Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

C1. The fall of the sky


In the past, there has been or will be a catastrophic shift in the layers of the universe. Among the options (sometimes combined): the sky fell to the ground; the current earth or underworld changed places with the sky; the earth turned upside down; fell into the lower world; the tiers of the universe are sequentially have fallen to the ground or will change places in the future.

Mbuti, Hadza, Andamans, Semangs, Chinese (Henan), Southern Selkups or Kets, Tsimshians, Kalapuya, Teton, Aztecs, Tocholabal, Tsotsil, Maya Yucatana, Kuna, Sanema, Yanomami, Yanomam, hoti, mayhuna, barasana, makuna, mura (piraha), sipaya, kashinahua (or amahuaca), likambet, takana, chacobo, nambiquara, bakairi, ayoreo, chamacoco, nivakle, toba, matako.

Sudan-East Africa. Mbuti Pygmies [The Earth was above, the water was below; mud was falling into the water from the ground; the Earth agreed to change; now it was raining from above, the Earth was covered with vegetation]: Turnbull 1959:47 (= 1965:260-261); the pygmies of the ephes [the sky where God was, the moon, the lightning, were below and the earth was above; mud fell from the earth into God's food; lightning split the earth, they went up]: Scheub 2000:242; haza [the earth was above, the sky was below; the Ishoko Sun rolled the earth, told the Haine month to roll the sky, they swapped them and turned them around; people always stood, walked, they could not sit; if damp meat without fire; H. broke the stick, made Shashayko's woman knees out of pieces, she sat down; he married her, gave her fire, taught her to cook; S. made knees to all women, H. to men; those who were not Sh.'s relatives, became giraffes]: Col-Larsen 1962:47-49.

South Asia. Kuruba [the earth is disc-shaped; the two sisters had an ox; the earth was trembling; they decided to secure the land; secured it, but the earth turned upside down; the older sister fell and died; the younger and the ox held the ground is on one shoulder and on one horn; when they are tired and put on the other shoulder or horn, the ground shudders; this girl is called Būma-Tāyu - Mother of Earth]: Kapp 1982:235.

Malaysia-Indonesia. The Andamans [in the future Puluga (thunder and supreme deity) will turn the earth upside down; the land and lower world where the dead go will change places]: Man 1932:95 (retelling in Nippold 196:125); semangs [people married blood relatives, for which Pedn swapped earth and sky; rose to heaven, turning humans into animals]: Schebesta 1931:251.

