Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

D4O. Dry by the fire.


To steal fire from its owner, the character pretends to be wet, chilled, and after receiving permission to dry, runs away, bringing fire to people.

Upoto, Dinka, Joluo, Sardinians, (Manchus), Comox, Quileout, Menominee, Western Ojibwa, Catawba, Karok, Nahuat (Puebla), Triki, Masateki, Mixtecs, Mihe, Colorado, Canelo, Shuar, aguaruna, achuar, andoque, uitoto, bora, ocaina, kaingang, chamacoco, chorote, matako, toba, mokovi, ofaye.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Upoto [Mokvike owns the fire; Libanza made it rain for many days, looked like a wet boy, asked him to let him warm up; when M. came out, stopped raining, put his head in his mouth, brought his grandmother to the village; having seized the fire, he subdued the surrounding villages]: Baumann 1936:359 (retelling in Kotlyar 2009, No. 280:162-163.

Sudan-East Africa. Dinka [there was no fire; the dog came to the village of Juoks (spirits), asked permission to warm up; lit his tail, ran away; all the trees and herbs that caught fire along the way went out, and the wood ablo still mined by friction]: Katznelson 1968:133 (quail. Kushke 1988:18-19); joluo [there was no fire; the dog came to the village where Juok (the creator god) lived, found him in the forge; pretended to be cold, approached the fire, the tail caught fire, the dog ran, fire hit trees and grass along the way; told people to look for fire in the abolo tree (it's used to make fire sticks)]: Scheub 2000:89.

Southern Europe. The Sardinians (Logudoro) [there was no fire; people asked St. Antonia, who was a shepherd, to get it; he came to hell with his pig; asked him to let him warm up; the devil refused, but the pig crawled under the door and raged; to calm him down, hell let St. Antonia; grabbed his staff, made of fennel {"dill", but here is clearly a larger umbrella), wanted to throw it into the fire, but the pig began to rage again; he had to return the staff; St. Antony caught a spark in his hollow staff, came back, gave fire to people}]: Calvino 1984, No. 197:701-703.

