Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

E31C. The rescuers of a kidnapped girl, ATU 513A, ATU 653.


Several men, each with a unique skill, bring a (kidnapped) girl from a distant country.


E31C (ATU 653) motive includes not fulfilling the difficult tasks assigned to the contenders for the girl's hand, as in K66C (ATU 513A), and not reviving the deceased girl, as in E31A ( ATU 653B), and overcoming obstacles that arise when it is delivered from someone else's locus to your own. In Uther 2004, there is confusion about non-European texts on this subject: many of the references for the ATU 653 story should actually refer to ATU 653B.

Mindoum, liela (Grumshi; probably Gurunsi, i.e. liela), Songhai (zarma), pears, Zaghawa, Sakho, Berbers of Morocco (Fez), Algerian Arabs, Basques, Spaniards, Portuguese, Catalans, Italians (Lombardy, Veneto, San Marino, Tuscany, Campania, Abruzzo, Calabria), Sicilians, Maltese, French, Bretons, Frisians, Flemish, Germans, Viets, Khmers, Ancient India, Himachali plowmen, Tamils, Sangikhe Islands, Koreans, Greeks (Asia Minor), Albanians, Bulgarians, Slovenes, Serbs, Romanians, Russians (Arkhangelsk, Karelia, Vologda, Pskov, Tver, Kursk), Ukrainians ( Transcarpathia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Podolia), Belarusians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Abkhazians, Abazans, Balkarians, Nogais, Aguls, Turks, Persians (Khorasan), Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, Latvians, Lithuanians, Estonians, Finns, Western Sami, Icelanders, Kazan Tatars, Chuvash, Mari, Kazakhs, Karakalpaks, Kyrgyz, Tuvans, Mongols, Central (?) Yakuts, Japanese.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Mindumu [four brothers named Wind, Blacksmith, Clairvoyant, Hunter, do not tell his sister to go to the forest; the child refused to go for water, she went by herself, she was carried away by the Eagle; the clairvoyant found out where sister, Blacksmith cast bullets, Wind brought his sister, put him in a boat, Hunter killed Eagle; everyone says he was the one who saved his sister, so he must eat bananas; their father ate bananas]: Raponda-Walker 1967:308- 311.

West Africa. Liela (Grumshi; probably Gurunsi, i.e. liela) [the chief's daughter rejects the suitors; the serpent has taken the form of a handsome man, the girl leaves with him, swallowed her at night, becoming a snake again; one person smells the snake traced the trail to the water, the other drank the lake, the third removed all the silt, exposing the hole, the fourth reached and pulled out the snake, the fifth revived the girl found in the snake's stomach; which of them did more?] : Abrahams 1983, No. 30:130-131; songhai (zarma) [a cat, dog, hawk, bull, vulture, goat consistently come to marry a girl; she says the same thing to the spirit that has descended from seventh heaven; he takes her away; animals are searching for the missing girl in vain; finally, the vulture rises to seventh heaven; eavesdropping; the spirit asks the girl why she is praying to God ; she replies that her suitors are looking for her; the spirit says that life is in seven rivers, there is a rock, an antelope in it, a dove in the antelope, an egg in the dove; the bull drank the water of seven rivers, a rock appeared; the goat broke the rock with horns; the dog caught up, gutted the antelope, the dove flew out; the vulture caught up and killed her; he raised the egg to heaven, broke the spirit on the head, the spirit died, the vulture brought the girl back to earth; to whom she owes belong?] : Tersis 1979:43-55; grooms [the girl rejects the grooms; the boa constrictor took the form of a handsome man, she fell in love with him; at night the groom became a boa constrictor again, swallowed the bride and returned to the lake; one man sniffed the trail, the other drank the lake, the third removed all the silt, the fourth with a long arm took the boa constrictor out of the hole, the fifth revived the swallowed one; which of the five is the best?] : Campbell 1931:203-204.

Sudan - East Africa. Zaghawa [Tirène's seven-headed snake swallowed the villagers; a woman lived nearby, with seven sons and a daughter; she quarreled with an old woman, and the old woman advised that the girl should, out of revenge, sent her brothers to get a bell from T.'s neck; each of the brothers cut off one of the heads, was swallowed by the other; the youngest remained, cut off the last head, released the brothers from T.'s womb, all swallowed animals and people; he was allowed to marry the most beautiful girl; he chose a swallowed slave; the brothers brought his sister a bell; the youngest's wife has 6 brothers; 1) catching everything that falls from the sky; 2) discovering the ground; 3) throwing a spear to the center of the earth; seeing what is in the sky; 5) running like the wind; 6) cultivating the field; the husband beat their sister; the old woman advised me to tell him that her brothers are stronger than him ; she led her husband to them; said that the river was her mother's urine, if he set foot, he would die; he stepped, lost consciousness, she pulled him out; the same happened to the second river (her mother's excrement); his wife's parents were giants; The servant mistook him for a stick, threw him at the bulls, he flew into his mother-in-law's eye; a week later she said that something had caught her eye, his wife pulled him out; he fell into the well, his servants pulled him out; one cow was missing; Six brothers, using each of their abilities, began to look for her; she was tied in heaven, they knocked her down, caught her; her husband recognized the power of his wife's brothers, did not beat her again]: Tubiana, Tubiana 1961, No. 16:68-73; sakho [each of the four brothers wants to marry a girl; she fell into the river, was swallowed by a hippopotamus; one blew the horn, luring the hippopotamus out of the water; the second shot him; the third rushed to the water, ripped open his belly, took the girl out; the fourth took them ashore by boat; Schidsgericht awarded it to whoever lured the hippopotamus]: Reinisch 1889, No. 3:50-52.

