Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

F16. Men and women: an exchange of signs.


Men had biological characteristics that are now characteristic of women, or vice versa (beard, menstruation, breasts, childbirth).

Kabila, Socotra, Cape Bedford, Murray River, Milpulo, Valman, Bogajim, Minyong, Lepcha, Gondas, Dhoba, Halba, Baiga, Juang, Kahar, Kol, Kondas, Bhuya, Mangyan, Nabaloi, Meo, Lahu, fox, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Ukrainians (Hutsuls), Karachays/Balkarians, Megrelians, Iceland, Chuvash, Ainu, Shuswap, Upper Chehalis, Tillamuk, Seneca, Yana, Utah, Western Keres (Laguna), Kogi, Piaroa, Emerillon, shuar, aguaruna, siona, sekoya, coreguaje, baniva, tariana, barasana, desana, shipibo, paracana, ancash, tupari, surui, kayabi, paresi, mehinacu, umotina, ofaye, caduveo, toba, pilaga.

Men have had or should have had monthly bleeding.

Kabily, Socotra, Lepcha, Miniong, Gondas, Halba, Baiga, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Ukrainians (Hutsuls), Chuvash, Ainu, Shuswap, Upper Chehalis, Seneca, Piaroa, Siona, Sekoya, Koreguahe, baniva, barasana, desana, surui, parakana, ancash, tupari, kayabi, paresi, umotina, caduveo, toba, pilaga.

North Africa. Kabila [men had periods, blood was flowing from his right armpit; husband and wife went to a party, my husband was on their period, he put a napkin under his arm; when he raised his hand to greet the men square, the napkin fell; to hide the “shame”, the wife quickly hid it between her legs; so the menstrual period passed to women]: Arezki 2010:148-151.

Western Asia. Socotra [the woman did not have her period, and the man's blood was constantly trickling under her arm; he collected it in a vessel; the woman found the vessel, removed the lid, put her hand in; no matter how hard she tried, she could not wash it off blood from her fingers; I went to the healer; he advised me to put my fingers in the vulva; the blood came off the fingers, and the women began to menstruate]: Müller 1905, No. 23:106-107.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Lepcha [the women had the vulva on the top of their heads, menstrual blood flowed down their faces; the gods moved the {source} of menstrual blood under the men's knees; when they hunted, blood dripped everywhere; gods asked the birds to help move the vulva to the women's foreheads; from there it gradually slipped to the nose, lip, chin, navel, and finally to the right place]: Elwin 1949:270; miniong [menstruated before men and women; people made offerings to stop bleeding; men to a tree that releases red juice when cut and another red plant; women made two types of trees with edible fruits; they could not resist eating the fruits, and the men did not eat those plants; therefore, the men's request was granted, but the women did not]: Sarma 1960:103.

South Asia. Gondas [men used to menstruate and women grew beards; according to one version, women had a hard umbilical cord protrusion used in the form of a penis to use to hurt other women ]: Elwin 1949, No. 2:237; halba [women grew a beard and mustache, and there was a small creature inside the men that caused them to bleed for a month; one newlywed asked her husband to swap these with her features to feel how it will bleed; but we could not change back and were satisfied with the exchange; as a result, this was the case with other people]: Elwin 1949, No. 7:240; baiga [Nanga Baiga was bleeding from under his knee; he was called to Raja; his sister told him he would dishonor himself, took his period, and bleed from her vulva]: Elwin 1949, No. 59:272.

The Balkans. Bulgarians, Macedonians [the story that men had menstruation at the beginning of the world (and men gave birth) is stable in the Bulgarian and Macedonian traditions; God translates menstruation to women because men don't know how to hide them (a man hung clothes with signs of regulation in plain sight)]: Belova 2004a: 244; Macedonians [men used to have periods (we women call it a “flower” ); one man was working and his pants were all stained with blood; he took them off, put them on a stick and went home; God said periods were not for men and gave them to women]: Ortenzio 2008, No. 13:53.

Caucasus — Asia Minor. Karachayevs/Balkarians [sledges had periods in men; during the war, the leader of the sledges began to bleed; the women asked Tairi to take this weight away from the men, put it on them, women]: Dzhurtubayev 2007:407.

