Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

E12. Animated drawing. .19.-.

The character draws an object or creature on the sand (ash), which comes to life.

Susure, Tolai, Truk Islands, Hawaiians, Tibetans, Marathi, Sora, Maldives, Numphor, Nanai, Kekchi, Kuikuro, (Kamayura), Toba, (Chorote).

Melanesia. Susure [at first one water, the spirit of Tauar rose out of the water; he pushed the water away, land arose, the rest remained sea; first the earth was like a swamp, T. created plants; drew a man on the ground, blew life in him; same with a woman; people multiplied, T. sent them out in different directions]: Lehner 1975, No. 1:741-742; tolay [in Meier 1909, No. 1:15-16 the same text is attributed to bining; Kaia drew two human figures on the ground, rubbed his skin, sprinkled blood drops on the figures, covered them with leaves, To Kabinana (TA) and To Karvuvu (TU) appeared; TA climbed onto a coconut palm tree, threw it on the ground two unripe yellowish coconuts, they turned into two women; KU did the same thing, but his nuts stuck in the ground, so his women have flattened noses]: Janssen et al. 2012, no. 2:1.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Truk Islands [Chief Soufa has 5 wives; he tells him to kill boys, keep girls; one of the sisters {and wives at the same time?} S. gave birth to a son, sent him to the Wind Eater (some butterfly or bird), who lived inside the island; the young man grew up, hears screams from the shore, it's a toy boat festival; the adoptive mother made the young man like this the boat, she overtook everyone else; the young man's real mother took it from the shore; he took the boat, leaving his fingerprint on his mother's hand; S. gathers men to determine whose hand it was; sent a man and a young man was brought to the house of the Wind Eater; S. found out the fingerprints, told the young man to come tomorrow to put up poles for the community house; the foster mother tells him to dig a hole with a hole to hide when on him they will lower the pole; also let him take with him a coconut (it crunches) and a termite that will pave the way to the ground; when the young man dug a hole, a pole was lowered into it; the young man went out, S. tells him to come tomorrow; reception mother: drink water: they tell you to climb a tree for nuts and make a fire around - fill it with regurgitating water; he did so; on the third day, the adoptive mother teaches the young man to avoid raindrops; when he came to S., darts were thrown at him, none were hit; for the fourth time, his adoptive mother told him to take a knife from the sink, ocher and coal with him; the young man was trapped, lowered into the water; he chewed ocher with with lime, they thought it was the brain; coal - his stomach burst; he cut the ropes and came up, brought S. fish; on the fifth day: you will be left on a deserted island, you should take breadfruit with you; he they ordered to anchor off the shore, cut off the tench and sailed away; there was only one tree on the island; the young man put the fruit on top of his head, turned to the Rainbow God to pick up the fruit and help him escape; then hung it there caught fish; like this every day; an old man came, but the young man refused to speak to him; the next day a young man came; he was the God of the Rainbow; when he returned on the third day, he drew a boat in the sand kicked her, the drawing became a real boat; the young man returned to S.; the next day S. and his brothers decided to sail in his boat himself; the young man told her to become sand again, the passengers were eaten by sharks]: Fischer 1954:289-306 (retelling in Lessa 1961:174-176); Hawaiians (Oahu) [the great gods Kāne, Kū, Lono, and Kanaloa came to Oahu; convinced that it had everything for life, decided to make man; Kane with a stick drew a figure of a man on earth; Kanaloa drew another figure; Kane told the figure to come to life, but Kanaloa could not revive his own; the gods built a house for man and returned to heaven; sometimes they came back to find out how is man doing; noticed that he has a companion - his shadow; he talked to her, but the shadow did not answer; the gods decided to help, and when the man woke up, there was a woman next to him; he thought she came from his shadow and called it the Shadow-created from the sky; the figure painted by Kanaloa became a rock on the slope]: Pūku'i, Curtis 1994:133-135.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans (written memorials): Yeongdong 1989, No. 33 [a friend came to his wife in his absence; the wife drew a field on the ashes, sowed seeds, harvested crops, ground and roasted the grains, treated the guest; then hit him with a staff, turning him into a donkey; another man spied on her, swapped bowls, grabbed a staff, turned the woman into a donkey, drove her to him; they were met by her husband, recognized in donkey wife, believed the rumors about her sorcery, returned it, disgraced]: 70, Table 1.

