Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

E14. Rituals from the dead .

The rituals are derived from the spirits of the dead.

Luba, Maori, Cook Islands (Pukapuka), Kutenay, Winnebago, Sarsi, Pomo, (hupa), Papago, Eastern Panama (kuna?) , kogi, amuesha, ashaninka, kamayura, bakairi, ramkokamekra.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Luba [Kazula wounded a wild boar with a spear; he disappeared into the cave, carrying his spear; K. followed, came into the world of the dead; he is greeted by his dead brother; K. expresses a desire to learn the dances and rituals of the dead ancestors; brother says that in order to initiate, you need to bring cassava and chickens, sends that wounded wild boar (in fact, one of the ancestors) to show the way; he tells K. to go to his own ( ancestor) field, pick cassava, and chickens in the same place in the house; K. is taught three types of rituals; K. returns, talks about rituals; Chief Mbuli wants to see everything himself; K. leads him, he has cassava and chickens with him; both they return after learning rituals; they have been with humans ever since]: Colle 1913:542.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Maori [Turehu women (inhabitants of the Raroheng Underworld) come to Mataora; he marries one of them; one day he beats, his wife returns to Rarohenga; M. follows her; Ue-Tonga (father his wife) lubricates the coloring on his face, M. asks for a real tattoo; when he recovers from surgery, he returns to earth with his wife, since then the Maori have been tattooed; wife brought a colored border, taught women how to weave it on raincoats; they took an owl and a bat as guides, and since then they only fly at night]: Reed 1960:18-25; Cook Islands (Pukapuka) [two The brothers hung their loincloths on a banana, began to swim; they were covered by a huge wave with a hole in it; it led down the dark corridor; Wotoa decided to walk along the tight rope Te Yoa stepped after him cautiously; a huge lizard opened its mouth, V. raised his leg, threatening her, she closed her mouth; the gods are sitting around the coconut, V. asked for a drink, they climbed a palm tree, threw them off their brothers coconuts; when entering the lower tier of the afterlife By Yokamani stone, the spirit sat on it and fell, the brothers passed; a tree on which the souls of the recently dead; children sit on branches, mothers under a tree on the ground, the rest hang in loops; other souls hunt lizards side by side to feed the gods; watching the gods, the brothers remembered the melodies and dances, taught people when they returned; at the very bottom On a huge round house with with many pillars around the perimeter, every resident of Poe can walk with his back against his pole; this is the house of goddess Leva, she weaves a mat in it, which souls often fall into; the gods climb under the mat free them; the brothers returned the same way they came; people thought they had drowned]: Beaglehole, Beaglehole 1938:327-329.

(Wed. Burishi [the man went looking for the missing goat, came back in the dark, saw Pfūts (spirits) dancing around the fire, began to dance with them; after eating, they collected bones in the goat's skin; one rib was not enough, because the man hid it; they made a wooden one, shook their skin, the goat came to life, ran away; it was the man's missing goat; the Pfeet went to the pft wedding, the man came home I found my goat there, stabbed it, it had a wooden edge; from feet he brought a melody for the flute, which is called "pft melody"]: Lorimer 1935, No. 20:235).

The coast is the Plateau. Kutene [the man is dead; the spirit leader tells him to return to earth to teach people the dances and songs he met in the world of the dead (the origin of the Black-Tailed Deer Dance)]: Clark 1966:154-155.

The Midwest. Winnebago [young wife dies; husband follows her; hairy man teaches him to boldly jump over a wide stream that turns into a stream; spirits dance, try to make him look at them; he resists temptation; receives a tambourine from old people, teaches songs; takes his wife back, throws ash at the persecuting spirits; arranges the first Spirit Dance, where he sings songs learned in the afterlife world, beats the drum he brought with him]: Radin 1926, No. 2:33-37; 1932:402-405.

Plains. Sarsi [the wife is dead, the husband follows her, sees the man who killed the bison, the bison turns out to be a mouse; the man told him to eat grass seeds, haze mushrooms, wild onions, then the husband saw the camp and people; (hereinafter referred to as the local hostess, not the owner); she tells you to ask for a smoking pipe for the Naguschoozh-na community, a hoop and two arrows to play; three nights women dance, the husband does not see wife, on the fourth she enters him; when he returns, he must not turn around, violates the ban, finds himself in the same place; goes with his wife again, brings him home; the wife never blinks or closes her eyes; they have seven children; one day it is smoky in the tipi, the wife hesitates to fix the tipi floors, the husband says in her hearts that she should become a spirit; the wife disappears and never returns; since then people have a sacred pipe and playing with a hoop]: Dzana-gu 1921, No. 25:30-32.