North Africa. The Berbers of Morocco (Fez) [the sultan is afraid that his son will take away his throne; he sends all the boys whose wives give birth to them away; one wife hid three sons; after the death of the Sultan, the eldest of them , Sidi Mohammed, took the throne; the daughter of the neighboring sultan will marry the one who makes her speak first; unsuccessful applicants are beheaded; SM tries, his head is 98th; seeing that the plant left by SM has dried up, Moulay Ahmed's middle brother, taking the throne, also goes to the princess and loses his head; the youngest, Moulay M'Hammed is smarter than others; hears two doves (fairies) talking; when the test will begin, you must read Dalil el Khairat's book out loud; after closing it, ask someone present to tell the story; the first story; the carpenter, merchant and Talib spent the night under open air, they take turns on duty at night; the carpenter made a female figure out of wood, the merchant dressed her up, the Talib turned to God and revived her; who should belong to her; MM: carpenter; princess: talibu; repeated the next night's test, the second story; the burnus maker, merchant and scientist set off; before that, the first borrowed money from the other; in the desert, a merchant demanded them back; what should I do? MM: he should get the money back; princess: what nonsense! third story; the Sultan of the Efreet cannibals ("Sultan Executioner", SP) has 7 brave men in the service, each has a gift; open any door; make any move in the ground; get hair out of the dough without hitting anything one grain of flour; cut through walls with a saber; jump over walls; jump from any height; cause a thunderstorm with a storm; SP marries another sultan's daughter for his son; he asks for a huge emerald for her; SP sends a caravan of such emeralds; had to give her daughter; she is terrified; SP is going to eat her; sleeps with her head on her hair and hiding behind the other part of her hair; the mother of 7 brave men tells her to write a letter to his father in blood - her sons would deliver it; the princess's father asked them to save his daughter; one opened the gate, the second jumped over the wall, the third pulled the princess's hair from under SP's head, the fourth stopped the pursuers with a storm; the fifth cut off the head of the SP; he turned into a 7-headed ghoul, but the young man cut off all 7 heads; who did more? MM: the one who opened the gate; the princess: the one who freed the girl from the ghoul's arms; MM won, but now he must know which of the 7 cocoons (the structure the bride sits inside) the bride will be in; prince again listens to the conversation between two doves: the cocoon in which the bride will sit, he looks the most inconspicuous; everything is fine, the wedding]: El Fasi, Dermenghem 1926:178-208; Algerian Arabs: Belamri 1990 ( Eastern Algeria) [The sultan promises to pass off his daughter as someone who says he has a moth in his bag; there is a moth; the cannibal overheard under the window; appearing in the guise of a noble young man, gave the right answer; on the eve of the wedding took the princess to his castle on the mountain, where he regained his monster appearance; beat his wife, tied her up for the night so as not to run away; the sultan sent a dove, she found the princess, brought an answer from her; the wise El-Moudjarrab tells find a widow with 7 sons, let each of them say what they can do; 1) see and hear what has been said far; 2) jump over a high wall, carrying brothers; 3) open any door silently; 4 ) quietly steal eggs from under the partridge; 5) unravel the ball of silk threads that is thrown into the thorny bush; 6) stomp your foot so as to fall into the ground; 7) wield a sword, defeating anyone; the first sees the ogre lock the doors, go to bed; the second carries him over the wall; the third opens the doors; the fourth and fifth release the princess; when the ogre wakes up and pursues, the sixth hides everyone underground; the seventh went out and killed the ogre; the brothers returned their daughter to the Sultan and received the award]: 55-62; Desparmet 1910 (Blida) [the girl went to the well to get water; the ghul wanted her, the old woman promised to help; pretended not to know how to cook barley - she put the pan not on the fire, but next to her; the girl went to show her how to do it, the ghoul took her away; the neighbor had 7 sons; she took out a luxurious man's attire, promised the son who would return the kidnapped girl; each of the seven has a special ability and has an appropriate name; one hears, leads to a ghoul; the other opens doors; the girl's hair in her teeth a sleeping ghoul; the third quietly pulled out his hair, the fourth threw the girl out of the ghoul's lair and picked her up; the ghoul took the form of a vulture, followed him, his brothers hit him with arrows, then one of them high threw it up, the ghoul fell and crashed; the girl was awarded to someone who managed to remove her hair from the ghoul's mouth]: 271-279.