China - Korea. Chinese (Henan, Wu. Tongbo) [When heaven and earth collapsed, all people died, leaving brother and sister, who have the common name Pangu. Because they were kind, they were covered in their belly by a stone lion. When heaven and earth were back to normal, the lion told them to go out and get married. P. did not agree, but the lion offered to roll two grains down the mountain. If they join at the foot, brother and sister will marry. The millstones joined together. Then my brother took one of them and threw it to Mount Sida in Shaanxi Province. The other one is now in the village of Damo ("The Big Zorn", in y. Miyan). After getting married, P. gave birth to a child. Frightened that children would not be enough, they began sculpting little men out of clay and pairing them: they combined the good with the good, the bad with the bad. They were all children of Brother and Sister Pangu and called them Grandpa P. and Grandma P. Their own son was curious and asked where he came from. Grandma P. was embarrassed and went to Mount Sida in Shaanxi Province. It is also said that she went to Nanzhao County, Lushan, or Shimen Parish, Songxian County. The latter has a large seed, just like the one in Damo village. Residents there specially went to Damo to compare millstones, and they turned out to be the same]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001b, No. 2:4-5; Chinese (Henan, wu. Miyan) [there was a flood, all the people drowned, and Pangu and his sister stayed. To revive mankind, the Lord of Heaven commanded them to marry. They refused, and he sent them a heavenly spirit, who commanded them to climb the mountain and roll down the millstones from there. The millstones at the foot of the mountain joined together, and then brother and sister married. That's why we still call our husband and wife brother and sister. Grandma Pangu could not get pregnant in any way. Then the Lord of Heaven sent two turtles to earth to show the couple how to mate. After that, Grandma Pangu finally became pregnant, but gave birth to a lump of meat. Grandpa Pangu carried him to the northern mountain and buried him in the ground. After a while, Grandma Pangu became pregnant again (same). This time, Grandpa Pangu took a knife, cut a lump, and many girls jumped out, laughing, talking and calling them father and mother. Grandpa Pangu counted them - it turned out to be exactly a hundred. Grandpa Pangu remembered the first lump of meat, dug it up, cut it, and a lot of boys jumped out of there, also a hundred. He thought that the boys survived because they were guarded by a hundred deities, and to thank them, he built a temple of the Hundred Deities on the northern mountain. This place is now called the village of the Temple of the Hundred Deities. When the children grew up and Pangu's grandparents married them, the number of people began to increase. Option (y. Fengqiu). An older sister and younger brother were in Tongxu County, the parents died, and the children were taken by a foster family. One day, on their way to school, they were about to cross the river, but the bridge collapsed. A turtle crawled out of the river, told her to bring her bread every day, and she would transport them across the river for it. A hundred days later, the sky fell, the ground cracked, and the turtle told her to hide in her stomach. When the children, living in the turtle's belly, ate all the cakes they had, the disasters stopped. The kids got outside and went to the mountain. Man, neither man nor woman, commanded them to marry. They didn't agree. He ordered that stone millstones be rolled down the mountain. The millstones joined at the foot of the mountain, when brother and sister married. My sister went pregnant for three years, gave birth to a meat egg, and my brother buried it. Three years later, she gave birth to the meat egg again, and her brother was about to bury it again, but heard screams coming from inside. He cut the egg, and a hundred boys came from there. Seeing this, my sister dug up the first egg, cut it, and a hundred girls appeared from there. Because in three years this egg became rotten and began to stink, descendants began to call girls "smelly girls." Brother and sister raised children, divided them into pairs, and each was given a surname. This is how a hundred surnames appeared]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001b, No. 4:6-7; Chinese (Henan, Wu. Shenqiu) [there was a mountain on the bank of the Yellow River, a cave in it, and people lived in the cave, including Brother Fuxi and Sister Nuiwa. They went to the mountains for berries and firewood and grazed cows and sheep. One day, a large turtle rose from the depths of the Yellow River and turned into an old man who came ashore. Fusi and Nuiva wanted to escape, but the old man stopped them and said that the sky would soon collapse, the earth would crack and a flood would begin. It can only save two people. To do this, Fusi and Nuiva must bring him a cake every day and throw him into the water, and when they have 999 cakes, let them wait on the beach. When there were 999 cakes, the ground shook, the sky darkened, a downpour