Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

C13. A riot of things.


During or before the onset of a global catastrophe (flood, darkness) or (surui) at night, utensils and/or stones, trees, pets, crops turn wild birds and animals, or they come to life.

Lepcha, Lakher, Lushey, (caribou), Ingalic, Upper Coquil, Zunyi, Tarahumara, Huichol, Otomi, Nahuatl (San Luis Potosi), Huastecs, Mountain Totonacs, Tsotsil, Maya Yucatana, Lacandons, Quiche, Triqui, Guatuso, Kuna, Lokono, Aparaí, Mayhuna, Barasana, Tupi, Mochica, Huarochiri, Inca, Ashaninka, Machigenga, Cachinahua, Characterbet, Tacana, Surui, Chiriguano, Nambiquara, Paresi.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Lepcha [two Sun Brothers took turns, the heat was unbearable; the Toad (an edible species) volunteered to kill the Sun, made an arrow out of a scallop (Celosia L., amaranth), killed it older brother; the youngest was covered with a black blanket, it became dark; black pestles turned into snakes, wooden mortars into tigers; fireflies and a tree with white leaves tried to illuminate the world, it turned them outside; but that was not enough; half of the people died from snakes and tigers; humans, animals, and the supreme god Rum himself unsuccessfully asked the Sun to return; only when the Bat hung himself up against at the ends of the bow by the legs and nose, shouted through his nose that the world would die from the cold, the Sun looked out because no one had yet spoken to him through his nose; when he saw the Bat hanging on the bow, he smiled; immediately it became hot and The bat fell, breaking his bones; therefore, his legs look neither bird nor animal, and his nose was twisted; they decided to punish the Toad, otherwise the Sun would not shine; his thumbs were cut off, placed in a cold place; the dead Sun has become the Month; in the seventh, eighth and ninth months, the current Sun sets earlier, says it is tired; but in fact, the red rooster scallop grows to its fullest at this time height and the Sun fears being shot]: Stocks 1925, no. IX: 363-365 (quoted in Yamada 2009a: 34-36; retelling in Kühn 1936:82, brief in Elwin 1949:54); lakher [people did not die, they multiplied, behaved badly; Khazangpa told the dog to swallow the sun (Nateu has two dogs, they swallow the sun and a month during eclipses); it has become dark; everything that died except the one who has been subjected to the rite la , came to life, tigers and bears began to kill people, deer ran out of the forest; some people turned into stars, some into monkeys; rotten and dried trees turned green; baskets and other utensils turned into small animals and insects; only those scorched by fire remained the same; only the bones of animals that had undergone the la rite could be burned in fires; they were soon over and the lights went out; people survived as long as they kept their eyes open, but no one was awake for more than seven days, they all died; only brother and sister hid under the pig feeder, and their predators were not found; when the Nateu dog relieved their need and the sun came out again, brother and sister got married, became the ancestors of people; in order not to send a new disaster, Khazangpa made people mortal]: Parry 1932:488-489; best [during an eclipse, people beat drums to drive away the awk that swallows the moon; once the awk swallowed the sun and darkness came; everything was alive, for with the exception of the skulls of animals killed while hunting; dry trees and even stones with leaves came to life; there was nothing to ignite the fire; tigers devoured trees, stones and people in complete darkness; people turned into animals and birds depending on what they were doing at the time; people wearing white turbans laughed - became thrushes with white feathers on their heads; people in striped clothes became tigers; The chiefs had sticks to interfere with rice when it was cooked - they became rhinoceros birds; those who dyed the threads became gibbons (they have black hands; or crows); old women became elephants; wrestlers became bears; people of two clans - squirrels; pets became wild; after that, the world was repopulated by people who came out of a hole in the ground; mitans (half-wild buffaloes) reappeared from pumpkin seeds; pigs came out of the lake; chickens are made of mud (these associations are based on the similarity of the sounds that animals make to the words "pumpkin seeds", "dirt", etc.); all clans came out of this hole; the sun was told not to shine ( hot), because the tarsier leader was going to dance; the bamboo rat began to beat the drum; but the sun wanted to watch the dance, looked out, everyone felt hot; they got angry with him, and since then he was completely angry with him does not look; the owl was left without meat, got angry, sat on the branch; big rat: well, I ate it! The owl rushed at her and pecked, and has been attacking rats ever since]: Shakespear 1912:92-94.