Southern Europe. The Basques [four brothers were orphaned, went on a journey; divided the bread into four parts, promised to meet in 7 years; one became an astronomer's apprentice, the other a tailor, and the third a hunter, the fourth is a thief; the princess is stolen by a dragon, the king promises her savior; an astronomer finds out where she, her brothers are sailing on a ship, a thief kidnaps a girl, a hunter kills an awakened dragon, a tailor sews up a ship with a hole in it; the king does not know which of them to give his daughter]: Barandiaran 1962a, No. 30:113-116; Spaniards [father sends sons to seek happiness; in a year let them come back to show who what he learned; the eldest became a thief, the second shooter, the third tinker, lived with the giant for four years and became a sage; the thief stole an egg from under the swallow in front of his father; the shooter crushed it with an arrow exactly 10 pieces; the tinker reconnected; the youngest said the princess was kidnapped by a dragon; the thief stole the dragon's chest with the princess, the shooter shot the dragon; the tinker repaired the ship when the dragon fell on it ; princess decided to marry a sage]: Malinovskaya 2002:88-92; Catalans (Mallorca included) [father sends four sons to study and promises to pass everything on to whoever becomes the most skillful; first earns glasses in which he sees unusually far; the second becomes a skillful hunter; the third learns to sew and connect products from any material; the fourth learns the craft of thieves; when they they come back, the father tests them: you have to see which bird laid which egg in the nest, steal these eggs quietly, put them on a stone, break them by shooting them, and then make them whole again and put them to the place; brothers do the task together; the king promises a reward to whoever rescues his dragon-carried daughter; together brothers do it and it is impossible to say who to give the princess to]: Oriol, Pujol 2008, № 653:132; the Portuguese [four brothers learn different skills; one becomes a thief, the other becomes a hunter, the third sees everything, and the fourth becomes a tailor; using their skills, they save the princess]: Cardigos 2006, No. 653:150; Italians: Basile 2018 (Campania, Naples) [retelling in Aarne 1930:13; an orc (cannibal) guesses whose skin (fleas) it is; gets Princess Porziella, takes her to the forest; brings meat from people and wild boars; P. does not want to eat it, complains to the old woman; she promises that her 7 sons will help; the first hears everything; the second, if he spits, will be a soap lake; the third if he throws a piece of iron, there will be a field covered with sharp knives; the fourth will throw a splint, a forest will appear; the fifth will splash water, there will be a river; the sixth will throw a stone, a tower will appear; the seventh will be a sharpshooter; the brothers run away with P. everyone creates obstacles; when the runners hide in the tower, the ogre returns to bring the stairs, but his seventh brother hits him with an arrow, his head is cut off with a knife; P. runs to his father, who rewards brothers and their mother]: 86-93; Widter et al. 1866, No. 6 (Veneto) [a rich man sends four sons to learn a craft; the one who has mastered the best will receive a pupil living in the house ( soll meine Mündel haben), the rest will inherit a third of the property; one becomes a carpenter, the second a hunter, the third a thief, the fourth a magician; when they return, the father asks the thief to pull the eggs out of- under the thrushes so that she would not notice; he drilled the nest from below, the thrush did not notice anything, but the eggs fell and broke; the carpenter made them whole again; the hunter, at his father's request, shot them off with one shot thrush and thrush beaks; while the sons were not at home, the pupil was kidnapped, the father asks where she is; the magician: eats a peach in Prince Segeamoro's garden; the thief took the girl, sailed with her on a ship; the prince released the dragon; the hunter shot him, he fell on the ship and crashed it; the carpenter immediately repaired the ship; the father gave the girl to the carpenter]: 30-32; Italians: Cirese, Serafini 1975, No. 513A (San Marino), 653 (Lombardy, Toscana, Abruzzo, Calabria): 120, 144; Sicilians: Cirese, Serafini 1975, No. 653:144; Maltese [four brothers sent to study trade; upon returning home are being tested; the eldest, who has learned to observe stars, sees how many eggs there are in the bird's nest; the second, the hunter, knocks them out of the nest without hitting the hen; the third, the tailor, stitches the broken eggs so that they can be put in place; the youngest, the thief, steals eggs from under the chicken without her noticing it; the princess is kidnapped by a dragon, she is promised to be a wife to the savior; the brothers receive a ship with a crew from the king; the stargazer sees the dragon's abode far away; the thief takes it to the ship; the hunter shot the stalker dragon; he falls on the ship, smashing it; the tailor sews it; the brothers argue who the princess must belong]: Mifsud-Chrcop 1978, No. 653:212-213.

Western Europe. The French [father sends four sons to learn something; one has learned to see the stars and everything that is small and far away, the other has become a hunter, the third is a thief, the fourth is a tailor; they returned to their father and he tests them; the stargazer sees a bird in the nest on eggs; the thief stole the eggs so that the bird did not notice anything; the tailor sewed the nest to the branches, and the hunter shot the bird on the fly; from the king the daughter was missing; the stargazer saw her by the dragon in the middle of the sea; the thief stole her; the shooter shot the dragon, who fell on the ship and crashed it, the tailor sewed the ship; the king did not know who to give the princess to; left daughter at home, and gave gold to saviors]: Delarue Tenèze 1964, No. 653:254-258; Bretons [each of the 6 lazy sons receives 200 ecus from their father and pays the master for training; one has learned to climb trees and walls, the other to glue everything together, repair and connect everything, the third to shoot accurately, the fourth to guess everything and know in advance, the fifth to play the violin so that the dead come to life, the sixth is to build a ship, moving on water and on land; the brothers decide to take the gold-haired princess from a snake living in a palace that hangs in the sea on an island; the hunter found out everything and proposed a plan (first you need to plug the tow the bell so that it does not ring), the builder brought his ship there, the climber climbed to the princess and took her away, the shooter killed the snake that had arrived, the gluer repaired the ship on which the serpent fell, guessman pulled the princess out of the sea, the violinist revived her; her father does not know who to give the girl to, but the guessman probably got her as the cutest]: Luzel 1887 (3), No. 9:312-325; Germans [the poor man sends four sons to learn a craft; they agreed to meet again at the crossroads a year later; the first became a thief (he can steal anything and not be caught), the second became a stargazer (he sees everything on earth and in sky), the third as a hunter (hits with a gun without a miss), the fourth as a tailor (learned to sew anything without leaving a seam); they show their art to their father; the stargazer saw that there were 5 eggs in the bird's nest; the thief pulled them out unnoticed; the shooter hit them with one shot, although they were lying in different corners of the table; the tailor sewed them again, the thief put them back in the nest; the queen was kidnapped by the dragon; the stargazer saw her far away in the thief carried away the sea, the arrow killed the dragon flying in the weather, the tailor sewed the ship on which the downed dragon fell; the brothers could not decide who should get the queen, and agreed to divide among themselves kingdom]: Grimm, Grimm 2002, No. 129:420-423 (=Grimm, Grimm 1987:334-337); Friezes, Flemish: Uther 2004 (1), No. 653:358

Burma - Indochina. Vieta [Le's father promises to pass her off as the best master; a shooter, a diver, a healer come; the vulture takes Le; the shooter hits the vulture, the diver pulls Le out of the sea, the doctor revives her; the ruler decides that the doctor was only doing his duty, the shooter was not prudent to kill a bird over the sea, and the diver held the girl in his arms, and he should marry her]: Nikulin 1990:225-228; Khmers : Gorgoniev 1973:254-255 [predictor, sharpshooter, diver, reviver of the dead spent the night on the seashore; the first found out that the eagle had taken the queen, the second hit the eagle with an arrow, and the third took out the girl out of the water, the fourth revived; king: the husband will be the one who brought the body from the sea - he has already hugged the girl]; Foshko 1981, No. 20 [during a forest fire, the partridge dies with the children; her husband first takes off, then rushes into the fire; revives as a sick, scab-covered man named Turpolpheap, his wife is the king's beloved daughter; he puts her in a tower, promises to give her three in words; the princess does not respond to the calls of the rich and noble; T. comes during a downpour, behaves foolishly, the princess sees it, teaches many times what to do; the king tells her daughter to marry T., since she spoke to him; perfume makes T. beautiful and intelligent; through his mouth one of the spirits says that one of his four friends has learned to control the flight of an arrow, the second to predict the future, and the third to live under water, the fourth is to revive the dead; the second predicted that the eagle would carry the body of the dead princess, the first hit the eagle with an arrow, the third took the fallen body out of the sea, the fourth revived the princess; the spirit deliberately speaks that the girl should go to the one who revived her, but the princess objects to the one who took her out of the sea, for he was the first to see her nudity; (next two stories; T. marries a princess)]: 76-93.