(Wed. Amur - Sakhalin. The Manchus (Liaoning) [in ancient times people did not know how to use fire, ate raw meat and drank animal blood, dressed in skins, and escaped the cold in caves in winter; they heard that in the sky there was true fire, but they could not reach it, and when they met a forest fire, they did not dare to approach; every year in the middle of autumn, Vladyka Abukai, led eight heavenly armies, descended to earth to inspect , brought fireseeds and gave people the opportunity to have fun for one day; on this day, the heavenly fire illuminated the earth, people lit torches, cooked food on the fire and were very happy; returning to heaven, A. took fireseeds with him, saying that people do not know how to handle fire and could endanger the whole world; one day on A.'s visit, a boy Toa was born; grew up smart and brave, owned martial arts, was a great archery; A. called on him to heaven to manage the warehouse of heavenly fire; Toa dreamed of sharing fire with his relatives, for this purpose he studied methods of handling it and methods cooking; one day Toa was supposed to accompany A. to the ground, decided to take a fireseed pumpkin with him and stay among people to teach them how to use fire; after the holiday, everything the deities went to heaven after A., but Toa hid at the top of an elm tree and descended only after they were all gone; gave people fire seeds; at this time there was a mouse on earth that dreamed go up to heaven; when she saw that Toa had stolen fireseeds, she climbed the mountain and shouted three times: "Lord Abukai! Toa stole your heavenly fire and gave it to people!" A. sent his henchmen to check her words; sent a heavenly army to confiscate all the fireseeds; Toa was taken to heaven and tied upside down to the top of the celestial tree; a mouse in gratitude appointed head of the celestial fire warehouse; the people asked A. to release Toa; at this time, a couple of forty, white and black, flew in from the south; they promised to find Toa; nine days and nine nights later they reached heaven, They could not find the Toa; they flew south of the southern sky, but were tired and stopped to rest on the branches of the magic tree, where Toa was found; he asked for the red fruits of the tree growing in the south; when A . created people, he put such a red fruit in everyone's stomach, and then they came to life; people's hearts are the very red fruits; if you eat one, you will live a long time and get rid of adversity; When they flew up to the tree, the magpies saw two golden eagles guarding it; one of them hid in a crevice, the other flew to the tree for fruit; when the golden eagles chased the white eagles, the black one stole the fruit, rushed to north; the golden eagles caught up with the white magpie, killed her and returned to their tree; the black one bore the red fruits of Toa, he ate them and immediately freed himself; when he learned that one of the forty had sacrificed her life for it, he became to mourn her as a person and promised to make sacrifices to her; this is how a close connection between people and magpies appeared; after eating the fruits, Toa was able to become invisible and fly; with the black magpie flew to the warehouse of heavenly fire and while the mouse was sleeping, stole the pumpkin of heavenly fire again and returned to the people; to prevent A. from knowing it, they used fire only in caves; guarding the fire the mouse found that one gorlyanka pumpkin with fire was missing, reported A.; angry, he gave her 9 days to find the loss; the mouse went to the ground, but could not find the fire; wanted to look into the cave, but was afraid that she would be killed there, so she pretended to freeze and asked the people sitting in the cave to warm it up; Toa took pity and let her warm up to the fire; the next day she went to heaven; A. became angry; the golden eagles reported that the magpie stole the red fruit and brought it to Toa; A. ordered that all the fire from the cave be returned to heaven, and Toa was thrown into the Huerhan River and covered with melted ones in the heavenly fire with stones; people lost fire for the second time and Toa; the black magpie went to look for Toa; one day she sat on an old willow by the Huerhan River and met a crucian carp; he said that Toa was hidden under a stone dome in the NW corner; the raven found a stone dome and heard water splashing inside; called Toa, who responded; said that in order to be released he needed an iron bull guarding the Tianqiaolin (Sky Bridge) rib; he He could pierce anything with his horns; agreed to help, punched a hole in the dome, Toa went outside, the bull offered to take him to heaven so he could talk to A.; if he didn't listen, the bull he would pierce the sky with horns; A. was afraid of the bull, agreed to forgive Toa and leave him in the sky to crush stones to build a heavenly palace, but forbid him to take heavenly fire from now on; Toa became everyone a day to crush stones, and soon noticed that some white stones could be drilled and put anything inside; decided that these stones could be placed heavenly fire and thrown down, and then people will be able to get the fire out of there; he stole a gorlyanka pumpkin with heavenly fire again, and every day, crushing stones, he found one white one and hid some fire inside; at which time A. told Toa to send the stones people to build a marching palace, who sent them stones filled with fire and told them that there was fire inside them; people realized that if they took a white stone and hit them hard on another, sparks would fall; so people began to use fire again; Toa returned the empty pumpkin to the heavenly fire warehouse, the mouse did not notice the loss; A. saw that people were using fire, but did not understand where they came from they take sparks; over time, he noticed that people used fire well and left them alone; and Toa is still doing hard labor in the sky]: Chen, Wang 1989 (31): 67-73).

The coast is the Plateau. Comox [the old man owns fire, the door of his house opens and closes, killing those who enter; the deer puts a chip in his hair, jumps into the house when the door opens, sits down by the fire to dry; the sliver lights up, it runs away, brings people fire]: Boas 1895, No. 8:80-81; quileut [see D4A motif; sisters sleep outside; one wants a red star as her husband, the other a blue star; the stars take them on sky; red is an old man with sore eyes, blue is young; sisters want to go home, the Stars send them to earth; earthly people decide to fight against heaven; after climbing into heaven, Raven and Stingray arrange a duel; The stingray turns sideways, and the Raven is wounded by a spear; a little bird asks the fire owners to let her warm up; its breast turns red; but only the beaver pretending to be dead gets fire; heavenly people win , the earthly hurry back, the staircase breaks; the rest turn into stars, including Stingray]: Farrand, Mayer 1919, No. 10:264-266.