(Wed. The Arctic. Caribou [{that shovels come to life during an eclipse is not said, but the data is sketchy; given the inhalic materials, a motive is possible}; houses, snow shovels moved by themselves people wish; one person complained about the noise of shovels flying through the air; they no longer move; people don't leave shovels stuck in the snow for fear that they will come to life]: Rasmussen 1930b: 82-83).

Subarctic. Inhalic [during a lunar eclipse, all tools, skis, and other items are brought into the house or they will fly to the moon; no one should work at this time; the same precautions are taken during a solar eclipse]: Osgood 1959:52-53.

The coast is the Plateau. Upper Coquill [Noise-under-ground and Big Fat talk about the ocean overflowing; people get into boats, but boats and oars turn into snakes; to prevent this from happening, their It was necessary to smear it with crap; at the top of the mountain, a young man, a girl, an old man, his wife, daughter and son, arrives in the boat; the Red Squirrel brings fire to the back of her head, so she has a red head; after a while the time of the water has come down, the survivors have married, repopulated the land; the Coyote comes to the woman, tells her daughter to bring water; she is afraid that those who come for water are dragged away by Cancer (crawfish); Coyote insists, girl goes, Cancer grabs it, Coyote turns Cancer into cancer, it has been cooked and eaten; two blind women are pushing acorns; the Coyote slowly takes a handful; the blind feel it; he cuts through their eyes, turns into partridges, tells not to grind acorns, but to speak while sitting on a branch; a person says that they don't go across the river, there Ostrog kills people; Coyote turns it into a salmon jail; woman The River Oyster lies on his back, offers to copulate, bites off men's penises; the Coyote turns it into a river oyster; the Deer tries to hook the Coyote, the Coyote tells him to be a deer, on a deer hunting]: Jacobs 2007:132-135.

The Great Southwest. Zunyi ["Perhaps in the future, stars will fall on the ground, or our father The sun will not rise, utensils will turn into predators and devour us; and if not, the air will be poisoned and we will there will be the end "] :Quam 1972:3 (quoted in Quilter 1990:60; 1996:312).

NW Mexico. Tarahumara: González 1985 [at the end of the world, cows, goats, rats and other animals will attack humans and treat them as humans do to animals now]: 205; Merrill 2002 [at the end the world's livestock will start eating people, objects will come to life and attack their owners, sheep will become bears]: 343-344; Mondragón et al. 1995 [if the sun disappears again for three days, as it was, dead will come out of the caves and start dancing and screaming; animal skins in houses will come to life and become animals again; sheep wool will turn into sheep; and all these animals will start killing people; but when the sun comes back , these animals that killed people will begin to die]: 95; Huatahame [Huatahame works on the site; when she returns, she sees that vegetation has revived; the old woman does it; she says there will be a flood , tells you to take a black dog into the boat; utensils will become animals, snakes, jaguars, destroy people; after the flood, H. finds ready-made tortillas at home; finds a woman she has become dog; humans are descended from this couple]: Benzi 1971, No. 3:185-186.