South Asia. Hill Saora [Kittung made a house for himself and painted figures of a man and a woman on the wall with white clay; all living beings were already born, but K. could not create a person; asked for advice from the sun Uyungsum; he ordered the drawings to be covered with green leaves for a week, then two drops of blood from his little finger on the man and three on the woman; nine days later, the female figure turned into a girl, and the next male day was a young man; K. called W. to marry them and people descended from them]: Elwin 1954, No. 18:436; Marathi [the merchant gave three daughters to three brothers, also merchants; during the famine they went broke, went to look for happiness; the middle one gave birth to a son named Putrak ("son"); he went to learn a craft; in the forest, the sorcerer's three sons are fighting over sandals (you will become invisible and fly), a bowler hat (in he always has food) and sticks (if you draw something painted with it, it will come true); P. invited the sorcerer's sons to race, took away wonderful objects; flew to the city where Princess Patali was predicted to run with a stranger; Putrak took the princess, drew the city of Pataliputra in the sand, they began to rule it]: Zograf 1964:314-315; Maldives [the husband did not return from the forest; the pregnant wife went to look for him, gave birth; the tiger ate her without noticing the child; he was fed by cows; a boy was brought to the king, who could not speak and ran on all fours; but he learned quickly, was handsome and smart; the king asked The young man saw unusual things when he lived with cows; he replied that once he saw a fish swallow seven ships on the shore, an eagle carried the fish, and a snake crawled out of the cave and swallowed an eagle; the king asked to take him away him to that cave; trees were thrown into it for three months and then a fire was lit; when the mountain had cooled down, only the young man agreed to go down; returned with golden sand; the king ordered him to get all the golden sand from the bottom of the cave and became fabulously rich; asked the young man what reward he would like; the young man asked for a ship with his crew and a bag of golden sand; sailed south, landed in the Maldives and became a local king; accepted Islam; once I saw a boy draw a ship in the sand; boy: I give this ship to you; the king returned to the palace, and the boy soon came for him and said that the ship was in the harbor; the king came, the entire crew on the ship is dressed in white; as soon as he stepped on the ship, it took off and disappeared]: Romero-Frias 2012, No. 6:23-27.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Numphor [Mangundi planted a sugar palm; whoever steals the harvest; he began to guard, grabbed Sampari (Morning Star; gender not specified, but apparently male); he paid off by producing fruit Alexandrian Lavra: if you throw a woman in her chest, she will give birth to a child; M. hid in a tree, threw it at one of the girls who were passing by, she gave birth to a boy Konori; no one knew who the child's father was, but he pointed out the father; his wife's relatives hate M., he and his wife decide to flee; M. drew a boat on the sand and it became real; when he came to Mator Island, M. drew a house and it appeared; later M. came to north of the island, self-immolated and rose from the ashes young; one day K. will return and the dead will come to life]: Bezemer 1904:408-410.

Amur - Sakhalin. Nanais: Kile 1996, No. 11 (recorded from a resident of the village. Dairga, 1983) [A large boat landed on the shore where the Mergen lived; those on it called the Mergen to sail with them; the Mergen agreed; they sailed to the cliff on which the house was; two pudins came out from there; they the wind caused, he crashed the boat; Mergen fell unconscious, then woke up on the shore; everyone but him died; the mergen began to sing and call for help from the spirits to destroy both powders; then drew a boat on the sand with rowers and old Halaton sitting behind the wheel; hit it in the palm of the nose and at the stern of the painted boat; she and the people depicted in it became real; old man Halaton said Mergen to go on alone; mergen turned into an iron kiangpora {fish spirit} and swam along the river; when he reached the shore where his uncle was fishing, he grabbed the bait and jumped out out of the water; married his uncle's younger sister, began to dream of another woman; uncle told me to go to her and advised her not to fight with her brothers; Mergan reached the village of his wife in his dream; maid called him to pick berries on the other side of the river; got the mergen off the boat and sailed away; the mergen swam across the river, met his dream wife and made peace with her brothers; then went to the village old man amba, who killed his father; summoned, killed, married his daughter; then went to his wife in a dream, and then to his uncle's younger sister; began to live with three wives]; No. 16 (recorded from an illiterate 78-year-old resident of the village. Belgo, 1968) [a lonely boy went for a walk; a boat with pudin and her servants landed on the shore; the pudin took the boy with him; when he ran out of food, he stood on the top of the cliff and asked his father and mother for them to give him a bow and arrow; an arrow flew from the upper reaches of the river, a bow from the lower reaches; the boy shot, the arrow returned with seven wild boars and seven elks; the next day they swam to a large village; head the village announced a competition: pierce nine awl ears, nine boiler covers, the bottoms of nine cast-iron boilers with an arrow, and then shoot a mergen sitting between the horns of the red deer with an arrow; the winner will receive the daughter of the head villages as wives; the contestants started shooting, but no one could hit the targets; the boy turned into a servant: "the head is bald, covered with scab, the snot is three fathoms long, and the drooling hangs five fathoms long"; fired an arrow, punched everything that was supposed to be; shot at the Mergen, who was the fiancé of the daughter of the head of the village, who fell off the head of the deer, and then the red deer himself collapsed; the head of the village gave the boy his daughter; after the feast, the mergen boy made a boat, took half of his father-in-law's possessions and set off on the way back; on the way, it turned out that the pudin was the hero's older sister; when they reached the village of the enemy, who took sister and brothers, Mergen defeated him; then turned into a duck and flew to the place where the enemy of his father and mother lived; his mother told Mergen that the enemies, failing to kill his father, locked him in an iron coffin and threw him into the river; the mergen wrapped the old enemy in a chain and forced him to climb into the water; the old man took out the coffin, his father came out; the mergen killed the enemy, took his two daughters; then went down to the shore, met his parents, gathered his father's servants and maids, all the enemy's men, drew a boat in the sand and hit its nose; it became real; they pushed it into the water, put people in it and set off on the road; they healed peacefully and rich]; [from commentary to text No. 16: "An interesting episode that is repeated in Nanai folklore repeatedly, when the things depicted (in this case, the boat) become real. <... > According to the Nanai, these transformations can be carried out by heroes who have the sorcery ability given them by their patron ancestors"]: 119-128, 191-201, 444 {episodes with "Revived picture" on pages 123 and 201}.