began and a flood occurred. An old man appeared, turned into a turtle, opened his mouth and told F. and N. to go inside, sit there for three years and eat bread. They lived in the turtle's belly for two years, 11 months and 28 days; Nuiva asked the turtle to release them. She let me go outside. Brother and sister went up the mountain. At this time, the flood waters were flowing south and east, and there were still cracks and holes in the sky. Nuiva collected five-colored stones, stood on Fusi's shoulders and stoned holes in the sky, and then sewed up the cracks with a bone needle. This is how stars and the Milky Way appeared. In the northeast, the sky wasn't strong enough, but Nuiva didn't notice it, so now as soon as the wind starts blowing from the northeast, it gets cold. After repairing the sky, Nuiva and his brother lived in a cave. The mountain in which this cave was located was named the Secret Turtle Mountain, and the cave itself was named the Secret Turtle Cave (Xuan-yuan). This turtle was also called the Secret Warrior (Xuan-wu). They later became known as Mount Xuan-Yuan and Xuan-Yuan (Yellow Emperor) Cave. Brother and sister grew up, Nuiva got married. Fusi refused, but Nuiva convinced him that there were no other people left and their marriage would meet heaven's wishes. After getting married, they began sculpting people out of yellow clay, teaching them fishing, hunting and cattle breeding. After F. and N. died, yellow clay men elected the Yellow Emperor as the new leader. He was called the Yellow Emperor of the Secret Turtle (Xuan-yuan), that is, the Yellow Emperor Xuanyuan. People made of yellow clay began to call F. and N. The ancestor of people and the Innermost Mother and say that they themselves come from the Innermost Warrior. Later, the Lord of Heaven found out that the turtle had saved people, and also gave Fuxi eight trigrams and helped Yu calm the flood. For this, he made her a heavenly spirit named the True Warlike Emperor, commanding the North to rule. This is the current Secret Warrior star (Xuanwu). Therefore, in temples, an image of a turtle is placed next to the statue of the True Warlike Emperor]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001b, No. 7:9-10; Chinese (Henan, wu. Wuzhi) [After Pangu separated heaven from earth, his wife gave birth to 9,998 children, followed by twins, a boy and a girl named Fusi and Nuiwa. Their parents loved them the most, and when the other children went to work with Pangu, Fuxi and Nuiwa stayed at home riding the stone lion at the gate of their house. One day, when they came to a stone lion, he told them he was hungry and asked for bread. After breakfast, they had a few cakes left, and they threw them into the lion's mouth. When Pangu and his older children returned home, they started looking for cakes. F. and N. told us how it happened, but the brothers and sisters did not believe it and took the stone lion to the bank of the Yellow River. The next day, Pangu and his older children went back to the field, and F. and Nyu went to return the stone lion. He said it wasn't necessary, but he would be grateful if they continued to feed him bread. They did this for 49 days. Then the wind blew, clouds covered the sky, and everything went dark. The stone lion said that the sky would fall and they had to jump into its mouth to hide. That's what they did. Half of the sky fell, and a flood began on the ground. Pangu, his wife and 9,998 children died, leaving F. and N. hiding inside the lion. They ate the cakes they had brought him before. After 49 days, the wind subsided, the clouds parted and the sun came out. The lion told me to go outside and said that they were the only two people left, and now they needed to marry. The lion has become a mountain range, Qingfengling, which separates Wuzhi and Wenxian counties. F. and N. became husband and wife and revived humanity, they are called people's grandparents]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001b, No. 7a: 10-11; Chinese (Henan, Wu. Anyang) [In ancient times, the sky stood on five pillars, each holding its own turtle. One day, the water in the seas dried up, the turtles in the four corners were left without water, became angry, began to spin, and the pillars supporting the sky collapsed. Nuiva sent a heavenly spirit to cut off these turtles' legs and support the sky with them. However, holes remained in the sky, and through them black mist descended from the sky, causing people to die. Nuiva and his heavenly army used three hundred and sixty methods, patched the sky for three hundred and sixty years, but never finished. Eventually, the spirit of Venus suggested taking stones from Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, and Saturn, melting them and patching the sky with them. Nuiva went to the center, where the sky did not collapse, made a fire there, melted the stones and began to patch the sky with them. Because there were not enough five-color stones, a hole remained in the northwest corner, and Nuiva covered it with a piece of ice, so the northwest wind is cold and sometimes brings black clouds and hail with it. Nuiva finished patching up