South Asia. Ancient India {source?} [Somaprabha demands that she be presented either as a brave warrior, soothsayer, or magician; without agreeing with each other, her father promised her brahman who made a flying chariot, and her brother to a valiant one a brahma warrior, her mother to a soothsayer; S. has disappeared somewhere; soothsayer: she was kidnapped by Rakshasa; the first brahmana brings all three to the mountain forest, the second kills Rakshasa; the king orders S. to be passed off as a warrior: the magician and the soothsayer was only doing his usual job]: Borovkov 1938:14-17; chemical plowmen [the tsar will give his daughter for someone who will become famous in a special way; the daughter is missing; one says that she is in the land of spirits, the other makes a wooden flying horse, flies to the spirits, the third kills the guard with an arrow, brings the girl; she chooses the latter]: Dracott 1906:101-103; Tamils [bhuta kidnapped Raja's daughter; he will pass her off as her savior; four brothers; one has an all-seeing mirror, the other can carry 4 people, the third can catch bhuta in a bag, the last one can shoot anyone at any distance; the first saw where the princess was, the second carried the others there, the third stuffed the sleeping bhutu into the bag; when he woke up and jumped out, the fourth shot him; who should I give the princess?] : Blackburn 2005, #66

Malaysia-Indonesia. Sangihe Islands [one prince is a blacksmith, another is a carpenter, another makes wind guns; something sparkles like lightning on the horizon; a carpenter made a boat, they sailed to a huge coconut tree, their boat drowned; the blacksmith hammered nails into the barrel, they climbed upstairs; there is a princess; she tells them to leave - a garuda flies to her; a wind gun maker kills Garuda by hitting her eye with a dart; the boat again arose, all four came home; each of the brothers claims that without him the princess would not have been obtained, so he should be her husband; the king forbade them to marry the princess and told all four stay in the same house forever]: Bezimer 1904:257-260.

China - Korea. Koreans [the father promises to divide the inheritance between his four sons in proportion to their excellence in the arts they have mastered; the first has learned to steal, the second to guess the future, the third is to shoot an archery, the fourth is to sew any objects and materials; the father tested their skills and divided the property; the princess is kidnapped by a serpent, the king promises her hand to the savior; the soothsayer finds out Where she, the shooter hit a flying serpent, he fell on the ship and crashed it; the fourth brother sewed the ship; the king cannot divide his daughter between three suitors, so he divided the kingdom between them]: Choi 1979, No. 469:207-208 (=Cf. 2001, No. 103:192-195).

The Balkans. Greeks (Asia Minor) [princess kidnapped [first said to be an eagle, then it turns out to be a serpent}; 12 brothers decide to save her, each with some extraordinary ability; they they get the princess (almost without details); princess: everyone did something their own, but the youngest brought me; the princess's wedding with the youngest of the brothers]: Dawkins 1916:573-575; Albanians [king ask for a daughter look for lice from him; she found a louse in her beard; the king ordered her to be put in a box (and fed); soon the louse became huge; the king orders to remove the skin from the lice and promises to give her daughter off as someone who says whose it is skin; only the devil immediately said it was the skin of a lice; the king realized that the guesser was not human; the king re-tested; the devil appeared in different clothes and asked to show the princess; grabbed her and carried her underground; that night the king forbade lighting the fire; an old woman did not pay attention; they came to her; she explained that her 7 sons were returning after dark and would not be able to find home; the king summoned sons; one hears a man speaking at any distance; the other tells the earth to open; the third can quietly steal anything; the fourth will throw his shoe to the edge of the world; the fifth will call the tour in one word; the sixth will knock down anything at any height; the seventh will catch everything that falls; the king sent them after the princess; the first heard a conversation underground, the second discovered the ground, the third took them away the princess, without waking up the devil, threw his shoe to the end of the world; the devil took time to get his shoe; after catching up with the brothers, the devil asked permission to look at the princess through a small the hole and flew with her high into the sky; the sixth brother shot him and the seventh picked up the fallen princess; her king asks who to marry her; the princess: the one who took her into his arms; he the youngest; the princess's husband received the throne, and the rest of the brothers received titles and positions]: Dozon 1881, No. 4:27-33; Bulgarians [father sends four sons to learn the craft; one became a stargazer (sees everything on earth and in heaven), the second as a thief, the third as a sharpshooter, the fourth as a tailor (can sew wood and iron); when the brothers return, the father tests their abilities; the stargazer sees how many eggs are in the bird's nest, the thief picks them up unnoticed by the bird, the shooter breaks them with a shot so that the chicks remain unharmed, the tailor sews them back unnoticed;; when the chicks hatch, everyone has the neck is black; the princess is carried away by a dragon; the stargazer sees where she is, the thief takes away, the shooter kills the dragon, the tailor sews the ship on which the dragon's body fell]: Daskalova-Perkovska et al. 1994, No. 653:229 -230; Serbs [=Arkhipova 1962:203-208, Eschker 1992, No. 24:127-135; Tsar Petar has a beautiful daughter; Tsar Tatarin demanded her as his wife, otherwise he would ruin the kingdom; P. ordered to build a tower and wall it up he and his daughter are in it for three years; to say that his daughter died, and he himself went to ask the Sun why the days are shorter in winter and hot in summer; Tsar Tatar came, looked at the empty palace and no longer came; three years later P. left, but his daughter disappeared; the sentenced to death promised to find her if he was pardoned; came to the old woman, greeted her respectfully; old woman: it's good that he did so, otherwise I am 5 dragon sons; she promised them not to harm their named brother; one senses any trace, the other can steal a lamb from under the sheep, the third will instantly build a tower, the fourth a sharpshooter, the fifth will pick up everything that falls from above; one found the princess's trail, the second stole her from the arms of a 7-headed dragon, a third built a tower and they all took refuge in it; the dragon with the seventh head He scorched the tower from above and carried the princess away again; but the fourth of the dragon brothers pierced his heart with an arrow, and the fifth picked up the dropped princess; they argued who should get it; asked the mother of the Wind, who sent to the Mother of the Month, the Mother of the Month to the Mother of the Sun, the Mother of the Sun advised her own mother to ask; she told all six to make the princess a sister; they became the Pleiades - six brothers- dragons, their named brother and princess; every year they bypass the mothers of Wind, Month, Sun, thank them for their advice; from Yuriev's spring day to Vidovdan (June 28), they are on the road, they are not visible]: Golenishchev-Kutuzov 1991: 212-218; Romanians [the king keeps his daughter in a cage so as not to be stolen; rejects suitors; gives it to a handsome man who turned out to be a devil; taking the girl, the devil became a snake, stuck to the girl's chest; a girl is assumed, took a dove and paper with her, wrote a note, sent it with a dove; the king promises her daughter to her savior; the old woman has sons Evening, Midnight, Dawn; each has different abilities; Evening milks a goat on the run, midnight hears the hell sleeping; they pick up the princess and run away with a nipple filled with goat's milk in their mouth; when the hell grabs the girl and takes off, Dawn hits him with an arrow, and Evening catches; girl decides what should belong to whoever picked her up]: Bîrlea 1966:451-452; Slovenes: Uther 2004 (1), No. 653:358.