Mesoamerica Otomi: Galinier 1990:526 [rocks try to come to life at night to destroy people; shooting stars kill them], 543 [during a solar eclipse, the grain grater is taken out of the house; otherwise it will turn jaguar, eats people]; Nahuatl (San Luis Potosi) [during a solar eclipse, people grab grain graters and left-handed people because they are afraid that both will turn into cougars; aquatic creatures (mecos) coming out of the sea to devour people; during an eclipse, the sun fights against a huge eagle]: Croft 1957:320-322; Huasteci [solar eclipse: utensils in ferocious animals]: Manrique Castañeda 1991 in Olavarria 1994:12; mountain totonaks [solar eclipse: rocks, grains, pots, trees, animals will become the creatures of the ancient race they were before the sun rose and will be eaten people]: Harvey, Kelly 1969:671; Kelly 1966:396; tsotsil [the sun went out for five days; people are thinking about how to escape, they are breaking their pots; broken pots have spoken; the puma, the jaguar, the snake have come out of them, devoured people; children turn into birds, greet a new sunrise with their voices]: Gossen 1974, No. 133:148; Maya Yucatana [solar or lunar eclipse; utensils and other items]: Armador 1995: 314 in Milbrath 1999:25 (Mashkanu community) [during an eclipse, animals can change their nature, and tools (digging sticks, knives, machetes) can come to life and attack their owners if they are not dawned on first by the Sign of the Cross]; Redfield 1950:117; Redfield, Villa 1962:206-207; Villa 1945:156; 1952:469; Lacandons: Boremanse 1986 [Our Father told his son-in-law Ah k'in Chob to make a ship, there man and woman from every line; rain, darkness; boats became crocodiles; the howler monkey was in the ark, but the testicles in the water turned white; six years later the water slept, ten years later it became dry; but the earth soft; the gods sent fire, everything burned; the Momotidae bird's tail was burnt; life was revived; humans were immortal]: 57-58; Rätsch 1984 [Äkinchob warned the man what he should collect a big boat with a couple of people and different animals; the wind destroyed everything, only mountains remained; then it rained, the world was flooded; boats turned into crocodiles, grain graters into turtles, grinding tables corn into crocodiles and fish; five years later the sky rose again, five years later the boat fell to the ground; the water descended, the sun began to warm more and more, the world burned down; A. sowed a new forest]: 74-80; quiche [flood; trees, rocks, pots, grain graters, dogs]: Popol-Wuh 1959:17-18; tricks [when the world falls into darkness again, utensils will turn into jaguars, cougars, dogs, and begin to devour people; only grain graters will protect them, but they will overcome them; for a while only animals will be on earth; then it will dawn again and a new race will populate the earth]: Hollenbach 1980, no. 12.29:478.

Honduras-Panama. Guatuso [while men hunt, women indulge in lesbian love; ask men to warn of their return by hitting trees with sticks; one person spied, men beat women; then those who went for firewood were eaten by a jaguar; jaguars come out of firewood, fireplaces, kitchen pots, they devour everyone; one person ran away]: Constela Umaña 1993, No. 6:141-144; kuna [before Tad Aiban He descended to earth, God had already destroyed life on it four times; at that time the fruits ripened in seven days, the climate was mild, women had long hair; someone was ruining crops, strange sounds could be heard from the forest; fish in the river screamed, mosquitoes the size of a bird killed people; people tried to cut down trees, blood flowed from the trees, screams were heard; the woman turned into a deer, brought her husband to the site not fruits, and his own excrement; a man went into the forest, became a tapir, lay down with his wife's deer; cassava grew on branches, and vivá (Nalup) on the ground; the benches began to scream when they sat on them, the pots put on fire shouted that they were burning; the sea flooded the earth, A. and his people escaped to Mount Tingwa Yala; after the flood, new people settled the land; A. went down the mountain; people realized that he was older they began to beat them, worms came out of him, his body disappeared]: Chapin 1989:102-110.

Guiana. Lokono [a woman brings a drink to her son-in-law working on the site; stumbling, breaks a vessel; water forms a lake; a woman drowns, becomes a water spirit; a braided sleeve for push-ups of cassava turns into fish; At this time, the monkey plants an uruku, runs his hand over his forehead while waiting for the flood, leaving a red spot; var: two female birds leave their child by the beer vessel; The turtle teaches him break a vessel; rivers form; yam turns into toads, peppers into scarlet ibises and flamingos, cotton into white herons, Bromelia into blue herons, devil-fishes into old men and ponds]: Goeje 1943, No. d24:110; aparai [rain floods the earth, darkness sets in; men turn into termites, dogs into jaguars, hammocks into snakes; Battleship experiences a flood in a hole, Pakira into a hollow; women and alone are saved man; forest cockerels sing, it dawns; a man marries all women, conceiving new people]: Rauschert 1967, No. 10:186.