California. Pomo: Barrett 1933, No. 106 [a man dies, his brother spends four days at the place where the funeral fire burned; goes east for his brother's ghost; the dead feed him; teach him certain things dance; when he returns, he teaches people this dance]: 379; Loeb 1926a [man follows his deceased son; the first boatman refuses to transport the living person to the island at sea, the second transports; the person watches the dance shadows; receives dance supplies (bag, whistle, rattle); on return, teaches people songs, dances and rituals]: 292-293; (cf. chupa [the boy sings all the time; the mother sees a cloud coming down to the house from a distance, then rises, the boy's voice is heard from it; after many years, a grown son comes to his parents; tells him not to approach to him, the smell of people is unbearable for him; he went down to teach people ritual dances that dance spirits in the sky all the time; after teaching him, he left forever]: Golla 1984:33-34).

The Great Southwest. Papago [songs from the spirits of the dead]: Densmore 1929a: 115-131.

Honduras - Panama. Eastern Panama (kuna?) [a woman's son died; a vulture offered to take her to him, brings her to the vulture house; there she sees rituals and dances in honor of the dead; when she returns, she teaches people to perform them]: Adrian de Santo Tomás in Wassen 1933:132-133.

The Northern Andes. Kogi [the wife dies; the dead are not buried yet, she goes to the land of the dead herself; the husband follows her; the dead say that they return to earth in the guise of cannibal jaguars; they teach funerary rituals, dances, chants; they ask to bury the dead; the husband takes with him seeds (cultural?) plants; plants chase him, want to take seeds; it permanently closes the way back from the afterlife; teaches people funeral rituals]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985 (2), No. 20:154-155.

Montagna - Jurua. Amuesha [during the ancient sun, the husband is killed hunting by enemies; the wife tells the to'to bird that if he were human, he would tell her where her husband is; the bird turns into a man, talks about husband, agrees to take him to sanerr (the country of the killed); tells her not to bite through her husband's lice, not to say that she came from home; her husband's head is not lice, but worms; the woman's child asks for a drink, the husband offers drinks from heart, liver, kidneys; fermented blood drink in other vessels; a woman tells her husband that the child has diarrhea, runs away with the child to the forest, the huancañcho'ch bird hides it on papaya; the husband comes to his wife's site, asks the plants where she is; only a silly yam tries to tell the truth, but his speech is incomprehensible, the dead man hits him with a stick, returns to the dead; the dead drink a bloody drink, they dance, women sing; a woman spies; in the morning the dead turn into vultures, fly to heaven; the woman actually has four children, two boys and two girls; they remember the songs they measured the flutes; the to'to bird takes them all home; they make a drink from corn, sing, dance, play flutes, this is how people learn to sing and dance; a woman and her children cannot eat, everything is for them turns into blood; at their request, the woman's brother kills them all]: Santos-Granero 1991, No. 2:36-38; Ashaninka [memorial song and rituals from the dead]: Weiss 1975:447-448.

Southern Amazon. Kamayura [a person who has been to heaven learns ritual songs from bird-people (=spirits of the dead)]: Münzel 1973:254; Villas Boas, Villas Boas 1973:222; bakairi [corn dance by spirit of the dead]: Oberg 1953:77.

Eastern Brazil. Ramkokamekra: Wilbert 1978, No. 92 [Haktí's huge harpy eagle devoured people; the rest were fleeing; the boy was at the site at that time, left alone; when he came to the village, he saw it in the square dancing and singing people, painted in red paint; these are the spirits of the dead; his dead uncle tells him not to approach, go around the village; others saw the boy, chased, he ran, climbed a tree, from there watched the dead; after catching up with people, taught them the rituals and songs of the Ketúaye ceremony], 137 [(Nimuendaju 1946a: 248-249}; the tribe is forced to leave the village due to Amazon-Kupet attacks & # 237; ayapté (kupe is an alien tribe, tía is a woman, pré is ferocious); one of K. caught two boys; while living with her, they secretly killed and ate one of her pet cockerels (these are mutun wild birds (Mitua mitu); a woman punished them by hitting them in the chest with her hand; in the morning she prepared manioc flour and a spear to kill and eat the boys; but the woman's husband (his origin is not mentioned) warned them, they dodged the flying spear; at midnight this man and boys ran away; the man returned; the woman chases the boys to the battleship's hole in which they hid; decided to dig it up in the morning, but the boys They ran away, came to an old village where men were dancing; the old man gave the boys food to eat, but the food disappeared before they touched it; they realized that it was the spirits of the dead; when they reached their native village, talked about this; one person came to the village of the dead, spied on and overheard rituals and spells, taught others]: 245, 333-334.