Central Europe. Ukrainians (Hutsuls) [men had periods; the Virgin Mary asked God to transfer them to women, because men work hard]: Belova 2004a, No. 544:244.

Volga — Perm. Chuvash (Poshkart, 2011, Zap.) [Women did not have periods before, they were men, and men suffered a lot from this, walked with a bucket, so God handed them over to women and saw what was better ; said a museum worker from the south of Chuvashia].

Japan. Ainu Sakhalin [at first men, not women, menstruated, people were small, the mountains were on the site of the sea and vice versa; this situation will recover at the end of time]: Onuki-Tierney 1969:489.

The coast is the Plateau. Shuswap [men used to menstruate; Coyote thinks it's uncomfortable for hunters and women still stay at home; changes position by throwing secretions at women]: Teit 1909a: 626-627; upper chehalis [the old man was the first to menstruate; blood came out of his eyes; the girls laughed at him; he wiped his eyes, threw blood at the girls; if they hadn't laughed, they would have menstruated men]: Adamson 1934:95.

Northeast. Seneca [see motive F25; the first woman and her little daughter are thrown from the sky into the ocean; falls on the Turtle's back; sprinkles the earth on the shell, the earth grows up; her daughter is pregnant with the Wind, gives birth twins, dies; one of the twins lives with his grandmother; brings a beaver from hunting; she splashes blood between his legs, says that he is now menstruating; he splashes blood on his grandmother's feet; says Menstruation will not be in men, but in women]: Hewitt 1903:252-253.

Southern Venezuela. Piaroa [Vahari's wives swing on a swing; his younger brother Buoka carries his penis over his shoulder, sends him to women; V. turns into a woman; when B.'s penis crawls towards him, he cuts off five pieces from it, giving it a normal size; B. is stained with blood, menstruates; V.: men should not menstruate; women ask where B.'s discharge comes from; called consistently head, ears, mouth, fingertips, knees, legs, anus; naming the penis, copulate with B. after receiving menstruation from it; V.: menstruating should not touch meat brought by a man]: Kaplan? in Cavendish 1980:262-263.

Western Amazon. Siona [woman laughs at the Month, which is menstruating; he throws leaf gum between her legs so that women now menstruate]: Chaves 1958:137; sekoya [first Menstruation in men; Nyanyo (Month) takes her son out of his knee, puts him in a pot; his wife only breastfeeds the boy at night; her sister opens the lid, breaking the leg of the Parrot, put as a watchman; the boy cries, the wife N. comes running from the field, throws the red paint of achiote at his sister; the boy continues to cry; the parents put the pot on the fire; the boy plays the flute , soars to the sky, becomes the Sun; another person Toayo (Wanyo) also sits into the fire, becomes the second sun (now he is with the first one; without details); first everything burn; N. moves the sky further from the ground with a stick, reducing the heat; The battleship manages to extinguish the second sun, but its tail burns]: Cipolletti 1988, No. 7:65-68; coreguache [first menstruation for men ; the wife asks her husband to light the fire, he lies down; yet she handed the smut to his wife, staining her with blood; after that, the bleeding becomes the lot of women]: Jimenez 1989, No. 47:105.

NW Amazon. Amaru is one of Iñápirríkuli's aunts; he's about to shoot him with his powerful wind gun, guarded by two mako parrots; he's making a copy of a balsa gun replaces the original; A. comes to Mako's cry, but does not notice the substitution; comes to I., shoots, only grass seeds fly out of the gun, I. dodges; shoots in A.'s groin; blood flows through her legs, A. menstruates; otherwise men would menstruate and women would have penises]: Hill 1993, No. 1:62; barasana [men had periods]: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, No. 1C [foreigners still], 1D [when women stole sacred flutes]: 265, 266; 2001 [A female Shaman gives birth to two daughters (cassava tubers) and then flute sons; they menstruate; she offers them a calebass with wax and coca leaf powder, holding her between her legs; men refuse, saying it belongs to her, stop menstruating; later she gives them a smaller calebass, which is used during initiations along with flutes; initiated how to menstruate]: 252; desana [during initiation, boys are called amoa mahsa/menstruating people; they will begin to menstruate if they break the rules of ritual behavior]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975:86, 88.