Mesoamerica Kekchi [when the earth trembled, people thought that the old witch was disturbing the underground horned serpent, which moved and caused earthquakes; the casik's messengers came to the witch's cave to burn; she said she must first say goodbye to her rowers; a boat was painted on the cave wall, it went into the drawing and sailed away; the earthquake stopped, but soon began again, horned serpent began to spit smoke and fire through the mouth of the volcano; this time the witch agreed to go to the square, but took a ball of thread; only she can extract the worm from the snake's fang, then it will calm down; for a remedy to do this, she must fly to the clouds; she stuck a stick, tied a thread, threw a ball into the sky, climbed the thread, never came back]: Gordon 1915:124.

Southern Amazon. Kuikuro [there was no fire, Kanassa is looking for it while carrying firefly; the curasso bird (Crax daubentoni) made feather jewelry; K. offered to try it on, it grew, now curasso is always wearing this outfit ; met a little caiman (the same, the cassava brazier has grown to its tail); his relative, the bird Sarakura, made a boat and oars out of clay; Duck has a bark boat; K. offers to change, assures like a corysh boat is fragile; K. and saracura sail away in a corn boat; clay sinks; Duck floundering, learning to swim; Sarakura says that the fire is owned by a two-headed Urubu-ray; K. drew a deer in the sand, hid himself under it; Urubu-ray told the vultures to lift the carcass to his tree, K. told him to leave it in place and remain silent; Urubu-ray came down with light with him; K. caught him ordered to bring fire; he told his son (a small black bird) to bring coal; a fire was fanned out of it; frogs came out of the water, filled the fire with water they held in their mouth; a little remained, K. fanned again; flying away, Urubu-ray taught me to get fire by friction, make torches; to transport fire across the lake, K. gave it to various snakes; they were tired, they lost fire in the middle of the lake; only Itóto endured ; K. gave her a cassava drink and cassava tortillas]: Villas Boas, Villas Boas 1973:105-110; (cf. kamayura [Canutsipem kept water in vessels in the men's house; gave the Sun and the Month bad water, did not give good water; they, along with other men, put on perfume masks, frightened K., interrupted blood vessels; Month defeated the last one, a beast jumped out of it, swallowed the Month; the village became a lake, everyone went, leading one of the rivers in the upper reaches of Shingu; the Sun caught the one who swallowed the Month, ripped open his stomach, put the bones in a painted silhouette, the Month came to life]: Villas Boas, Villas Boas 1973:157-162).

Chaco. Eastern toba [by Wright MS; The owl always tells her two wives to put out the fire when he returns; one manages to see his eyes; both run away; the Owl tells the Crane to paint on the ground Jaguars and other predators, revives them, they kill people in the home village of Owl's wives]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1989a, No. 187:262-263; (cf. chorote [at first only dust; the wife of the Month does not believe that he will be able to create land; the Month drew a square with his hand, spat on it, the dust settled down, the Month poured water on it, the earth began to grow, the wife happy; A month grows wild and cultivated plants on the ground]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1985, No. 8:23-24).