Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

C32C. Nails must be stored. (.13.-.15.17.26.-.35.)

Nails (and hair) are of particular importance to a person's fate, soul, or the world as a whole. (Collective motive).

Sudan — East Africa. Tigre: Littmann 1910, No. 115 [cropped nails should be buried under a green tree; if eaten by an animal, the wind will blow them away is a bad sign; in the next world, God will ask why man did not collect his hair; a young child's hair is protected by parents, and when he grows up, they give it to him], 117 [cropped nails must be carefully collected and buried; they will be asked from a person in the next world]: 312-313, 315.

North Africa. The Arabs of Algeria (Tiaret Plateau) [cut hair and nails must be buried; they are parts of our body and, like it, must return to the ground]: Aceval 2005, no. 44:52.

Southern Europe. Basques: Moshkov 2004 [you can't throw your nails, the devil will make a cup out of them]: 250; Barandiaran 1962a, No. 23 [two poor brothers meet the devil; he promises to give a bag of gold if in a year they will tell him what the vessel is made of, or they will take their souls; on the last night before the end of his term, one of the brothers finds himself at the cave, hears the devil telling the witch that the vessel is made of nails, circumcised on Friday and Saturday; the devil is forced to give the young man gold the next day]: 93-95; Latins [according to Fabius Pictor's Annales, nail clippings should be hidden in the ground under a happy tree ]: Basset 1893:376; (cf. Italians (Abruzzo) [the holy family flees to Egypt; on Friday, Mary asks a braided woman to hide the child in her hair; she refuses, M. curses those who braid braids in Friday; the next day, another woman agrees to hide it but says her hair is very short; M. makes her hair long to the toes; the woman replies to the Pharisees that she saw the fugitives when her hair is long were as long as a finger; the Pharisees are leaving; next Friday M. asks the old woman cutting her nails to hide the baby under her fingernails; she refuses; M. curses those who cut their nails on Fridays]: Kabakova 2006, No. 31:65-67).

Western Asia. Saudia (Mecca) [women in Mecca always bury their trimmed nails to prevent them from being used to damage; many Muslim nations have this custom]: Basset 1893-1894:252.

China — Korea. The Chinese [will take them to heaven for cropped nails and hair]: Moshkov 1901:49.

The Balkans. Albanians [you should throw your trimmed nails behind your back, you'll throw evil away with them]: Pedersen 1898:113; Romanians [first one water, God and the Devil walk on it; seven years later God sends The devil dive to get the seeds to make the earth; the devil takes the earth in his name, washes it out of his hands; when he takes it in the name of God, brings earth under his fingernails; therefore man belongs to God, and black under with his nails — The devil, preparing the deceased for burial, must be removed from the fingernails; God took three grains of sand from what the Devil had brought, made them flat ground; the Devil tried to drown God who had fallen asleep, but dragging his body, he only stretched the earth in different directions; it became wider than the sky; God sent the Bee to overhear the Devil; he says to himself that the earth must be compressed, creating valleys and mountains; when he sees the Bee flying away, The devil hit her with a whip, almost tearing her in two; she left with black bruises]: Murgoci, Murgoci 1929:135-137 (paraphrase in Johns 2005:258-259); Gagauz people [if you cut your nails off and throw them on the floor, on that You can't find them in the light; you have to throw them behind your collar]: Moshkov 1901:21 (=2004:218).