Western Amazon. Maihuna [darkness (solar eclipse?) ; smut in jaguars, pots and calebasses in eagles]: Bellier 1991b, No. 6:204.

NW Amazon. Barasana [at first there are only rocks in the world; Romi-Kumu (Shaman Woman) makes a clay cassava brazier, puts it on three mountains; the mountains are the legs, the brazier the sky; it cracks from the fire, falls down, turns into earth; the former earth becomes the underworld (var: heaven falls into hell); RK. makes a new brazier - the current sky; opens the door to the outside world; from there water gushes, floods the ground; objects in RM.'s house turn into predators, devour people: long troughs, cassava push-up sieve - anacondas, pole - caiman, shards and other flat objects - piranhas; some people in a boat, he escapes to the mountain; the sun dries the earth, it gets hotter, the earth lights up (var: RK sets fire to the earth itself); at this time the sky cracks (see above)]: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, No. 1A: 263.

Central Amazon. Tupi (the exact place of recording is not known): Baldus 1946:11-12, 83; Couto de Magalhaes 1882 [it was not at night; the daughter of the Great Serpent married a man; does not want to sleep with him in the daylight; asked to send his three servants to bring the night to her father; he gave them a nut, told them not to open it; the sounds of night crickets and frogs can be heard from the nut; in the middle of the journey, the servants discovered a nut; all the things in the forest turned into birds and the animals that were in the river into ducks and fish; the basket became a jaguar, the fisherman with the boat became a duck (head - beak, boat - body, oars - paws); the morning star rose, the daughter of the Snake decided to separate night from day; turned two balls of threads in kuzhubim and inambu birds singing at regular intervals at night and dawn; turned naughty servants into monkeys]: 5-9.

The Central Andes. Mid- and late-stage paintings of Mochica culture, Peru's northern coast [warriors' clothing and weapons, boats equipped with arms and legs, grabbing and hitting people]: Golte 1994a: 56-77; 1994b: 70-85, 138; Lyon, 1981; 1989; Quilter 1990; Uarochiri (dep. Lima) [in ancient times, the sun died, the night lasted five days; stones began to beat against each other; mortars and grinders began to devour people, and male llamas drove people away]: Salomon, Urioste 1991, ch. 4:53; Incas (Cusco?) [After several years of Manco Kapak Yupanka's reign, two comets in the form of a puma and a snake appeared in the sky; idols and devils told the priests that Illatici wanted to destroy the world for sins and sent a cougar and a snake destroy the moon; if they manage to break the moon, their tools will turn into cougars and reptiles, spindles will become snakes, looms, bears, jaguars and other predators; so Peruvians scream during eclipses, scaring away monsters]: Montesinos 1882, Book 2, Ch. 8:48-49 (1920:48-49).