The Midwest. Menominee: Bloomfield 1928, No. 68 [The creator raises the Earth from the depths, which has a human appearance, humans are Earth's grandchildren; she has a daughter; the Creator wants animals; the old woman does not tell her daughter, leaving the house, turns north; she turns around, the wind penetrates her bosom, she gives birth to Menapus (the "big rabbit"), then all birds and animals; Flint is the last to come out, kills mother at birth; an old woman buries her; her fire goes out; she tells M. that the owners of the fire live overseas; M. swims across the sea in a dolblenka, turns into a rabbit, picked up by two daughters of a blind owner fire; they plant him by the fire to warm up, he runs away, carrying the fire, the owner chases; Big Hairy Fish with horns carries him across the sea; he brings fire home], 69 [girl turns to the side forbidden by the mother gives birth to M. and his younger brother Flint; he kills his mother; the fire goes out; first M. is a rabbit, then a man asks his grandmother about his father; she says that he is evil and cannot be killed; M. sails to him, the water turns like glue, M. greases the boat; his father gives him a porcelain knife, M. cuts his throat with it; asks his grandmother about his younger brother, she sends him south; M. breaks Flint, throws shards; turns into a rabbit, the fireman's daughter picks him up; he takes the burning smut, brings the fire home]: 137-147, 147-153; Skinner, Satterlee 1915, No. 2 [see motif K50; with fire the old man owns; Myanyabush turns into a wet rabbit, lets the old man's daughters catch himself, warms himself by the fire; a spark falls on him, runs away with it, is carried across the lake in the form of a feather]: 243-247; Western Ojibwa (chippewa) [a woman picks up a clot of moose blood; it turns into Venebojo; V. comes overseas, turns into a rabbit, the old man's daughter picks it up; V. takes the fire away]: Barnouw 1977, No. 8:85; Western Ojibwa: Jones 1917, No. 1-3 [the old woman does not tell her daughter to sit outside facing west; she sits down, gets pregnant; the youngest of the twins wants to be born first, twins they quarrel, tear the mother apart; the grandmother finds a blood clot, covers it with bark, it turns into Nanabusha; he freezes the sea, turns into a hare, runs across the ice where the fire owner lives with two daughters; the youngest picks up the bunny, puts it to dry by the fire; the father warns that this may be a manita; the hare sets fire to his hair, brings fire to his grandmother; since then, the hares are dark in the summer; the grandmother confesses that N.'s mother was killed by his brother; brothers shoot at each other; Laska tells N. to mark the hair knot, N. kills the enemy, makes him the lord of the dead; (on stealing fire No. 2:7-15)]: 3-23; Josselin de Jong 1913, No. 7 [an old woman's daughter hears a voice telling her not to sit facing north, west, east, or south; she sits facing south, getting pregnant; the children in her womb are arguing who will come out first; she explodes; her the mother finds a blood clot, it turns into a white rabbit; he goes through the water to the owners of the fire; the girl picks it up, her sister warns that it may be a newly born Not enough; the rabbit grabs the fire, leaves the pursuers, running across the surface of the water, brings fire to the grandmother; after spending time in the steam room, it grows]: 5-7.

Southeast USA. Catavba [Vultures own fire; Rabbit asks to warm up; puts a burning chip between his toes, brings fire to people]: Speck 1934, No. 9a, b: 9-10.

California. Karok [(Powers' Pomo MS); two old women own fire; Coyote arranges various animals on their way home; comes to old women, asks permission to warm up; runs away with burning smut; gives it to the Puma, the Bear, the Squirrel; the last is the Frog, the woman is almost grabbed, she swallows coal, dives; her tail burns, now it is only in tadpoles; spits fire into pieces of wood, from which it is obtained by friction]: Bancroft 1875:115-117 (=Judson 1994:81-82).