Central Europe. Poles [cropped nails and falling hair must be preserved by shoving them into wall cracks; in the next world they will have to be given to God; whoever does not keep them will have to look for them]: Voltaire 1890:142; Ukrainians, Poles [in the next world will force everyone to collect their nails]: Moshkov 1901:49; Ukrainians: Belova 2004a, No. 535 (Volyn) [nails must be collected in order to get off them after death help to the mountain; from cropped nails, the devil will make himself an invisible hat; when he wears it, God will not be able to strike him with lightning]: 240; Lepkiy 1888 (Rudetsky, Samborsky, Ravsky, Zhovkovsky y.) [In the middle of the sea, a huge golden (sometimes chalk) mountain rises, along which the souls of the dead must travel to the next world. That soul on earth did not honor its nails and, when cutting them off, did not hide them in her bosom, will not climb that high mountain so soon]: 142; Moshkov 1901 [hell will make an invisible hat out of nail scraps]: 49; Fedorov 1903 (Voronezhskaya, Zemlyansky University, pp. Eater, Latanoe, Shumeiki) [Cut off nails are put in a shirt (in the bosom) so that in the next world there is something to hold on to the mountain when you have to climb it]: 265; Ukrainians (Ternopil region, Gusyatinsky y.) [When cutting off their nails, they blow them and hide them in their bosom, because they will ask about them in the next world]: Galko 1862:41; Trusevich 1865b (Polesie) [According to ordinary people, it is not good to cut their nails and throw them on gender, and you should always put them in your bosom, because during the Last Judgment, when a person has to come with his whole body, he will find his nails like a part of the body in his bosom; otherwise, collecting them scattered all over the place, he will be late for trial and will have to wander alone forever in the dark and boundless space of this world]: 457; Chubinsky 1872 [Budaevka: You can't throw them away trimmed nails, the devil will make an invisible hat out of them; Proskurovsky Uyezd: when the soul is transferred over a bridge thin as a straw at the Last Judgment, they will ask where the nails are; you'll have to look for You can't find everyone]: 87; Sheykovsky 1860 (Podolia) [When a child dies, a woman (midwife) dresses him and girds him. The mother of the child asks the woman to knit a few knots, because as many knots she will have more children. If a child's fingernails have already been cut off, they're placed in the sinus because in the next world they'll ask, “Where are your nails?” Whoever threw them on the ground and didn't hide them in their bosom will be sent to collect them. They say that in the next world you will have to fight on a glass mountain: that's what big nails are for]: 24; Belarusians: Moshkov 1901 [nail trimmings must be stored, they will have to be made of them in the next world stairs for climbing to heaven]: 49; Romanov 1912 [trimmed nails must be kept; old and old women carry them in their bosom; after death they will all grow back and with their help it will be easy to climb on some kind of glass mountain; and whoever throws his nails anywhere will fall into the hell]: 31; (cf. Russians [the same as about Belarusians, but without reference to the source and without specifying the place of recording)]: Moshkov 1901:49).

Caucasus — Asia Minor. Dargins (Muregins) [after cutting off your nails, you should wrap them in a rag and hide them in a crack in the ground, stone, wall or wood and remember the place; at the last judgment you will have to answer for wasting your body]: Khanagov 1892:154; Svani [blacksmith Darejiani from the top of Yalbuz (Elbrus) sees a crying beauty in the abyss on the golden ottoman, with piles of gold all around; she goes down to her, she says that she is a wife God himself, who overthrew her for a crime; D.'s wife spies on him, cuts off the beautiful woman's hair; when D. comes, she rips her stomach open, gives him their child, tells him to leave it on at the crossroads, dies; Jesus Christ, St. George and one of the angels give the boy the name Amiran; if he breaks this word three times, he will fall under the power of the devil; the dying hero tells A. to raise his two sons; they have become strong, and . killed them, the devils began to chase him; the next time he beat his horse; after the third violation of the word, the devils chained him to an iron pole in the abyss near Elbrus; he is also tied to a pole nine-headed divas; both try to reach checker A.; A. will be able to reach if his nails grow; therefore, swans do not cut off their nails during the first four days of the week; at this time they also grow in A .; a bird with devils tells the devils every time they cut off their nails; one day A. will take possession of a sword, the diva will kill, golden times will come]: Lominadze 1903, No. 1:141-144; Georgians [the devil collects cropped nails]: Moshkov 1901:49; Armenians: Bunatov 1893 [nails in someone else's house cannot be cut off; severed nails must be collected and hidden, in the next world they are being collected for them]: 184; Grigorov 1892 (Zangezur) [hide cut off nails and trimmed hair, otherwise your head hurts; whoever cuts his nails on Sunday will grow new ones on his fingers with split ends]: 113; Moshkov 1901 [ cropped nails are hidden so as not to get any disease]: 49.