the sky, was very tired and began to look for a place to relax. She didn't like it anywhere, and as a result, she settled in a place where she melted five-colored stones. The slag left after Nuiva melted the stones turned into a mountain that kept warm. It was reaching the sky, and the Jade Lord sent thirteen dragons to cool it down. The dragons were icy, and when they got down to the mountain, it immediately cooled down. Even in the hottest summer, this place is cool, so people nicknamed it "Cool Mountain" (Qingliangshan)]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001b, No. 10:17-18; Chinese (Henan, Wu. Qixian) [It is said that Qixian is the center of heaven and earth, and in ancient times it was called the Middle Sky Village (Zhongtian). The Middle Sky village was located at the top of a mountain in the Middle Sky, and was only three tsunyas away from the sky. At that time, people were only seven to eight tsunis in height, and they did not touch the sky even when they climbed to the top of the Middle Sky Mountain. But the head of a Middle Sky village had four children, three Zhang each, who could go to heaven at any time. The elder's eldest son was Gungong, the second was Zhurong, the third was Qiren ("Irritating"), and there was also a beautiful daughter named Nuiwa. Gungun had red hair, a green face, fangs sticking out, looked very scary, and could spit water from his mouth, so everyone called him the "god of water." Zhuzhong had a big head and claws, his face was all red, and he could spit fire from his mouth, so he was called the "god of fire." Qiren and Nuiwa, on the other hand, were very beautiful and talented. The children also had different characters: Gungong and Zhuzhong were quick-tempered, Qiren was cowardly, and Nuiwa was very kind, intelligent and quick-witted. Gungun and Zhurong once quarreled over who would get the swan egg, fought for many days, but neither could win. Gungun spit water, and the flood flooded the ground, Zhuzhong spit fire, and the flame covered the sky. Many days later, Zhurong's exhaled fire turned the sky red hot and the water on the ground dried up. Gungun realized that things were bad and ran headlong west. Zhurong chased him, and Gungong inadvertently crashed into Mount Buzhou, which supported the sky, on which a Western Sky village stood, and it crashed. As a result, the western sky collapsed. The flood immediately began, and stones rolled. As a result, there were many rocks in the west that made mountains, and the flood waters flowed east to form the sea. When the sky fell, the cowardly Qiren went crazy with fear, stretched out his neck, widened his eyes, and started running along the mountain of the Middle Sky, shouting: "The sky has fallen! The sky has fallen!" Nuiva saw all this and was upset: how can people live? She walked around the mountains and collected several five-colored stones, melted them, and patched a hole in the western sky with them. Despite her fatigue, she returned to the Middle Sky Mountain and talked to Qiren for a long time, barely reviving him. A few quiet days passed and then the war between the Yellow Lord and Chi-yu began. The sky immediately turned dark, and Qiren, once again mad with fear, began to run from side to side, shouting: "The sky has fallen! The sky has fallen!" At some point, the Mid-Sky village was renamed Qixian. People got taller, and Qiren was still running around shouting, "The sky has fallen! The sky has fallen!" , which annoyed people a lot. As a result, they blamed Qiren for "worrying from scratch that the sky is falling" (a reference to a well-known story from Chuang Tzu - AT). One day, Qiren, like a blind man, crashed into the royal palace and Sky Observation Tower and destroyed them. The king got angry, took out his sword and cut it to pieces. It is said that the high mountain west of Qixian is Qiren's transformed remains. Note: The story of "Nuiwa patches the sky" is primarily common in the Wangushan Mountain area near Jiyuan City, Sidugang Hills in Sihua County ("Nuiwa City"), as well as in the Shangqiu and Qixian areas, and the second is in Anyang, Xunxiang, Xinzheng, etc. The plot of the story is generally similar. The method of repairing the sky is mainly using molten five-color stones, but sometimes it is covered with an ice block, covered with cloth or sewn with a needle and thread. In addition to Mount Qingliangshan mentioned above, traces of Niuwei's sky repair are found in several places in Henan Territory. Firstly, it is a layer of red-coated stones on Mount Wangushan near Jiyuan City; secondly, three Sidugang Hills in Sihua County, which locals say are ash left after melting the Nuwei stones; thirdly, it is a huge stone on Mount Fuhushan in Xunxian County, which locals call "mountain on the mountain" and which is said that when Nuiwa melted stones, she used 360 of them, and this one, because it was neither round nor square, threw it away. Because this stone was unusual, a grotto with 999 Buddha sculptures was carved into it during the Tang era and became known as the "Cave of a Thousand Buddhas"]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001b, No. 10a: 18-19.