The Central Andes. Ayavinha, Ragash County, Sihuas Province, Dep. Ancash [God sends a chihuaco bird (= yukuk, Turdus sp.) to tell people to dress in leaves; C. says people should spin sheep wool; God tells women to seek seek connections with men and work in the fields, do household chores for men; C. says that it will be the other way around; God tells men to have periods; C. puts some blood on the man's penis; he thinks it's ugly, he passes on periods to women]: Souffez 1988:53-54.

Eastern Amazon. Paracana [men first menstruated; when the sky separated from the ground and the cultural hero went to live in heaven, the battleship shot at the moon, then, sending arrows one at the tail of the other, made a chain of arrows from heaven to earth; different animals tried to climb it, but the chain broke under the weight of a tapir; different types of living beings became inhabitants of the corresponding loci; when to the moon They shot, the men told the women not to leave their homes; but they went out, the blood of the moon spilled on them, and they had their periods]: Fausto 2012:65-66.

Bolivia — Guaporé. Tupari [men menstruated first, blood flowed from the penis; one person bleed a tiny arrow, stabbed a woman from behind; menstruation passed to women]: Caspar 1975:79; surui [men menstruated first; a girl spies on a man while he is sitting in a ritual hut; he moistens his hand with blood from his penis, touches her vagina; now women are menstruating]: Mindlin 1995, No. 10:37.

Southern Amazon. Kayabi [men bleed from the penis; 1) the girl wanted menstruation for herself; 2) bought them after going to bed with the Month]: Grünberg 1970:171; Pereira 1995, No. 80 [two women violate the ban on talking to a menstruating man; then God passes menstruation on women]: 118-119; paresis [an old man who had meatballs washed himself with calebasa water, not in the river; girl laughs at him, he angrily passes on menstruation to women]: Pereira 1987, No. 239:724; umotina [the girl spoke to the man who made arrows when he was on his period; he threw a tampon at her from cortex, transmitting bleeding to women]: Schultz 1962, no. t: 255-256.

Chaco. Caduveo [No-iacailbadio-dege pulls people out of a hole in the ground; Let food appear, if you name it; let food be cooked if three stones are put together; his opposition A -li-ginigo: It's too easy for people, let them work, keep the fire; A.: Let men have periods; a hunter who has a period misses; N. and A. decide to pass on menstruation women; N.: The dead can be pulled out of the ground, they will come to life; A.: No, the earth will overflow; A.'s mother dies, he wants to change his mind, N. does not agree; A. cries, N. tells him to take a twig revive the mother; the twig breaks, the mother does not come to life]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990a, No. 1:15-17; toba: Wilbert, Simoneau 1989a, No. 98 (Western) [first menstruated through penises, then menstruation passed to women], 106 (pilaga) [men menstruated first; Dapitchí passes on periods to women; at first copulating clutched for a long time like dogs; D. said let it be faster, like dogs people], 107 (oriental) [during menstruation, a man cannot hunt and fish, a woman suggests changing with him], 108 (pilaga) [a fox transfers periods from men to women]: 145, 163-164.

Men breastfed their babies.

Emerillon, Shuar, Aguaruna, Mejinaca, Ofaie.

Guiana. Emerillon [God expected men to feed babies]: Navet 1993:24

Western Amazon. Shuar: Naikiai 1992 [woman accuses her husband of not feeding the baby well; the offended husband gives her breasts]: 28; Pelizzaro 1993 [children were removed by cesarean section, mothers died, fathers breastfed babies; a rabbit helps a woman give birth, a husband gives her breasts to his wife]: 23-24; Rueda 1987, No. 14 [to get a baby, pregnant women ripped their bellies open, they died; men had breasts, the husband fed the baby; the father raised the daughter, then married her; the husband sends his wife to the site for peanuts, promises to rip her stomach open in the evening; the rat explained how to give birth, cooked everything, the woman gave birth; insisted that her husband give her breasts]: 95-96; Aguaruna: Chumap Lucía, García-Rendueles 1979, No. 34a [women died after childbirth, men breastfed children]: 371; Guallart 1958 [women did not know how to give birth; their stomachs burst and died; men had breasts; one woman was ready to give birth; her husband sent her to the station to look for peanuts, promised to come and pick up the baby; A rat on the site taught me how to give birth, helped give birth; the woman returned with the child; the husband was upset; another time the women went to kill people (apparently behind trophies), instead pierced the leaves with spears palm trees that were stumbled upon on the way; the husband cut off his breasts, attached it to his wife; since then, women have not fought, but have been feeding their children]: 92-93.

