shout: why extinguished the fire of my husband, whom I am waiting for; pyris hit her on the floor of the yurt, she became young; people came from pyris and equa, divided into clans and tribes]: 41-43; Rombandeeva 2005, No. 1 [(land mining - p. 33-35); Peaty wife-and-husband-piece live in the house, there is water around, they have a white crow; an iron Loon dives from the sky, for the third time a grain of earth in its beak, a loon flies into the sky; Iron Lula dives (now There is no such bird, it had a red crown and legs standing back); for the third time a piece of earth in its beak, smeared its beak on Peat-Scrap, returned to heaven; in the morning the earth was the width of the foot, on the second day grew up; the husband sends the Raven three times to find out if the earth is big; by the evening of the third day he returns only to black evening, because he pecked at a dead man; the husband tells him to eat carrion from now on; grows up the first cedar; the couple has a son, her husband calls him Taryg-Pes-Nimalya-Sov; he grows up, sees a bearded man in the ice-holes, then realizes that it is himself; the father tells him to get a wife himself, pull the leash in manure, T. pulls out the horse, leaves; the old woman says that while he was sleeping, Paraparsekh stole his wife; gives scissors, iron skin of a kite, hare, mouse, pike; T. comes to the woman, she says that P. will fly in the skin of a crow; T. chases an iron kite; then an iron hare after a hare, the same iron mouse, a pike; in the nostrils of a horse flies through the fire; hangs on an aspen, the grandmother arrives, takes off him; the giant almost pulls him into his nose, he cuts his nostrils with scissors; after many adventures, T. flies in goose skin to Mortym Equa and Mortym-Oika; sees ME cook teals, then throws bones into the water, they came to life (p.59); returns his wife, flies to his parents]: 33-61 (a brief retelling in 1991:14); Gondatti in Munkácsi 1908 [The World Watching Man threw his mother to the ground as punishment, sent Raven to her service; she sent her to scout, telling her not to eat anything; one day he came back late and black, replied that he had eaten a corpse; she told him to eat carrion, and the crow's meat must be worse any other]: 257.

Eastern Siberia. Far Eastern Evenks (Uchurian?) [God created a swan, and hell a crow, both were white; swans had a wedding, everyone was treated to grass and leaves; crows cannot eat grass, they began to eat discarded droppings; this will turn black; the swans said that he is not a swan and they told them not to live with them]: Myreyeva 2009b: 169-170.

The Midwest. Ojibwa (timagami) [see motif M60; Nenebuk kills the queen of the Giant Lynxes; Lynxes send a flood; N. tells Beaver to reach the ground, he does not dive to the bottom; the muskrat pops up dead with the ground in its paws; N. makes the earth; sends the white crow to see if it is big; he eats dead fish, turns black; the seagull eats a little, the ends of its wings turn black; the owl eats fresh fish , does not return]: Speck 1915d, No. 1:34-38.

Northeast. Iroquois (the band is not a decree.) [naked birds gathered for advice, decided to ask the gods to give them body cover; when the feathers are ready, no one wants to follow them, only the Turkey-buzzard agrees; he was clean, but on his way he had to eat carrion; when he found feathers, he took the best, brightest ones, but it was difficult for him to fly in them; after trying on different outfits, he decided on the clothes he wears now; although ugly, he flies well; brought robes to birds]: Smith 1883:79-80.

Big Pool. Eastern shoshones [during the flood, God sends birds from the mountain; the crow eats corpses, returns, exuding stench; God makes it black, tells her to eat carrion from now on; Chikadi brings some clay; God makes the earth out of it]: Saint Clair 1909b, No. 10:272-273.

The Great Southwest. Hicarilla: Mooney 1898a [people climb to the ground from the lower world; it's covered with water; four winds blow water to four sides, forming four seas; Badger goes out, gets stuck; Beaver builds dam; when the Raven is sent, the ground is already dry, he bites dead fish, frogs, does not return, Tornado is sent for him; as punishment, people make it black out of gray]: 199-200; Opler 1938, No. 3 [people they rise from the lower world to the ground; it is flooded with water; the Spider and the Fly descend from the sky on a rope of sunlight, throw four hoops in four directions, the water comes off; people send in four directions four Crows of different colors; they eat dead fish and other animals left without water do not return; people send a white Laska, who tells us what the Ravens are doing; the Badger stepped into the mud now it has black legs; Beaver makes dams, so there are rivers now]: 16-23; eastern ceres (Cochiti) [the flood begins, people build a boat; those hiding in the mountains turn into rocks; when the water begins went down, sent a white Dove, he came back, said that there were corpses everywhere; they sent the White Crow, he stayed pecking the corpses, came back, turned black; again the Pigeon - he brought a flower; the surviving people said that there will be a global fire]: Benedict 1931:2-3.