Western Siberia. Southern Selkups or Kets [Marya Maksimovna Irikova, August 2009 (the father is a Selkup, but most of the informant's texts are related to the Ket tradition); my father said that in the future the earth would turn upside down, we would all die alive, and those who died would rise up new generation will come from these dead]: Davletshin, Duvakin 2009: personal report.

NW Coast. Tsimshian [the flat round earth rests on a pole held by an old woman; her movements cause earthquakes; the sky sent a flood to destroy evil people in a village in the upper reaches of the river. Ness (they danced and gambled all night long); mountains appeared after the flood; some say the earth turned upside down at that time; an old woman said that coal found on the Queen's Islands Charlotte, there are pockets of people who lived on the primary land]: Boas 1895, No. 3:278 (=2002:561).

The coast is the Plateau. Kalapuya [people don't die, there are too many; five hunters go hunting with a dog; the dog comes back alone; when asked by a little girl, she says five deer have been killed; the earth turns over, people turn into stars, a girl and a dog remain; a girl gives birth to one puppy and one child, then a puppy and a child again; they give birth to new people; the chief says that new people will come; people of the second century of creation turn into pebbles; two women steal, hide a girl; a boy finds her, brings her to her mother; women dance, cause rain, third-century people die from flood, turn into beavers, fish; a sliver boy is saved, he hid the girl under his arm; after the flood he kills and burns those women, the ashes turn into fog, clouds]: Gatschet et al. 1945, No. 4:173- 174 (translated into. Romanova 1997, No. 115:405-406).

Plains. Teton [hills are meant to be the pillars of the earth: when it turns over, people will live in the dark under the hills]: Dorsey 1889:39.

Mesoamerica The Aztecs [Codex Chimalpopoca; the people of the first Sun were devoured by jaguars, the second were blown away by the wind, turned into monkeys, the third was destroyed by the fiery rain, turned into turkeys, the fourth in a flood, turned into fish; at that time the heavens fell; Titlacahuan told Tata man and his wife Nene to hide in a hollowed out trunk, sealed it; they took corn seeds with them when they went out, they became fry fish; the gods Citlalinicue and Citlalatonac smelled smoke; Titlacahuan, Tezcatlipoca came down, put their heads to their ass, turning them into dogs; (further on creating our world)]: Bierhorst 1992:142-144 ( briefly in Krickeberg 1928a: 10); tocholabal ["mother earth" has the shape of a square, supported at the corners by four atlanta lightning; above there is a hemispherical sky; dwarfs live on the lower surface of the earth ; when the earth turns over, we'll switch places with them]: Humberto Ruz 1982:55; 1983:426; tsotsil (Chamula) [underground dwarfs load luggage on the rabbit like a mule, it slides on his side with backs; if left on their backs, the world will turn upside down; when the sun passes by the dwarfs, they wear clay hats; they want to go out into our world]: Laughlin 1977, No. 24:151; Maya Yucatana [according to the book Chilam Balam from Mani, Bolon Ti'k'uh (9 Lords of the Night) swapped the earth and sky and then killed the (starry) crocodile; his blood flooded the earth with a flood; B. placed the crocodile's body on a sea of blood and it formed land]: Cook 2019:75 (with links to sources).

Honduras - Panama. Kuna [the first humans went bad; to punish them, God sent hurricanes and earthquakes, the earth turned upside down, those on the surface ended up in the fourth lower world; new generations again deteriorated, God destroyed them first with fire, darkness, wind, then flood]: Chapin 1989:13-16.

The Northern Andes. Cimila [originally there were 4 more similar worlds above earth; they successively fell to earth, destroying everything on it; when the last remaining upper world falls, space from the three-part will become two-part (land and lower world)]: Niño Vargas 2008:116-117.