Mesoamerica Nahuat (northern Puebla): Reynoso Rábago 2003, No. R20 [there was no fire, it was owned by an old devil (amokualilamatsin); did not give it to anyone; people asked the opossum to bring fire; for this pour water and ask permission to dry by the fire, then bring fire on the tail; when the devil dozed off, the opossum set fire to its tail and ran back; this is how fire appeared on the ground, and the tail of the possum with naked since then]: 211-212; Taggart 1983 [our Little Mother told her father that his clothes were dirty and went to the river to wash them; St. Joseph invited her to go with her and leave St. Peter, who has a very big beard; she agreed, but first went to deliver her washed clothes to her father; our Little Mother and St. Joseph set off and had a baby; they were not allowed into the house, it was very cold; St. Joseph asked the opossum to get fire; a woman who lived far away had fire; the opossum came and asked for permission to warm up; wrapped his tail around the hot coal and brought it to Jesus; since then, the tail of the opossum had been bald; our Little Mother asked the opossum to bring more chicken; he brought it; but when she sent it again, the opossum was caught and killed]: 103-104; tricks [see J25 motif; twins kill the Deer, their husband adoptive grandmother; they need fire to fry meat; they send Grandma Fox to steal the fire, she fails; Porcupine's fire goes out along the way, his needles are traces of falling sparks; the bird tells the possum first immerse himself in water; he asks the old woman to let him dry by the fire, puts his tail in the fire, brings fire to the twins; the tail of the Possum is burnt and is now bare and black, and the tip is white as ash (or light)]: Hollenbach 1980, No. 8:31:465; Masateki [when fire first fell from some stars, a woman hid it; everyone came to her to ask for fire, but she did not; the opossum promised to get fire, if others did not eat his meat; no one believed him; in the evening he came to that woman and asked for permission to warm up by the fire - he was very cold; slowly began to move towards the fire, stuck his tail and took it away fire on the tail; since then, the tail of the possum has been naked]: Portal 1986:57 (shorter version in p. 47); mixteks [the parents of the Sun and Month did not like them, threw them into the river; the boys were picked up by an old woman; asks them to take their food to their "father" in the forest; this is a deer, his brothers kill him; they ask another old woman to fry meat; she does not give it; they send an Opossum; he got wet in the river, asked for permission to dry; took away the fire on the tail; since then, the tail of the possum has been bare; see motif J25]: Cruz 1946:217-218; Micah [before the flood, the animals came to the village, people killed them, began to cook them, but the pots burst, the animals ran away; God meets an old man who has gone for brushwood, tells him to announce a flood; they laugh at him; God orders to make a box, not to let others into it; an old man with children, Raven, Fox, Dove, escaped in the box; rain flooded the ground by the flood; The dove is sent for exploration, stains its paws with the blood of the dead, now they are red; when the waters have come down, there is no fertile land; the raven flies, brings land three times from the land of the devils (those each time almost everything is shaken off, a little remains); the earth grows; the fox goes to the owners of the fire, asks for permission to warm up, puts his tail into the fire, comes running; the tip of the tail is now black; the eldest son sees father drunk and naked, tells the youngest; he beats his father, the father no longer drinks; tells his sons to swim early three in the morning; the youngest bathes, brightens, becomes master; the elder is lazy, his skin darkens, he should work]: Miller, Villa Rojas 1956, No. 5:104.

Ecuador. Colorado [old women own fire; Vulture bathes, sits down to the fire to dry, does not return; the bull bird tries to steal the fire, the old woman throws sparks in his eye, since then these the birds are black; the hummingbird bathes, arrives to dry, blows away the fire on its tail, puts it in dry reeds]: Aguavil, Aguavil 1985:228-232.

Western Amazon. Canelo [the owner of the fire does not give it to others; the hummingbird is wet, the women from the village where the fire picked it up, put it by the fire; it dried up, on the fourth attempt he carried away the fire on the tail]: Coloma, Cotacachi, Quintero 1986:23-25; shuar [like Canelo]: Barrueco 1988 [people cooked in the sun or under their arms; Takea had the fire; his wife finds a chilly Hummingbird, brings him to warm up; that blows away the fire on the tail, puts it in trees]: 33;

