Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

C27. A monster under the ice. 35.-.37.39.46.

A monster breaks the ice on a river or lake. Usually people walk on ice, see a protruding horn (fin), trying to saw it off. The monster breaks the ice, many people die.

Kets (Kureika), Nganasans, Dolgans, Northwestern Yakuts, Ilimpic Evenks, Evens, Negidals, Manchus, Chuvans, Coastal Koryaks (Alutors), Blacklegs, Sarsi, Grovantra, sheyens.

Western Siberia. The Kets (Serkov patronymy, Kureika River) [the Evenks drove along the frozen river, saw horns sticking out over the ice; the Evenk began to cut horns with an ax, the mammoth turned, broke the ice, drowned the Evenks]: Nikolaev 1985:95; Nganasans [on Lake Nganasans began to cut down a fang sticking out from under the ice; the monster moved, the ice broke, people drowned; since then, the Nganasans and Yuraks have called this lake lake barousi (evil spirit), they go around it]: Popov 1984:60.

Eastern Siberia. Dolgans [there is Lake Yt Kyuele (Dog Lake); otherwise called Abaasylaakh (which has abaases); in the old days, the Samoyeds saw that the horn was sticking out from under the ice; they began to cut, the monster moved, broke the ice, the cutters drowned; the Samoyeds now go around this lake; the Yuraks were driving along its shore, the wind blew away the snow, the sledges carried across the ice to the uncovered water; one yurak cut off the dog's front leg with blood sledges sprayed Ledu; since then, Yuraks are afraid to cross this lake]: Popov 1937:100; northwestern Yakuts: Gurvich 1977 [people from the lighthouse tribe decide to cut down Yesey sticking out of Lake mammoth tusks (mammoth - underground elk); crackling sounds, blood appears, all lighthouses fall through the ice]: 200; Evens: Novikova 1987 [people ride deer on the ice of Lake Labynkyr; from under the ice a tusk sticks out, like the horn of a wild ram; people are sawing a horn, only one family, an old man and an old woman, have driven ashore; the monster has broken the ice, everyone drowned; the cradle on the ice floe is washed ashore, the old people raised a child]: 110; Dutkin 1980b [people were driving across Lake Labynkyr on reindeer sleds; near the middle they came across a tusk sticking out from under the ice, like the horn of a large mountain sheep; decided saw off; one family - an old man and an old woman - decided to go to the shore; the monster broke the ice, everyone drowned; one cradle with the baby was on the ice floe, swam to the shore; the old people raised the child]: 70; Ilympic Evenks (village. Chirinda) [western 1964; people from the Mayata family killed the Evenks, were left alone by the lake; once they saw a horn sticking out of the ice; they began to cut, blood splashed from the horn, the monster broke the ice, all the Lighthouses died]: Yermakov 1988:57-62.

Amur - Sakhalin. Negidals [a man with his wife and child was driving on the ice of Lake Chukchagir; stopped at the root of a tree sticking out of the ice to tie ties of boots; tied the deer to the root; the ice broke, all of them people with deer drowned; man, woman, child and deer with bells joined the spirits owning the lake]: Khasanova, Pevnov 2003, No. 35:86-87; Manchus [there is a water bath at the bottom of Sungari a cow (var.: dragon) with one horn; sometimes it breaks ice in winter; steam in the cold above the water is its breath]: Lattimore 1933:282-283.

SV Asia. Chuvantsy [A reindeer caravan of four argish marched along the tundra. The first argish is a young man, girls and women with children in the middle, and an old woman with the last argish. We reached the lake, saw the Killer Whale fin in the ice of the lake and began to cut it. The old woman warned me not to do this, because cutting a killer whale is a sin. Suddenly Killer Whale shuddered. The old lady immediately turned the argish to make it ashore. The others were still on the lake. Looking around, the old woman saw that reindeer herders had fallen through the ice. The old lady was left alone. As soon as evening falls, you can hear the sound of a tambourine, people singing and deer chirping from the lake. Sometimes the Big Beautiful Calf comes out of the lake. They say this is the Master of the Lake]: Brodsky, Innekey 2018, No. 23:49-50; coastal Koryaks (Alutors) [rich reindeer herder Patat wanders on the ice of the lake - the source of the Pilgyvayam River; a horn sticks out of the ice, P . tells the workers to cut it down; the poor old man and his son do not cut down, they go ashore; the mammoth breaks the ice, people and half the herd die; the poor old man with his son and wife have been saved]: Kibrik et al. 2000, No. 16:71-75.

Plains. Blacklegs [humans walk across the lake on ice. Alberta; a horn sticks out of the ice; a small child demands it for himself; his mother saws off his horn; a monster breaks the ice; some people stay on the other side of the water forever; tribes disperse in different directions]: Wissler, Duvall 1908, No. 6:22; sarsi: Clark 1960 [two young hunters killed a bison, began to cut; a stream poured out of the carcass, formed a bison lake; in winter, people went south on the ice of this lake; the boy saw a buffalo horn sticking out of the ice, asked his grandmother to get it; she began to break it off, the ice cracked, everyone drowned; the rest on the north shore became a beaver and Chipewayans who reached the south - sarsi]: 92-93; Curtis 1976 (18) [some people (sarsi) had already crossed the lake on ice, others (chipewayyan) had not yet crossed; the child saw a horn protruding from the ice, became asking her mother to get it, she began to cut it; the monster moved, the ice split; people in the east and west began to live separately; then there was rain and flood, sarsi escaped to the mountains]: 141; Simms 1904 [like blacklegs; those who swam south on ice floes are Sarsi's ancestors who returned north - Beaver]: 180; Wilson 1889 [people walked across the lake; the woman began to break out a moose horn protruding from the ice; the elk broke the ice; the remaining Chipewayans in the north, sarsi in the south]: 243 in Wissler, Duvall 1908:22 (note 3); grovantre [like blacklegs, without details; the child asks the grandmother to break off the horn; people drown on the ice, Remaining on different shores are no longer found]: Kroeber 1907b, No. 32:112; Sheena [like grovantra, without details]: Grinnell 1892:163 in Kroeber 1907b: 112.