Central Europe. Russians (Arkhangelsk, Karelia, Vologda, Pskov, Tver, Kursk), Ukrainians (Transcarpathia, Ivano-Frankivsk region, Podolia), Belarusians [Seven Simeons: seven relatives brothers learn: one to shoot, the other to heal, the third to steal, etc.; on behalf of the tsar, they get a bride for him, but she marries one of the brothers]: SUS 1979, No. 653:170-171; Russians (Arkhangelskaya: Pinega, Sura, 1927) [The seven Simeon brothers tell the king that they are orphans, he calls them with him and promises to learn whatever they want. They don't want to, they tell us what they can do, then ask if the king needs Elena the Beautiful. He agrees that he needs it and allows you to use all the shops for free for three weeks. The brothers take jewelry and teach the cat how to dance. The first Simeon builds a ship, the brothers stick to Elena's shore, lure her to the ship with a cat. When the ship sailed, Elena turned into a swan and flew away, but the second Simeon shot her with a rifle, the third caught the bird on the fly, and she turned into a girl again. Elena agrees to marry the king, but asks for three flying horses and a gold ring. Simeons get it. The king and Elena get married and fly away on horseback, leaving everything to Simeons. (The brothers' remaining talents are to build a pole from ground to sky, climb it, sail on a ship, and get Elena)]: Nikiforov 1961, No. 58:139-141; Russians (Arkhangelskaya, Pomors) [Fedor Tsarevich walks in the garden, someone calls; this is a gloomy grandfather (DU) from the underground pantry; asks his father to get the key and release it, promises to help; F. asked for the key and unlocked the door; expelled; he was given a soldier in companions; he asked to go down to the well; pulled it out after F. changed his dress and status with him; went on: 7 wives pick berries, one eye for all; F. asks the remote control to give them eyes; came to another to the king, F. became a groom; the soldier persuaded the servants to say that F. could get Mary blue-haired from the kingdom of far away; the remote control orders not to take the king's ship, to pretend what he would do himself; those who saw the light women sent for their son, everyone can do something special; Marya demands to eat all the cereal (one of the servants ate); drink all the kvass (the other drank); wash in a hot bath (DM himself blew and cooled); Marya she rushed from the ship into the sea, the servant drank it, she was returned; she rose like a star into the sky; the stargazer found an extra star, the shooter shot, M. fell on the ship; everything opened; M. married the king, and the royal daughter for F.]: Razumova, Senkina 1987:211-215; Poles [four brothers go to learn the arts, come back and prove their skills; an astronomer sees eggs in a bird's nest on a tree; a thief stole them from under the bird; the shooter broke the eggs and sewed the tailor again; only the hatched chicks had a red mark on their necks; the dragon kidnapped the princess; an astronomer sees her on a distant island, a thief carries her away, a shooter struck the dragon in pursuit, the tailor sewed the ship after the dragon fell on it; there is a dispute over who will be the princess's husband (several options)]: Krzyżanowski 1962, No. 653:203; Czechs (Moravia) [the father sent four brothers to study; at the fork, each stuck a knife in the birch tree; when they return, everyone sees that the other knives are not rusted, which means that the brothers are alive; they come back to their father, everyone shows their art; a shoemaker can make any object or creature whole; a thief can move it towards him; an astrologer knows where any object or creature is; a shooter can hit anything; the princess was gone; the astrologer found out that she was with a dragon on an island in the red sea; the thief carried her to the ship; the shooter shot the flying dragon; the shoemaker repaired the ship that it hit when falling; the king department is a daughter to an astrologer, because he promised her to someone who would find her (and not return her), but divided the kingdom between all four brothers]: Wratislaw 1890, No. 9:55-60; Slovaks: Uther 2004 (1), No. 653:358.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Crimean Tatars (Feodosia) [Padishah Hermushe will give his daughter May Jaman for the most talented; three young men have come; one can make a winged horse out of wood, the other can split stones with arrows, the third one knows all about stealing; the daughter is missing; the guy {that thief?