Southern Amazon. Mehinaku [men had breasts, women had penises]: Gregor 1977:253; 1984:24-25; 1985:196.

Southern Brazil. Ofaye [the first Sun makes a man; he tries to feed babies under his elbow; then the Sun makes a woman]: Nimuendaju 1914:377.

The beard grew in women and/or did not grow in men.

Scandinavians, Cape Bedford, Murray River, Milpulo, Valman, Bogajim, Gondas, Dhoba, Halba, Juang, Baiga, Kahar, Kol, Kondas, Bhuya, Mangyan, Nabaloi, Keres, Kogi.

Baltoscandia. Scandinavians [Loki, or Loft, son of giant Farbauti, his mother Liveia or Nal, brothers Büleist and Helblindi; from giantess Angrboda his children are the wolf Fenrir, the serpent Jormungand, daughter Hel; Ódin threw the snake into the surrounding sea, it encircles it, biting its tail; threw Hel into Niflheim, took possession of nine worlds to give shelter to all who died of illness and old age; the Wolf of the ace they grew it at home, only Thur dared to feed him; persuaded him to test the strength of the Ledding chain; he tore both it and Dromy's even stronger chain; then Odin sent Skirnir, Freir's messenger, underground to the black alvas, they made Gleipnir fetters; they combined the sound of cat footsteps, a woman's beard, mountain roots, bear veins, fish breath, bird saliva; the fetters were soft as a silk ribbon , so Fenrir did not want to try them (if he broke them, he would not have gained fame), so he demanded that one of the aces put his hand in his mouth; Thur agreed and lost his right hand; the end of the fetters was fixed under With a big stone, a sword is placed in the wolf's mouth (the handle is in the tongue, the point is in the nebo); the gods do not want to desecrate their sanctuary with the Wolf's blood, so they do not kill him, although they know that he will kill Odin]: Younger Edda 1970:31-32.

Australia. Cape Bedford, Murray River [women had a beard but men didn't; Ngula-Ngula thought it was wrong to do it as it is now]: Waterman 1987, No. 2780:83; milpulo [Pupilla ( Native Cat, marsupial devil?) stole fish from people's tops, hid; people noticed his leg sticking out of the hole, pulled, couldn't overcome it; he first released colored smoke from the hole, it became a rainbow; then the flame burned his beards women, since then only men have beards; P. ran west; tries to return to his old place every day, but in the evening he finds himself far west again; if he returns, he will kill everyone]: Mathews 1908:307-308.

Melanesia. Valman [during her work, the woman put her beard aside; her grandson picked it up, she grew up, stayed with men]: Becker 1971, No. 48:805; bogajim [Western Missionary Hoffman; Grandson began to ask his grandmother for a banana; she was tired, she slapped him, he cried; the father said that it was impossible to beat the child, it was enough to scold him; then the old woman went to the men's house, took sacred pumpkin horns and bamboo, a rattle, went out, began to blow, scream for her husband to run in fear; but the husband replied that he was not afraid; the old woman put her tools back; now he went out, the old woman ran in horror, hers the beard fell off; she told her husband to take his beard, belt, purse and she would cook; so it was]: Hagen 1899:291-292.