Iran — Central Asia. Persians [bury their toenails cut off at the doorstep of the house or at the entrance to the temple, because they will then testify that their owner made pilgrimages; when al-Dajjál arrives, everyone they will run outside to look at him; the nails of the faithful buried at the doorstep will cry into their feet and clothes in the form of thorns; people will take them out and will not follow A.; he will take the rest to hell]: Donaldson 1938:185; Zoroastrianism: Chunakova 2004:42 [the Ashozusht bird (avest. asha zushta, “the favorite of the goddess Asha”) handed Avesta to people “in its own language”; it grabs and swallows her trimmed nails, over who read the prayer; if the prayer is not read, devas and sorcerers throw these nails like arrows at this bird to kill it], 106 [Ashozusht eats a person's cropped nails if above them a prayer has been read; if the prayer is not read, the devas use them as arrows (Bd, 6)]; Western Pamir (Shugnan, Bartang, Rushan, etc.) [in paradise, the bodies of Grandfather Adam and Momo Havvo were covered with the same solid substance as their nails, which replaced their clothes; when, at Satan's instigation, they ate wheat grains and were expelled from paradise, the nail cover with the bodies are gone, left only on the legs and arms; since the person's nails have not left, the trimmed nails must be buried in a clean, secluded place]: Mukhiddinov 1989:38.

Baltoscandia. Scandinavians [When the gods die, the Naglfar ship will sail from the nails of the dead, so the dying must cut their nails; the ship is ruled by the giant Hrum; the wolf Fenrir swallows Odin; Vidar steps on the wolf's lower jaw; Vidar's shoe is made of scraps from the cut of all shoes (whoever wants to help the aces should throw these scraps)]: Younger Edda 1970:51-53; Icelanders [nails you have to cut them into three pieces before you throw them, because God promised the devil all the nails not cut into three pieces]: Moshkov 2004:249; Finns [from Sunday's nails cut an evil spirit makes a ship that takes the dead to him]: Holmberg 1927:75; Karelians: Mikhailovskaya 1925 [you must put your trimmed nails in your bosom; if you die, you will hold on to heaven with them]: 622; Punzhina 2001, No. 68 (Tver Karelians) [the deceased's nails were not cut off; in the next world everyone will be forced to climb the mountain; nails are easier to cling to; when the nails are cut, they are placed in the sinus so that after death get it when you need to climb the mountain]: 150; Haavio 1952 (Salmi, West Karelia) [nails are cut after the bath when they soften and put them in a shirt pocket near the neck; you can use them you will climb a mountain, otherwise you will fall into the Tuonela River full of snakes]: 95; Estonians: Moshkov 1901 [he will make a hat visor for himself from scraps of nails]: 49; Masing 1998 [1) from nail scraps the devil will make himself an invisible hat; 2) (Saarema); he will make a ship out of scraps of his nails; before, to divide Saarem, he dug the Maadewahe River, sailed on a ship, but the sorcerer drowned ship; to prevent the devil from building a new one, you need to burn your nails]: 70; Lithuanians [“Lithuanians do not throw cropped nails on the ground so that (according to them) the devil does not make hats out of them, but they lay down for sinus, believing that the creator will remind them of them at the Last Judgment. It will be easy to get them from behind your sinus, and no one will take the hell away”]: Jucewicz 1846:141-142 {apparently this is the source for Voltaire 1890 [cut off nails are burned or placed in the bosom; otherwise hell with them will assemble and make a hat for himself]: 141}; Latvians [he will make a devil out of cropped nails, hide his nails in his bosom]: Voltaire 1890:142.