} opened the book: she is at the end of the world on a genie's mountain; a winged horse brought a hero there, who hit the genie with an arrow in the eye; everyone demands a girl for himself; counselor: the right is for a young man who fought with genie]: Zherdeva 2020, No. 47; Kalmyks [the widow has three sons and a daughter; the daughter took the mangus; the older brother saw a cloud where the mangus was hiding, the middle brother hit him with an arrow, the youngest picked up the falling girl; who is more worthy of the reward?] : Egorov 1978:34-37; Abkhazians (Western 1891) [three hunting brothers feed my sister only animal marrow; agulshap took my sister away; older brother: I can take the fruit out of the cow unnoticed; kill everything, even if it is high in the sky; younger: catch everything falls from the sky; the brothers {obviously the elder} secretly took his sister; the agulshap caught up, took it, flew; the middle shot him, the youngest picked up his fallen sister; advisers argue who did more for saving his sister]: Khashba, Kukba 1935:72-74 (=Shakryl 1975, No. 97:414-416); Abaza [the dragon took the sister of three brothers; the elder Buba can quietly take the deer out of the womb, find the deer that has fallen from the sky a needle; the middle Umar can shoot any bird; the younger Talib can pick up any falling object; B. carried his sister away from the dragon, W. shot the dragon that grabbed her, T. picked her up when she fell; the brothers' mother does not know who to give the Circassian woman promised to save her daughter]: Tugov 1985, No. 61:180-182, 182-184; Karachays or Balkarians [the woman has 7 headed sons; the khan's daughter was also kidnapped by him, giving alms, he sent a cloth to the woman; she promises to sew shirts for each of her sons, asking what everyone could do; 1) find anything by smell; 2) hear everything; 3) with a punch everything turn over; 4) turn the hill over with a punch; 5) steal anything; 6) no one will catch up; 7) hit the eye of a needle in the sky with an arrow; the first finds a trail to the hill, the second hears two arguing under the hill , the third sees them and the khan's daughter with them; the fourth turned the hill upside down; the fifth stole the girl; the sixth ran away with her; the seventh killed the pursuers with an arrow; the khan made seven brothers his guards]: Malkonduev 2017:543-546; Nogais [Batyrbek, the son of poor Bolat, is ashamed that his horse is worse than others; Bolat finds a trail of tulpar, exchanges him from a beggar (Tulpar looks like a thin nag); khan gives the grain to feed the tulpara; Batyrbek wins it at the races, but, contrary to his father's warning, unties the last knot on the reins, the horse rushes, dives into the sea, Batyrbek goes ashore; finds the clothes of three girls; promises to return if the girls help make Khan Olmes's daughter Soleimes ("the enduring Khan's non-speaking daughter") speak; the girls take Batyrbek to the khan, the eldest hides in S. fur coat, tells a fairy tale, at the end you must give an answer, Batyrbek must deliberately answer incorrectly, then S. will speak; then the same: talking kumgan; talking golden bowl; the story of the fur coat : three brothers take turns herding sheep; the elder carves the girl out of wood, the middle one dresses her, the youngest sprinkles her with herbal infusion, revives her; Batyrbek replies that the girl should be taken by the one who revived her, S. objects: the younger brother should not marry before the elder; Kumgan's story: one brother grazes his head, the other belly, the third hind legs of a bull; the older brother goes to the middle all day, they both - to the youngest to find out if the bull is sick; the bull is healthy; they lead him to a watering hole; the bull drank the sea, the island remains, he turned out to be a fish, she swallowed the bull, the eagle took the fish, descended on the goat's horns, in the shade of his an old man sat beards, a bull's shoulder blade hit his eye, the old man's daughter swam in a boat in her father's eye, pulled out her shoulder blade, threw it out the door; the caravans stopped on his shoulder blade, the ground under them trembled - this is the fox began to gnaw on the shoulder blade; the woman killed the fox with a rocker arm, left; 99 caravans ripped off the fox's skin from one side, but could not turn the fox over; the woman returned, turned the fox over with her toe, but doubted whether half the skin would be enough for a hat for a newborn son; Batyrbek replies that the most eagle, S. was a child; the story of the bowl: the mother of nine sons sews a skullcap for everyone answers what is for him; tells him to go to the khan, let him judge who the skullcap is; everyone tells the khan about his abilities; one finds everything, the other sees everything, the third shoots accurately, etc. (makes a bow from chips; a chip boat; a one-brick house; will feed everyone; digs an underground passage; thief); khan asks the brothers to find his missing daughter; the brothers find out that Azaa took her away, hit him with an arrow in the eye, return him girl; Batyrbek replies that his younger brother, S., who is the eldest, should receive the skullcap; Batyrbek marries Soleimas]: Nogai 1979, No. 18:86-102; aguly [a merchant in Tiflis will give his daughter only for a special craftsman; a man from Erzerum sees everything, from Bukhara he has a point that hits without a miss, a flying ship can make a flying ship out of Afghanistan; a girl disappears; Erzerumets sees her at sea in a fortress genies, an Afghan flies there with a Bukhara citizen, a Bukharan kills all genies, they return to Tiflis; they argue who a girl should belong to]: Dirr 1920, No. 20:101-103 (=Maysun 2014, No. D2:470).