South Asia. Gondas: Elwin 1949, No. 2 [men used to menstruate and women had a beard; according to one version, women had a hard umbilical cord protrusion used in the form of a penis they used other women were pregnant], 5 [the women had a beard; the husband saw his wife dancing, rushed to beat her, she hid in a tree; four thieves made a fire under him, her beard burned down; she fell off a tree, three ran away; to the fourth she said that she wanted to be his wife, but she had to test it; put her finger in his eye, taking his finger in her mouth; pulled out her eye, bit off her finger, ran away; since then, women have not beards], 6 [the man was looking for a goat, did not find it, exclaimed in his hearts — let the hair grow on my wife's genitals and tongue, let the horse and donkey have horns; nothing happened, only the woman's hair became grow not on the face, but on the pubis]: 237, 238-239, 239; dhoba [women had a beard; Tiger, king of the forest, was looking for a wife for his son; the Goat asked the woman to give her her jewelry so that the Tiger would choose her; woman gave Goat a beard, she ran into the woods; since then, women without a beard]: Elwin 1949, No. 4:238; halba [women grew a beard and mustache, and inside men lived a small creature that caused them to have periods bleeding; one newlywed asked her husband to exchange these features with her to feel her bleeding; but they could not change back and were satisfied with the exchange; As a result, the rest of the people were like this]: Elwin 1949, No. 7:240; Juang [the woman liked the goat's pubic hair; she took it for herself and gave her beard to the goat]: Elwin 1949, No. 8:240; kahar [at first, everyone's beard grew; Mahadeo called people to a party, but could not distinguish women from men; then women's beards burned, they no longer grow]: Elwin 1940, No. 9:241; baiga [for With seven seas and 16 rivers, there is the country of Triadesh women; if a boy is born there, he becomes a eunuch; when a woman has a desire, she turns into a bird, flies to people, finds someone beautiful a young man, turns him into a bird, returns with him to the country of women; at night he becomes human, conceives children; when other women notice pregnancy, they become angry, the pregnant woman turns her lover again in a bird, sends him back; if he does not get home safely, the woman's ruler (a huge fat woman with a big beard) hits the culprit; sometimes women satisfy each other in pairs, using wooden penises; if a child is born as a result, he is boneless and dies]: Elwin 1949:463 (quail in Ho 1967, No. 203:363-364); count [first, the beard grew in women, men it was tickling; they wanted women's hair to grow on their tongue; but the hair went down to the vulva and the beard was gone]: Elwin 1940, No. 10:241; conds: Elwin 1940, No. 11 [men did not have body vegetation; a single brother told the married man's wife that he did not want to go to the wedding so naked; his wife advised him to borrow python skin; he gave it for three days, and the man had a beard pubic hair, etc.; the wife of the owner's brother and daughter-in-law, whom they went to, fell in love with him, met him; so the python refused to take back its skin, the men's hair remained]: 241-242; 1954, No. 34 ( kuttia) [women had a beard and mustache; Nirantali gave them to men; women were mutilated by facial hair and adorned with men]: 458; bhuya [Boram Burha had a long penis and a hole in her calf his own leg, and his wife had neither vulva nor breasts; penis crawled and stole beans; wife hid with an ax to watch the thief, cut off the penis, what he held was left; Dharam Deota moved a hole into the woman's vulva and gave her beard to a goat]: Elwin 1949, No. 31:256.

Taiwan — Philippines. Mangian [Mahal Makanaako held a tree in his hands, it gave shade; a worm fell from the tree into his hand, his bowel movements became earth; other worms appeared in the ground, it grew larger; MM created the brothers Malvay and Dalidali, ordered the land to be sculpted; M. worked diligently, valleys appeared; D. was in a hurry — mountains; a grain of rice was enough to feed everyone; the machete cleared the field himself; people dumped skin and younger; children were born by men from calf legs; the first were born to M.; Doug's woman (“earth”) felt sorry for men, told her brother that women would give birth; stepped over his leg, she had the baby in his stomach; the sky was low, preventing the rice from breaking; D. hit it with the upper end of the pestle, it rose; Wild Chicken gave people eggs; D. ran impatiently to see if there was droppings in the basket, Wild The chicken refused to give more eggs; D. watched one rice fill the pot; the rice felt ashamed to be looked at, now they needed a lot of rice]: Eugenio 1994, No. 25:73-74 (translated into Rybkin 1975, No. 1: 27-28); nabaloi [the first woman had a prickly beard; when she was feeding the baby, the man had to support his beard; one day his wife sent him hunting, fed him, fell asleep, and gouged him out with a beard the child's eyes; the man pulled out the woman's beard so that the children would not go blind]: Moss 1924, No. 16:247-249 (translated to Rybkin 1975, No. 22:53).

The Great Southwest. Western Keres (Laguna) [At the beginning, Thought-Woman lived on an island in the lower world, there was water all around; she looked like a man; when people came to earth, it was dark, only water shone a little; the Thought Woman told the sun to rise in the north, west, south, finally east; people went out, went out on the ground]: Boas 1928a: 221-222, 228.