Southern Venezuela. The upper tier has become an underworld. Sanema [(Colchester 1981:52); the sky fell; the survivors pierced the hole with monkey bones, reached the current earth, i.e. the outer surface of the former sky]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 8:37 -38; Yanomami: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 1 [(Knobloch 1967:147); the first man was Makoaue, he made the sun, moon, stars, earth, mountains, forest, water, fish, birds; Omaue was his son; the sky fell, lived on it, people found themselves in the underworld, their name is Pariwa], 9 [(Knobloch 1967:149); the first sky was made by Hai Hai Yome Riweni, it fell; the people living there are now in the underworld; Omaue made a new sky, backed it up with a piece of wood], 12 [(Lizot MS); the sky fell, people hid under a cocoa tree; the sky was hot; people cut the way upstairs with axes; later these ancestors became underground creatures], 276 [(Knobloch 197:151); Ama Hiri lived in the sky; it fell, they now live underground]: 29, 38, 44, 501; Yanomam [(Albert MS); the great shaman died; the spirits left without a master- helpers cut the sky, it fell, pushing the earth and forest into the lower world; later Omamë created a new sun and month; today's earth is the reverse side of the fallen sky; those in the lower world became in long-toothed cannibals; in the upper reaches of the river, the sky fell on a cocoa tree, there are now hills; some people hid under this tree; a parrot broke a hole, people came out; these people became animals; Omamë did the current ones, opening a hollow tree trunk along]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 7:35-36; hoti [at the beginning of jkajo jadï (spirits, men who became immortals, capable of changing their appearance, turning into various animals, plants, mushrooms, objects) were everywhere, there was a struggle between them, which led to universal chaos, which caused the earth to fall into the lower world; this was the last great destruction, during which one of the main powerful anthropomorphic creatures, iyëka ja, killed humanity by cutting down four nïn alawini trees (Vitex spp., according to other mythological versions, Copaifera officinalis L.), who supported the earth in four countries of the world; today's world was re-created by iyëka ja and his brother buka ja (major anthropomorphic creative creatures, also called waiyo ja); both mythological brothers decided to make the current world using the hard beak of a toucan as a tool; they created mountains, plains, rivers, lakes, hills, savannahs, etc.]: Matusovsky 2010.

Western Amazon. Mayhuna: Bellier 1991b, No. 2 [the sky was in the place of the earth, the earth was in the place of heaven, they were close to each other; the sky did not want to be like this, changed places with the earth; earthworms, centipedes ended up in the sky; Maineno went to heaven, it's better there; M. told Goukuko to shoot, he made a chain of arrows, it turned into a Maineno miime vine ("Maineno vine"); people went up to see M.; worms also climbed, G. cut off the vine, M. said that only the dead would come to see him; after the sky was in place of the earth, people were crushed in the underworld; according to M. people began to get to the ground; a menstruating woman climbed along with everyone else; those who climbed after her stopped, came back]: 14 [those who have returned are now in the underworld], 171-173.

NW Amazon. Barasana [at first there are only rocks in the world; Romi-Kumu (Shaman Woman) makes a clay cassava brazier, puts it on three mountains; the mountains are the legs, the brazier the sky; it cracks from the fire, falls down, turns into earth; the former earth becomes the underworld (var: heaven falls into hell); RK. makes a new brazier - the current sky; opens the door to the outside world; from there water gushes, floods the ground; objects in RM.'s house turn into predators, devour people: long troughs, cassava push-up sieve - anacondas, pole - caiman, shards and other flat objects - piranhas; some people a boat escapes to the mountain; the sun dries the earth, it gets hotter, the earth lights up (var: RK sets fire to the earth itself); at this time the sky cracks (see above)]: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, No. 1A: 263; macuna [if the ritual dances are not performed properly, the world will turn upside down, the sky will fall to the ground, the seasons will disappear]: Århem 1981:81.

Central Amazon. Mura (piraha) [the sky was low, the moon was shining brightly like the sun now; one man shot at her, blood poured, the moon disappeared, darkness came; the sky began to fall; people rushed to prop it up with tree trunks; this helped, but in the dark, jaguars, wild boars, packs, deer from the depths of the forest came to the village, and people climbed the trees to escape them; the rivers dried up, the fish died, the animals also disappeared; the only thing left was the paba snake, which had enough moisture in the forest; people drank the juice contained in the tynnanthus elegans vine and ate the meat of this snake; enemies came, almost all people died in battle, stayed three women; their weeping was heard by the heavenly deity Igagai (or rather? igagaí); he threw animals into the forest, but could not throw the fish - they fell by, not in the river bed; then I. ordered the river dolphin (boto) to fill the rivers with fish; I. created a new moon, and an underground Aitoe's assistant was told to make stars and place them in the sky; the moon and stars are made of shiny white clay (terra); I. made a hole in the sky and the waters of the upper world filled the rivers again; but women they still cried without men; I. began to throw fruits from the sky at them and they became pregnant; gave birth to sons, but without penises; I. weaved penises for them from palm leaves; then gave people fire and threw off their stem cassava]: Gonçalves 1990:4-5 (=2001:135-137).