Iran - Central Asia. Persians (Khorasan, entry 1) [the first of the three brothers shatters the petrified inhabitants of the city; the second understands the language of birds and wears out where the diva's soul is; the third destroys the diva's soul receptacle and releases the kidnapped girl; who should she belong to?] : Marzolph 1984, No. 653:128.

Baltoscandia. The Swedes [the giant kidnapped the princess, the king promised half the kingdom and the daughter's hand to the savior; six brothers each began to learn some art; 1) build a ship; 2) control it; 3) climb a glass mountain; 4) steal - could steal an egg from under his magpie; 5) create the night over, the day ahead; 6) shoot accurately; the brothers got the princess, the fifth blinded the stalker giant, Having created the night, the sixth killed him with an arrow; the king and the princess herself do not know who to choose; the brothers and then the princess took to heaven one by one, became the Pleiades]: Balzamo 2011, No. 16:26-31; Norwegians [four brothers have each learned an art (one shooter, another thief, a third predictor, etc.); their father tests them; thanks to their abilities, they return what they have stolen by the dragon princess and argue who she should belong to]: Hodne 1984, No. 653:148 Icelanders [there are 5 boys in a poor family; the old woman asks for water; in gratitude, she gives the boys the names she previously had they were not there: Wachgut, Hältgut, Hautgut, Spürtgut< Klettergut (from watch/awake, keep {why Haut is not very clear}, smell, climb); the king has 5 daughters, one on Christmas kidnapped; next Christmas, another; brothers spend the night in a room with three princesses; a hand reaches out of the window to one of them; the first brother did not sleep, the second grabbed his hand, the third cut off, the fourth found the giant's trail, the fifth climbed the rock where the cave is; the brothers got up, persuaded the giantess to let herself be bound while they, the doctors, treat her husband who had lost his arm; kill the giant, then giantess; find two captive princesses; wedding of 5 brothers with 5 sisters]: Poestion 1884, No. 34:284-289; Danes [Grundtvig 1878:109-114; father named his 6 sons The Elder, Following The elders, etc.; when they were between 18 and 12, their father sent them to the world to study trade; at the crossroads they went 6 roads, agreeing to return to the same place two years later; when they returned, it turned out that everyone has mastered some science: 1) build a self-propelled ship; 2) drive such a ship by land and sea; 3) hear everything; 4) shoot with a mark; 5) climb walls and rocks; 6) steal; sorcerer stole the princess, the king promises her savior as his wife and half the kingdom; using their abilities, the brothers on a self-propelled ship reached the glass mountain; the climber climbed, the thief stole the princess from a sleeping sorcerer; he woke up, followed him; he can only be killed by hitting a dark speck on his chest; the shooter is hit, the sorcerer fell into thousands of pieces, these are flints {in Grundtvig's German translation; y Kramer is "shooting stars" for some reason}; neither the king nor the princess knows who her husband should be; God killed the brothers and princess, turning them into the Pleiades; the princess is the brightest, and the thief is the weakest asterisk]: Cramer 1919:11-14; Latvians [Four skillful brothers. Sons learn crafts: one to steal, the other to shoot, the third to sew, and the fourth to look. When they get home, their father tests their abilities. A person who can look through a spyglass sees a bird incubating five eggs in a tree. A thief steals eggs without scaring a tit. The shooter shoots all the eggs with one shot, and the tailor sews them together. The thief puts his eggs back in the nest. The bullet left only stitches on the backs of the bullets. The serpent kidnaps the princess. The brothers are rushing to help her. One of the brothers sees where she is, the other one steals it. The serpent is chasing brothers. The shooter shoots at him. The serpent, falling, breaks the ship. The tailor sews it]: Aris, Medne 1977, No. 653:308; Lithuanians, Estonians, Finns: Uther 2004 (1), No. 653:358; Western Sami: Turi & Demant-Hatt 1920 (2): 97-99 in Qvigstad 1925, № 653*: 22.

Volga - Perm. Kazan Tatars [divas kidnapped the sister of three brothers, the mother promises her sewn zilyan to the one who will return her; the elder brother smells the diva's house, they take their sister, fall asleep, the divas grab the girl, carries her by air; the middle brother hit the diva with an arrow, the younger one picks up her fallen sister; the mother does not know who to give the Zilyan to]: Yarmukhametov 1957:37-38; Chuvash [the witch doctor tells a childless person to catch gold-scale fish, let the wife eat; the cook ate the tail, the head is a mare, three heroes were born; their peers are oppressed; they want to put them under lock and key, they leave; they stay in a hut; the son of a mare does not sleep; a three-headed serpent rides, asks why the horse stumbles; the horse: the son of a mare will kill them; he kills a snake on the bridge, hides its heads under the bridge; the same on the second, third night; the same six-headed serpent; nine-headed; brothers are leaving; the mare's son returns for a forgotten knife; there is a monstrous old woman in the hut; he cuts off a piece from her lip, the old woman says that the fly bit; promises to turn into a spring; a feather bed; into the garden with comedians; the son of a mare hits the spring with a sword, the water turns into pus; the same with the feather bed; he looked back at the garden, the comedians grabbed him; they demand to get the daughter of the water king; the son of the mare meets He takes his comrades as companions: a birdsman who can count trees in the forest; an invisible person; an invisible man sees and hears how the water man promises his daughter to someone who looks like him: golden hair on his head, silver in a beard; pulled out three hairs, attached a mare to the son; the waterman gave the daughter; she became a bird, the shooter knocked her down; with a tree, he who knows how to count; the son of the mare gave the bride, got the horse back; the bride returned, they began to live well]: Chuvash tales 1937:203-209; marie [the poor man's wife gave birth to 7 twin sons; the tsar was driving, became godfather, left money, told his brothers to come to him when they will be 10 years old; each name is Semyon; brothers have come to the king, no one can say what to teach them; everyone has chosen their own job: blacksmith, carpenter, tailor, hunter, doctor, healer; the seventh wants to study the gypsy business is to buy, sell, change; the king sends to study and orders him to return in another 10 years; the brothers undertake to return the king's missing daughter Anna; the blacksmith put a pole to the sky, where Anna a three-headed dragon, a thief stole it, a carpenter built a ship; the dragon is chasing, the hunter shot him, he fell on the coral, which split, but sewed the tailor; Anna was touched with its wing, she died, the doctor cured; brothers argue who to give the princess; the tsar did not give anyone, but made them big ministers]: Chetkarev 1941, No. 7:153-155;.