Montagna - Jurua. Ashaninka [once upon a time there was a great darkness; they tried to keep the houses burning, because in the dark they were cannibal monsters; clay vessels could become cannibal jaguars; during eclipses we we break pots to prevent this from happening; you can't sleep, otherwise you can turn into battleships; at a time when the sun is gone, many Ashanins died in the dark; after becoming monsters, they swallowed them at home; not those who had chickens did not know when it would dawn; so they kept large grasshoppers with black wings and fed them leaves; if they started making sounds, it means that dawn was near; one person went for cassava and it turned out that cassava had become wild rhizomes; the same happened to bananas that had lost their fruits and other plants; and the grasses withered; if the darkness lasted longer, the trees would also die; when darkness came, everyone started singing and playing flutes, but it didn't help]: Zolezzi 2014, No. 12:162-163; machigenga: Baer 1984:243 [=1994:157-158; the sun went out; demons are looking for people; all objects - houses, mats, poles, cassava, bananas, corn - begin to speak; suddenly the sun reappears; then the flood begins, people drown], 249 [Elkins de Snell retelling 1976; in addition, the Month also will go out mourning the death of his son Sun; earthquakes will begin]; Elkins de Snell 1976 [when the world ends, the sun goes out, wild animals will come to people to ask, Donde iremos? ; dogs will take revenge on their owners for all grievances, let them eat bones; all objects (mats, arrows, benches, etc.) will speak and ask, Donde iremos? Demons will come, everything we eat will be demons; roosters will scream to women, Kill me now, throw me in the boiling pot! The monkeys will say, Now I want to do to you what you did to me! Animals will tear babies out of pregnant women's bellies; the month will be sad that there is no one to warm us, it will be surprised that his son The sun has disappeared, washed away with bloody tears; the stars will fall; demons will attack people; our guardian spirits will disappear; only angels will save little sinless children]: 73-75; cachinahua [a pregnant woman sends her husband to hunt frogs; water spirits take him home; they visit the village, then send a flood; people turn into birds, animals, fish, utensils into aquatic creatures; a round net into river dolphins, wooden benches in turtles, baskets into rays, wooden stupas, roof supports, burnt ends of smut, arrows and bows for various types of fish, large baskets for caimans, etc.; Nete's woman escapes on a log; cries, bees flock to suck her tears and snot dazzle her; she makes new people out of bees and pumpkins; they find cultivated plants, restore the culture; brother N. also escaped elsewhere]: Montag, Bastien 1996:92-100; characterbet [long night; kushma shirts come to life, try to destroy people]: Fernandez Distel 1988:679.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Takana: Hissink, Hahn 1961, No. 4 [flood; weapons, pots, cassava graters], 5 [(San Buenaventura); during the flood, two Edutzi (Edutzi is the original ancestor; the name of one means spicy wild pepper) in the form of parrots, a boy and a girl, cultivated plants were transferred to the top of the tree; animals also escaped there; after the flood, the land near mother earth, the Bururu toads; she did not give land, both educi- the parrot carried away some ground under their fingernails; this was used to make the ground, flew several times for a new portion; the fire is also near Mother Earth, Bururu toads; they asked to bake a corn cob, it retained a spark , they made a fire; the Toad tried in vain to fill it with urine; doing what was necessary for the children, the educzi flew into their world; var. 1 (Tumupasa); the land was small, slightly larger than the old toad Bururu, who was alone sat on it; kept fire in her mouth; two educzi (young men from another world) asked for land, she did not give it; they asked them to bake a corncob, stole a handful of land, scattered them on a sandbar, which then there was land; so twice, the earth grew; a dry tree was lit with a spark on the cob; var 2 (Tumupasa); during the flood, Bururu and Jujupueva (Steisshüner Art) were covered with earth, became masters of the land; two men escaped from the flood on the royal palm tree; saw the ground, hid it under their fingernails, created a new one; var 3 (Tumupasa); two men escaped from the flood at the top of the royal palm trees; below, the flood survived Bururu, kept fire in her mouth; men stole an ear with a sparkle, Bururu could not fill it with urine; brother and sister escaped from the flood at the top of the royal palm tree; after the flood saw smoke; asked Burura to bake bananas, stole fire; today's people were from this couple], 6 [a boy and a girl escaped during the flood on the royal palm tree; they noted on the trunk how the water was falling, rings are still visible; after the flood, the earth first looked like a sandbank, then larger; two arars brought a corn cob; the next day corn grew out of the grains; a boy and a girl asked the old woman- Bake Bururu's toad on the cobs; she kept a spark in her mouth during the flood; she baked it; the next day, the arara was brought a banana sprout (the same); then cassava; the boy reached out to steal yam potatoes from Bururu's pot, the pot's throat grabbed his hand; the old woman was angry, but freed him, gave him tubers; there was a spark in the dry cobs Bururu baked, the children fanned the fire, and Bururu could not fill him with urine], 39 [ lunar eclipse; weapons, pots, baskets, etc.], 40 [solar eclipse; various objects, trees, animals, and most rats]: 40, 42-43, 43-45, 84-85; surui [Ishivai comes to abandoned home; at night, objects turn into spirits (Night Butterfly and others; Night Monkey is the most dangerous), they want to kill I.; Corn hides it under the roof; spirits celebrate; at dawn again turn into an old mat, coal, mortar, pestle, corner of the house, etc.; Brother I. comes and kills scorpions, snakes, spiders; I. returns home with him]: Mindlin 1995:6-9; chiriguano [see motif J9; The twins lured the Jaguars first to cross a shallow lake and then a deep lake; all drowned, only the double-headed Sky Jaguar escaped; the twins made a chain of arrows, went up to heaven; the two-headed Jaguar rose after them; ate the moon and the sun, their blood gave rise to a new moon and sun; these are eclipses of the sun and moon; one day they will eat, huge bats will appear, they will kill people; some will hide under leather raincoats (?) ; at night, pots, plants, stones will sing, dance, attack people; smut will turn green, there will be no fire; people will first make fire with mate, it will end, remain in the dark; it will end earthquake, everything will die; the sun will return, another era will begin]: Metraux 1932:154-158; manashi [if snakes eat the sun or moon, humans will turn into monkeys, jaguars, etc., destroy each other friend]: Metraux 1942:132.