Karsten 1919:333- 334; 1935, No. 2:516-518; Pelizzaro 1961, No. 1:1; 1993:41; Rueda 1987, No. 18:107-108; Wavrin 1932:129-130 days, people work all the time; the Sun put darkness in a vessel, sent it to earth, there it became eternal night; Martin (arachnid monkey) climbed to heaven on a rope, found a vessel; agreed with Hummingbird and Gorlinka that they would pretend to be wet for the fire owners to pick them up; by the fire The hummingbird dried up, set fire to its tail, Gorlinka swallowed the seeds of cultivated plants; M. found a vessel at night, broke it, it dawned on the ground; The sun wiped a little darkness with cotton wool, put it back in the vessel, so the night preserved, but began to alternate with the day; the hummingbird flew away, placed the fire in the trees], 3-4 [there was no fire and no cultivated plants except cassava; people collected vine seeds, warmed them under their arms, ate half-baked, were poisoned with raw cassava; the Hummingbird agreed with Gorlinka that he would get the fire and she would get the seeds of cultivated plants; both should get wet, stay on the trail to be picked up; let Gorlinka swallows the whole seeds; Martin (arachnid monkey) at this time promised to steal the vessel at night; the spouses, the owners of fire and seeds, picked up the wet ones; M. came and found a vessel with the night; the hummingbird set fire tail, flew away, burned, tail became uneven; Gorlinka flew away, gave people seeds; (apparently M. broke a vessel of darkness)]: 72-75, 80-90; Chumap Lucía, Garcírena-Dueles 1979, No. 83 [forest demon Iwa trapped people like people put on pigeons; the world is dark; Machín (an arachnid monkey) told the Dove and the Hummingbird to pretend to be dead on I.'s path; he picked them up, brought them home; M. came, said he ate pumpkins, beans and other cultivated plants; corrected the bodies of the Pigeon and Hummingbird lying by the fire so that the feathers soaked in the rain would dry out; took a vessel from under the roof with the night; the hummingbird lit its tail, flew away, placed fire in the trees; the dove pecked the seeds of cultivated plants, also flew away; M. broke the vessel with the night; I. wiped the slightly dark with cotton wool, and when it dawned, day and night began to alternate ; children used to eat cassava, warming it between their legs (en sus entrepriernas)]: 661-665; Guallart 1948:88; Wavrin 1932:121; Guallart 1948:88; Wavrin 1932:121; achuar [like Canelo; owner: Woodpecker]: Mowitz 1978:89.

NW Amazon. Andoque [The Source of Plenty (aka the Middle Heron, the Good Ruler) went underground when his wife Yellow-Leaf (aka "Cassava for Making a Cassava Drink") did not make him cassava; the sons were offended for their father, she also left; the youngest licked the pot in which the cassava drink was made, the eldest did not feel hungry; coca grows up, through her father says that fiery will come from the east flood; The Hummingbird Egg (born from an egg laid by a woman who had sex with a snake) brought the brothers the killed pauhil, ordered them not to suck on the bones because they contain a lot of water; contrary to warning the older brother, the younger one breaks a bone, water gushes out of it, it rains, the flood floods the ground; the brothers grew a tree from a seed on a hill in advance; Canoa-de-Opaí (Merganetta armata duck, approx. on p. 79) in a leaf boat and the Hummingbird Egg went to the mouth of the river (east) to get fire; the girl picked up the Hummingbird Egg; told her parents it was a chick; they replied that it was a Hummingbird Egg, he was already old, but she still planted him to warm up by the hearth; his parents closed the door tightly, hung a net in the back of the little one; the Hummingbird Egg grabbed the coal, burned the net, flew away; returned to the upper reaches, where Paul grabbed, he swallowed the coal, but the fire came out with excrement, it was swallowed by the fish, he went out again, turned into flint to make fire; the fish swam, broke the dam, the water began to fall; as seeds fell from the pod (turning into different types of wild chickens?) , it was dawn; the flood was both watery and fiery; the eagle dammed the waters, but the real flood began when the brothers broke the pauhil bone]: Landaburu, Pineda 1981:66-71, 80 (=1984:73-77); utoto : Pereira 1980 (2) [The twins learn that their mother killed Gaimo, they kill him; after learning that their mother lived with G., they decided to burn her; the fire was owned by a man and his daughter; one of the two brothers turned into a hummingbird, took the fire away; the daughter screams that the hummingbird stole the fire; the father replies that it will go out, but their fire does not go out]: 490-491; Rodríguez de Montes 1981, No. 23 [like andoque]: 202; bora [man eats a bird that breaks a bone, water gushes out of it, floods the whole earth; someone has built a dam to prevent water from flowing; a hummingbird breaks the dam; in the form of a hummingbird, he allows himself to be caught by the daughter of a builder; she plants the bird warms by the fire; it carries away the fire; people come from the Hummingbird and his sister]: Wavrin 1932:141; 1937:636; okaina [Hummingbird flies to the owners of the fire, pretends to be sick, takes the coal]: Wavrin 1932:144; 1937:640.