Turkestan. Kazakhs: Divayev 1909 (Syr-Darya) [the tsar's daughter is missing, the old woman's 7 sons went to look for her; she was carried away by another tsar, who knew how to turn into a huge golden eagle; the first brother put the guard bird to sleep, stole the girl from the king's bed; the guard bird flew in and grabbed her; the second brother shot her, the third pulled the princess out of the lake where the bird fell; the king golden eagle flew in, the brothers dived into the lake, the golden eagle after them, crashed against a stone; the tsar gave his daughter to one of the brothers, the throne to another, the rest to different positions]: 88-90; Sidelnikov 1964 [the man's daughter was kidnapped; he addresses the teacher of 8 brothers; they know how to: 1) go to in the dark on the trail; 2) see at a great distance; 3) cross the seas on a hat; 4) pull the prey out of the bird's claws so that it does not notice it; 5) separate the birds hugging in flight with a shot, without damaging them; (the abilities of the two brothers are not specifically mentioned, but it is clear from the following); thanks to their abilities, the brothers tracked down the double-headed eagle and snatched the girl out of its claws; but the eagle took him away again; the fifth brother separated her with a shot, the sixth caught her falling, the seventh built an iron fortress in which they all took refuge; the eighth stamped his foot, they were all with the girl's father; he decides to give it not to one of their brothers, but to their teacher]: 39-41; Karakalpaks (Kegeli district) [Khan's daughter is missing; there were astrologer, fortuneteller and dashing rider at court; the fortuneteller said: "Your daughter was carried away by a diva and dragged her to the [farthest] edge of such mountains, on the way [there] there is a lake [one month wide], and there is a desert [five months long] ; there is no way for any animal to take [anyone] there"; the dashing rider prepared a horse that flew like the wind; the astrologer stargazer set off on it, shot it The diva brought the khan's daughter; the khan told the fortuneteller, rider and stargazer that he was giving her to them; they began to argue who would get it; the girl herself made the decision: "Fortuneteller, and you are here near the hearth stayed, and you, who horseshoed your horse, stayed in your house; I am marrying an astrologer who followed me, risking his life, killed a diva and saw my torment"]: Baskakov 1951:195-196 ; Kyrgyz [each of the seven brothers is in any way superior to other people (a sharpshooter, a ranger who knows what is being done in this world and in this world, a food earner, a crossover of water barriers; by the way youngest, the earth is parting, he can hide the people from enemies; Khan Bolbos's daughter has disappeared; the guesser says that she was carried away by a black bird on the orders of Khan Toybos; the food earner fed everyone; the sailor made a ship, they sailed along the river; a girl who could run on water grabbed a girl; the shooter shot a chasing bird; the last brother told the earth to part, they left the one sent in pursuit troops; returning Khan's daughter; no one can say who to give the girl to]: Brudny 1954:69-72 (=Brudny, Eshmambetov 1963:61-65, =1971:113-116, =1981:116-119; similar options in Sulaimanov 1998:31-40, in Muchnik 1944:19-21).

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Tuvans [Karata Khan's youngest daughter has disappeared; old man Adygan agrees to send his nine sons in search of his nine sons, gives each an arrow; the first will find a bug on the trail of seven years; the second will see a needle at the edge of the earth; the third can pick up and carry the sarlyk to the end of the world; the fourth will climb any rock; the fifth will quietly steal the pen from the magpie's tail; the sixth will hit any target; the seventh will catch a stone falling from the sky; the eighth will build a hut of any size; the youngest ninth will dig an underground passage; brothers find and carry away together the girl kidnapped by the Khan-Kereti bird; the old man orders to give the girl for the one who worked the most: digging an underground passage from a shelter built by his eighth brother; girl: I'll marry the sixth, he spent an arrow hitting the bird's claw to release the girl from the rest the arrows have survived]: Hadakhne 1984:23-27; Tuvans (Khemchik) [rich Abu Mergen went east, met, accompanied the one who fired an arrow into the sky and saw it, although others do not see it; listening what is happening in the underworld; piercing a mountain; looking for traces of a beetle and ant 9- and 7-year-old; catching gazelles on the run; drinking the sea; AM left them at a moon-clear girl Ak Dangyna, and he went on and married a sun-clear girl Aldyn Dangyna (AD); Karaty Khan found out about her, the old woman volunteered to steal her, asked for a golden boat, sailed to AM, persuaded AD to find out than her husband's life; she begged me to say; AM: in the wick of the lamp, in the bow's bowstring, in the horse's four legs; the old woman cut it all, cut it, AM died; the old woman offered AD to get into her boat, took it to K.; AD gave birth to a boy who grew up every day like others in a year; AM and Ak-Dangyn's brothers noticed that the arrow left by AK was bleached, dilapidated, and went in search; the ranger found his bones, who took the mice away, and Ak-Dangyn folded them and revived them with a swipe; drank the sea and they all came dry to K.; defeated his army; AK's son found his father and his companions; K. prepared an iron house; a hole in the mountains dug under it with his finger; the shooter pierced K.'s neck, the runner brought the stolen blood pressure, drank the sea and flooded K.'s country with this water; now the question is who should marry Ak-Dangyna; each sister says what he did to save AM; to end the dispute, Ak-Dangyna suggested: seven twins will become seven stars of the Ursa Major, and AD with his son will become seven stars of the Ursa Major, and AD with his son A morning star (Dang Sholban), and she herself is an Evening Star (Ak Sholban); that's what happened]: Taube 1978, No. 38:206-212; the Mongols [six brothers separated to study; five returned: clairvoyant, who knows what is happening in the world, able to travel to any place that becomes invisible, fulfills any wishes; found out that the sixth brother married a beautiful woman, they are threatened by snakes on the island; they the snake defeated, the brother and wife returned; everyone argues that the beautiful woman should be his; she offers to become stars, she will be Venus, the comet brothers, they will meet once a year]: Skorodumova 2003:26-28.

Eastern Siberia. Central (?) Yakuts [Toyon lost a daughter; the father of three brothers sends them in search; instead of the names given by their father, they came up with new names for themselves: Vasily, Nikolai, Ivan; the rest did not want to have names; V. for He sees a needle a thousand miles; N. has clever hands, I. is a good shooter; the fourth can build an iron barn, the fifth can be built by a skillful catcher, the sixth can lead anyone underground; V. sees a lake, an oak on it, oak is an eagle's nest, the eagle turned the girl into a golden egg and sits on it; N. quietly took out an egg from under the eagle, but at the last moment it noticed and chased; the shooter pierced his leg, the catcher caught the one that fell into the water is an egg; the eagle rushed at the brothers, but they disappeared into the iron barn and went underground to their country; the egg became a girl, who should I give it to? she chose I.; wedding]: Shurtakov 1983:90-92.

Japan. Japanese (two entries: southern Honshu, Kyushu) [three sons plow and practice archery; for this, their father drove them away; the eldest became a carpenter, the middle son became a shooter, the youngest a thief; the cannibal kidnapped the princess; while he sleeps, with his head on her lap, the thief replaced her with a doll made by a carpenter; the shooter shot the ogre when he set off in pursuit; the princess's father rewarded the brothers; var: the girl drowned; the seer found out about this, the swimmer took her out, the doctor revived her]: Ikeda 1971, No. 563:159-160.