(Wed. Mesoamerica Mishteki [rain flooded the ground with a flood, all people and animals drowned; God sent Vulture to see if people were reborn, he began to peck for corpses; God sent the Raven, she came back, spoke about Vulture; God drove him away from him, told him to peck for corpses; gave the crow fresh corn cobs to eat]; Dyk 1959:7-9).

(Wed. Honduras-Panama. Bokota [the first people have teeth made of stone; Chube decides to destroy them all except Huli, his wife and children; people do not believe H. that there will be a flood; the sea floods the earth; after the flood, C. replaces X. and his family's stone teeth with corn kernels; people are now more meek; C. sends Vulture, then Toad, then Pigeon to see if the earth is dry; Vulture eats corpses, its legs and head turn red; the toad reaches the sea, returns; The dove returns three times, its legs also turn red; the fourth time it brings a leaf; people are descendants of X.]: Margery Peña 1994a, No. 5:81-83).

Guiana. Makushi [during the flood, Nuá made a boat, all the animals boarded it; the first ancestors turned into animals and birds; flee to the inaja treetop; Aguti throws bones during the long night fetuses into the water; first they hit his genitals, the hairs stick, now the fruits are covered with hairs; they descend when they begin to fall to dry ground; the sun rises; to see if it is dry land, N. sent an uruba, who was then a dove; he eats corpses, especially fish, turned black and turned into a vulture; the pigeon came back and told; the Eagle, Ibis, the Heron also did not return, ate fish, ants eat their feet]: Koch-Grünberg 1924:261-262.

Chaco. Mokovi [people climbed a tree, made a boat with a leather frame of branches; it rained, the flood flooded the ground; they sent white vultures to the ground, they ate the corpses, turned black; The dove brought maize seeds; rain was sent again to wash off the corpses; people came down from the tree]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1988, No. 69:98-99.

Other options.

North Africa. Berbers Zuahua (Kabylia) [The raven was white; God gave him a parcel of money to give to Muslims and a parcel of lice to Europeans; because the money was heavier, the Raven gave it to the first people he met who turned out to be Europeans; Muslims got lice; God punished the Raven by making him black]: Basset 1887:11 (retelling in Kabakova 2010:161); Moroccan Berbers (Taza) [new husband hates stepson; invites his wife to call her friends, he will cook his own food; stabbed the boy, made couscous, the guests ate everything, he said they ate; the women rushed out of the house, began to rush and scream that they would behave like this until the raven turns black; the raven turned black]: Thay Thay 2001, No. 80:94-96; the Arabs of Tunisia [the raven was white; God gave him two messages: virtuous to attribute wealth, unvirtuous poverty; he deliberately replaced them; for this God made him black]: Ayadi 2008, No. 38:57-58.

Sudan-East Africa. Shilluk [The White-necked Raven told the Raven that she had killed her mother; advised him to kill her own so as not to interfere; the Raven killed his mother; the Raven put a white necklace around her neck, laughed, and the Raven was cursed, turned black, in mourning; for summer, the Raven flies to his mother, while the Raven lives in the country of shilluk all year]: Hofmayr 1925:372.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Palau [the old woman loves her son Uek, is indifferent to her son Malek (Rooster); asks M. to go to the men's house, let W. stay; M. overhears, finds out that his mother told W. to come before dawn to get all the good things from her; M. adjusts so that in the men's house he tells fairy tales first and can go to bed, and W. is the last to go to bed later than anyone else; in the pre-dawn darkness, M. comes to his mother under looking W., receives all the colors (plumages) from her; then W. comes; the mother has no more colors left, she makes W. black, only a red speck on her head; but the mother gives W. the opportunity to eat tarot on the field, as much as he wants, and M. must look for food all day]: Mitchell 1973, No. 14:48-50.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece [The Raven informed Apollo about the betrayal of his beloved Coronida. Apollo killed Coronida and cursed the Raven by turning his previously white feathers black]: Apol. III, X, 3 (Apollodorus 1972:63); Ovid., Met., 2, 530-630 (Ovid 1977:68-71).

Baltoscandia. The Finns [The Raven agreed with the Ants that whoever lifts a piece of lead to the top of the tree would have the right to eat the loser's eggs; the Raven dragged, turned black, but did not pick up the pigs; Ant picked up {it's not clear whether it's big piece by piece or was originally a contract to drag a piece to fit your body size}]: Dähnhardt 1910:143.

Amur - Sakhalin. Nivhi [The Raven (or the Raven) was white, had a swan voice, the Swan was black and croaked; the Swan said he flew many places, but the Raven did not, offered to switch feathers and voice; The Raven agreed]: Kreinovich 1929:97-98.

NW Coast. Eyak [The eagle went west, the Raven went east; he was white then, but the informant doesn't remember how he went black]: Johnson 1988:9.

California. Mountain mivok [see motif I75; third-generation humans were birds and animals with anthropomorphic characteristics; stalactites in the cave were their leader's leftovers; to make it easier to hunt, the White Raven became black; humans turned into animals]: Barrett 1919, No. 1:2-5.