SE Brazil. Kaingang [the firemaster's daughters pick up a wet and frozen woodpecker, put it by the fire; the woodpecker carries the fire away in their beak, reports a hummingbird that flies faster]: Baldus 1958:122-124.

Chaco. Chamacoco: Baldus 1931 [hawk steals owl from daughter]: 85; Wilbert, Simoneau 1987a, No. 51 [rabbit from birds; they send rain, rabbit hides in trees], 54 [owl hawk]: 174, 177; chorote [hawk]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1985, No. 50 [anaconda, quail, rabbit own fire; the first two refuse, the rabbit allows them to warm up; the hawk grabs fire while the rabbit smokes bees], 51 [y sparrowhawk], 52 [from a person who smoked bees; another person asks a woman, an anaconda, a tapir, a jaguar to warm up; they all refuse; steals like a hawk from a honey collector], 53 [ Bird people who smoke bees throw smut at the hawk; he takes it away], 54 [from a woodpecker who smoked bees]: 92-99; matako [Jaguariha owns fire; the rabbit trembles in the cold, asks to let him warm up; carries coal away, the world lights up; people get fire, jaguars eat raw food; Tawkhwah trickster puts fire in trees that serve to produce fire by friction]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1982a, No. 36:97-98; Toba: Miller 1988 [an old woman owns fire; men send Little Hawk, he flies to the fire to warm up; when an old woman falls asleep and other people dance, he takes away the smut; he is almost caught up, he passes the smut to the Dove, who places fire in the trees; men extract it by friction]: 58-60; Wilbert, Simoneau 1982b, No. 7, 73 [from a wild cat], 74, 75 and 77 [hawk], 71-72 [hummingbird, fox]: 42, 158-162, 166; Wilbert, Simoneau 1989a, No. 122-129 [hawk], 130 [people], 132-133 [fox], 190 [the old woman went for honey, got lost, became the Nightjar; where she screams, there was honey; owned fire; the Hawk stole her coals, placed fire into trees]: 179-193, 265-266; mokowi: Wilbert, Simoneau 1988, No. 23-31 [Hawk steals fire], 32-34 [people eat raw, Whiskacha owns fire; Hawk takes it away, gives it to people], 35 [Whiskacha owns fire; Black Wasp carries coal for humans], 36 [Whiskacha owns fire; Vulture steals coal to smoke away mosquitoes], 37 [The fox owns fire; the Hawk steals it, people get fire], 38 [ the old woman allows the Hawk, trembling in the cold, to warm up by the fire; he carries the coal; the savannah lights up; people get fire]: 48-64.

Southern Brazil. Ofaye: Nimuendaju 1914 [Guinea Pig stole fire from Jaguar; swam across the river with a scum on her head]: 377; Ribeiro 1951, No. 4 [Jaguar's mother owned fire; Battleship was the first to try to steal, came to warm up; when the old woman fell asleep, took away the coal; she whistled, the Jaguar Son caught up with the Battleship, took the coal; the same with Guinea Pig, Tapir, Monkeys; the last one was prea (Aguti?) , who was ignored; ran away, swam across the river, convinced Jaguar that it was better for him to eat raw meat; he taught Agouti to make fire by friction]: 123-124.