Southern Amazon. Nambiquara: Pereira 1983, No. 1 [the evil battleship Valuru and another evil spirit are digging up the earth, water is eroding it, the sun and moon go out, the sky falls, people are dying; new people are living inside rocks, they're immortal there; The monkey (Callicebus personatus) hears their laughter; Aguchi, Paka, Hummingbird, Turtle and others can't break the rock; Chelidoptera tenebrosa Vulture smashes, people go out, part stays in the rock; the storm begins, the sun (again?) disappears, children turn into anteaters, baskets into jaguars, arrows into snakes, calebas into turtles, men, women and other objects in other animals; a man, his sister, his little son are saved; they keep the fire on; the boy says that the sun will soon rise; it is rising; the woman's body spots like a jaguar, an anteater; the man washes them so that she does not become an animal too; marries his sister; their daughter marries a man's son; people come from these couples], 3 [shaman (Var.: Owl, Speotito cunicularia) keeps the day white, the night in black calebasses; alternately opens them; the night was shorter than the current one; leaves, tells the Nightjar (Nyctibius sp.) to do as he does; the Nightjar takes the beads out of the black calebass or keeps it open for too long; night falls; some of the hunters have died in the forest, others have returned to village; nightjar is now a bird, mourning his act; the shaman pressed his neck deep into his body; things have turned into animals: an arrow into a snake, a calebass cup into a turtle, a braided line (xire) into a jaguar (from xire has spots on his skin); the shaman had a daughter; while she was still crawling on all fours, the shaman told his wife to wash her, paint her uruku's face, take her out of the house, turn her face east, west, again to the east; after that it dawned, the sun came out; the shaman said that God marked day and night for us because he saw the child's face even in the dark; the shaman still had a boy; brother and sister grew up, got married, from them nambiquara occurred (=1974:22-23)]: 7-13, 18-20; (cf. paresi [The Evening Star was the sun then; married to two sisters, Enoaré went to the woods; at this time, the clouds covered the "sun"; both wives ran into the woods to see if her husband had turned into something sometimes during an eclipse; he became a fig tree, the younger sister became a forest spirit; the eldest ran to her mother, who turned into a Dusicyon thous wolf; the eldest was left alone, made all kinds of bees out of latex]: Pereira 1987, No. 109:594-595).