Eastern Amazon. Hissing [during the storm, the sky fell to the ground; people gathered under a large tree that did not break; the battleship and Paka made a hole through the sky; people came out; holding the sky (= current ground) the tree has collapsed; disaster will happen again in the future]: Nimuendaju 1920:1008.

Montagna - Jurua. Kanamari [originally the sky was close to the ground; when the hunter missed, the arrow remained in the sky and disappeared; Tamakori told the Piyoyom shooter to move the sky away; var: P. was very small but good shooter; boasted to his companion that he would fall into the sky; the sky fell, many people died, P. and his companion and family hid under a tree; var: the old sky became the current earth, then a new sky appeared; as the sky fell on trees of different sizes, the current land is not flat as before, but hilly; P.'s people became animals, he himself is a toad; Matso is from a small cat predator turned into a jaguar]: Carvalho 2002:276-282; cachinahua [it rained, a thunderstorm began, the sky fell, changed places with the ground, everyone died; a woman was killed by lightning in the sky, she was thrown to the ground; The crab opened her womb, found the boy Mana and the girl alive; they grew up, got married, gave birth to a son and a daughter; at first it was light all the time, M. let the night out of the vessel; his father asked him to be killed; ate a toad brought by his son; said that he would go up to heaven, shout to change his skin, I must answer; the next day, the father's soul rose, the son heard badly, others did not hear, but heard snakes and lizards, trees; now they change skin and people are dying]: d'Abreu in Koch-Grünberg 1921, No. 84:229-232; amahuaca [(this is the same text as KG, although more detailed; not clear if cachinahua or amahuaca)]: Cordova- Rios, Lamb 1971:121; character [at the end of the world, rain will turn to blood, tiers of the earth will change places; new humans will emerge from an egg sent by the Sun]: Calífano 1995, No. 15:185-186.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Takana [The howler monkey asks Sloth why he goes down to earth to relieve himself rather than doing it right in the tree; he replies that if he does this, the world will turn upside down, Idsetti Deha will be above, and our land will be in the lower world; Var. 1 (Sciamas): a man brought a sloth, let him go to a tree; his two young sons began to prevent the sloth from descending; he fell, relieved his need, the earth swallowed up both him and the boys; the old woman told her father, who dug up the corpses; var.2 (Sciamas): The sloth wife lived with a man; to relieve her need, she must get off the tree on which she hangs; otherwise she will fall, she will be in the ground big hole; var 3 (Tumupasa): A sloth mother explains to her cubs that if she copes with a tree, her droppings will hit the ground like a comet and all people will die; var 4 (Tumupasa): the animals told A sloth can relieve himself on the ground; if droppings fall from a tree, the earth will turn over, a flood will flow out of the hole]: Hissink, Hahn 1961, No. 3:39-40; chacobo [the old land was sick of people they defecate on it and bury the dead in it; earth and sky have changed places; those who come to heaven grow old but do not die]: Bossert, Villar 2002:372-273.

Southern Amazon. Nambiquara [the huge Tauptú hawk sits on a tree of human bones growing in the sky on the shore of a shallow lake; meteors are his bowel movements; next to him is a small red bird; she urinates in the lake, filling it; when the lake overflows, it rains on the ground; T. devours the flesh of patients, takes their bones to heaven; shamans fly to T. on the backs of nightjars; shamans kill spirits- ulurú battleships; if such a spirit is not killed, he will climb under the village, turn the ground upside down, people will be buried again in the lower world, as happened at the beginning of time]: Oberg 1953:99-100; bakairi [the first earth was the present sky; Keri went to earth with his people and the sky rose]: Steinen 1897:304, 325.