Volga — Perm. Marie [sometimes a chicken is slaughtered during a funeral ceremony; she must pick up the fingernail and toenail scraps lost by the deceased during his lifetime, because he must not appear before the owner without them dead Kiamat töra]: Sebeok, Ingemann 1956:111; Chuvash [the dead are tested for trimmed nails and hair; during their lifetime, trimmed hair and nails are collected and protected; darling light serves as a thread left in the spring when scooping up water for washing; a chicken or egg donated when separating the soul serves as a ransom for evil spirits; an explanation that this chicken leads the deceased on that light, wrong; he rides a horse slaughtered in his honor during Yupa's memorial ceremony]: Salmin 2004:147; Bashkirs [nails must be collected, burned, or buried in a secluded place; otherwise in the next world You will walk and collect your scattered nails]: Khisamitdinova 2011:341; Komi-Zyryans: Nalimov 1907:14-15 [put trimmed nails in a coffin - you will have to climb a steep iron mountain]; Ulyashev 2011 [healers did not throw away their teeth, hair and trimmed nails — they will come in handy on the way to the next world]: 286.

Turkestan. Kyrgyz [cut off nails are buried in the ground along with finely chopped grass so that the nails connect with the former owner in the afterlife, and the grass witnesses]: Poyarkov 1900:40-41.

Southern Siberia. Khakas [nails are considered to be the remnants of the ancient body cover of the Khongor ancestors; the fingernails were cut in the morning and the legs in the evening, because human vitality hides under the toenails during the day and at night — under the fingernails; trimmed nails and hair are burned on fire saying, “When the camel's tail grows to the ground, when the mountain goat's horns reach the sky, then we'll meet!” (or “when the elk's horns reach the clouds”); Kyzyl residents buried their trimmed nails saying, “When the frog's horns grow out of the axe, then I'll take it! When the maral horns grow from the mountain range, then I'll take it!” ; nails rejoice at the death of their master; “Our master, who slaughtered us, has lay down in the ground and will rot — now we will grow through his heart!” And the hair is sad: “Our owner, who decorated us, lay down in the ground and will rot — now we will become a nest for mice!”] : Butanayev 2003:83.

Western Siberia. Mansi: Gondatti in Munkácsi 1905 [on the way to the afterlife, the soul crosses a fiery river, climbs a steep mountain; therefore, a person keeps his cropped or fallen nails and hair; after his death, they are burned in the spring to reach the deceased; with new nails he will climb the mountain, fly across the river in his hair]: 112-113; Karjalainen 1921 [in the world of the dead, souls climb the mountain, they cross the river of fire; the bridge across it is built from nails and hair cut off during their lifetime]: 187-188; Eastern Khanty: Kulemzin, Lukina 1978, No. 65 (Tromyegan) [you can't cut your nails in the evening, otherwise they they will go to the cemetery], 66 (Nizhnevartovsk district) [you should put your fingernails in your sinus, toenails in your shoes; if you throw it anywhere, you will look for them in the next world], 67 (Vah) [you can't throw your hair, you need to store it in one place; throw it — you'll go looking for them in the next world]: 188; Nenets (Yamal) [Num made a deer, Nga made a wolf, etc.; Nga made huge spiders, they weaved nets out of human hair, caught and ate humans; Num made spiders small; people weren't told to throw their hair (the spider will weave the net), not to kill spiders (Nga will make them big again); now people burn their hair]: Lar 2001:286-287; Forest Nenets (Ayvaseda family) [people's bodies were covered with film (nelaku); it protected them from adversity and illness, condemning them to immortality; because of the cunning of Kavshah we'ku (“Black Man”, the spirit of illness, living in the lower world) people lost their protective coating, only their nails are left; the nails are shaken off in the cracks of the floorboards; one person carelessly cut off his nails, a piece flew off, this was bad for him further fate]: Spodina 2008:173.