Chaco. The former earth changed places with the sky so as not to be stained with the mud left by people. Ayoreo [Heaven and Earth lived together; Heaven chose to go up so as not to be stained with human sewage]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1989b, no.2, 3, 4, 5:27-28, 29, 29-30, 30; chamacoco [the sky was below, the earth was above; the sky did not want people to stain it with excrement, the earth agreed to switch places]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1987a, No. 1:31; nivacle: Wilbert, Simoneau 1987b, No. 9 [The month ate only pure snails, and the Sun ate not only turtles and battleships (they are clean), but also snakes and small foxes; when the earth and sky changed places, Fitsakajich ordered the Sun and the Month to rise to sky], 36 [Earth disgusted enduring people's impurities, but Heaven didn't care; they changed places, the current sky was the former earth], 37 [when the sky fell to the ground, the earth was below, but Fitsakadzic swapped them because the Earth did not want to tolerate human impurities], 38 [when the earth and sky changed places, the sky fell, nine people escaped under the tree; earth and sky were tightly pressed together; the old man cut the hole, everyone went to the other side, to the current land], 94 [the young man sent his younger brother to his mother for water, she did not give water; all the young men decided become birds, each of their own species; they glued feathers from arrow poles to their bodies, flew away as birds, mothers offered them water in vain; Axtitá killed the royal vulture; everyone is trying to peck a hole in his body, but only Woodpecker can do it; the birds were smeared with vulture blood, coals and ash, taking on their current color; when the world turned upside down, birds and thunderbirds were in the sky; one person ate everything the fruits of the caraguat, he, his wife and all the people of the village turned into bakers and also ended up in heaven; bakers on earth are their relatives], 164 [Stavuun - the royal vulture (S.) took the hunters to eat to his wife; his children played with their bones; Ajti'ta began to train running, cutting his body; the vulture's children's place of play is the Milky Way; he used to be below, but heaven and earth changed places because he used to be below, but heaven and earth changed places because he used to be below. the sky at that time was very dirty; two bright spots in the night sky {Magellanic clouds?} - this is where two menstruating women relieved themselves; when the earth and sky changed places, the people of heaven fell into the underworld; with a stick with a fork in A. pressed the vulture's grandmother to the ground; she said that the royal vulture is very angry; but A. promised to kill him; killed his children; when the COP began to approach, it began to rain; it was amazing as the sound of rain was approaching; the COP asks the vulture grandmother where A.; that consistently points to 4 cardinal directions and at the zenith; S. rushes to these directions; from the zenith he sees that A. has gone underground; digs the ground; finding a snake, asks his grandmother - is it him? - No; then A. ran, followed by S.; A. took the form of trees; then asked the bottle tree to hide it, it opened, but said that only Palo Mataco would hide it; Palo Mataco opened, and when S. tried to enter it, it closed; therefore, when the wind blows, you can hear kuuunnn; A. killed S., who almost exterminated humans; all kinds of animals came and took a piece of flesh S.; this deer is good the flesh fit well; the birds did too; the birds also bathed in blood, took on color; some immediately shook off the blood, left only specks, others kept their red color]: 39, 103, 103-104, 105-107, 232-242, 389-391; Toba (Pilaga) Wilbert, Simoneau 1989a, No. 73 [the sky was below, the earth was above; Dapichi (Pleiades) was in the sky and did not want to suffer from the stench of excrement, kitchen scum and corpses; changed the sky and earth], 74 [the sky was below, the earth was above; the sky did not want to be stained with excrement, Dapichi complained, who swapped them]: 108, 109; matako: Calífano 1974 [the creator of Nilataj wanted the earth to be clean; she complained to him that people were defecating on it; then N. changed the earth and sky]: 36; Wilbert, Simoneau 1982a, No. 6 [heaven used to be on place of the earth; the land below our land did not want to be stained with excrement, swapped places with the land above]: 46.