The Northern Andes. Kogi: Chaves 1947 [the sons of the mother goddess laugh at her appearance; then she gives them her beard and mustache], No. 14, 15:491-493; Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985 (2), No., No. 1.II [Mother joined her pubic hair with her menstrual blood, this is how she created the first man; he was boneless; the second was without a body, the third was exhausted, the fourth was normal, this is Sintana, he was born in the Sea Foam house in the middle of the sea; The mother was not a husband, she satisfied herself with a wooden stick; this is how Sintana, Seihukúkui, Seyänkua, Kímaku, Kynchavitauéya, Aldahuíku, Jantäna and Duesängui were born; Mother she looked like a man, had a beard and mustache, a handbag and a coca bottle; she told her sons to do all women's jobs; there were no women, instead of wives, the brothers had objects: a vessel, a loom , mortar; they masturbated, but thought it was sex; then Mother gave birth to 9 daughters, i.e. 9 types of land: White, Red, Yellow, Blue, Sandy, Burnt, Ash, Rocky, Black; sons they pushed the water away, Mother drank the middle of the sea, land appeared; S. and the other sons began to ask Mother for her daughters; she gave them all, and hid her youngest daughter Black; S. began to sing and dance in the middle of the world, Black Earth came out, S. carried it away; Mother sent the crocodile in pursuit; Seijánkua hid the fugitives first in his lime vessel and then in her heart; where Black Earth set foot, there appeared fertile soil; this is how the land hardened; dance and music to steal the land girl from her mother], 2 [first was Haba Kasumma; her sons Mulkua-se (= Bunkua-se), Shintana , Seihukukui, Seyankua, Hankua, Kimaku; she had a beard and mustache, had a shamanic bag and a vascular, forced her sons to do women's work; then she gave it all sons, began to wash and cook herself; sons did not have penises, conceived children by inserting their tongue into their wives's vagina; their descendants ask Mother to make them penises; she makes a penis out of her pubic hair, testicles from menstrual blood clots]: 19-21, 27-28.

Men gave birth.

Mangian, Meo, Lahu, Fox, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Megrelians, Tillamook, Utah, Tarian.

Taiwan — Philippines. Mangian [Mahal Makanaako held a tree in his hands, it gave shade; a worm fell from the tree into his hand, his bowel movements became earth; other worms appeared in the ground, there was more of it; MM created the brothers Malvay and Dalidali, ordered the land to be sculpted; M. worked diligently, valleys appeared; D. was in a hurry — mountains; a grain of rice was enough to feed everyone; the machete cleared the field himself; people dumped skin and younger; children were born by men from calf legs; the first were born to M.; Doug's woman (“earth”) felt sorry for men, told her brother that women would give birth; stepped over his leg, she had the baby in his stomach; the sky was low, preventing the rice from breaking; D. hit it with the upper end of the pestle, it rose; Wild Chicken gave people eggs; D. ran impatiently to see if there was droppings in the basket, Wild The chicken refused to give more eggs; D. watched one rice fill the pot; the rice felt ashamed to be looked at, now they needed a lot of rice]: Rybkin 1975, No. 1:27-28.

China — Korea. Meo (NW Thailand) [first, men gave birth, because of a small hole, the birth lasted 7 days, the baby was with a grasshopper; the man tied the newborn to the lower leg, went to the field where his wife worked; on the road, the chicken pecked the baby; the wife said that from now on she would give birth, she had a larger hole, the chicken would not bite the baby; the husband must cut chicken for his wife every day for a month after childbirth]: Symonds 2004:92-93; meo (Vietnam) [poor spouses tell four sons to marry the daughters of the Heavenly Lord; the same went to four sides of the world, the Heavenly Lord appointed them to manage people's affairs; they decided that 1) people live 120 years, 2) give birth to men, 3) a baby learns to speak and walk by the age of 30; the daughter of the Heavenly Lord descended to earth to marry a young man; she did not like local order, asked my father to do as he is now; people have since been unhappy that they die early]: Nikulin 1990:13-15; lahu (northern Thailand) [see the E38B motif (“pumpkin people”); Ca Ti and Na Ti — the first man and woman; they could not conceive children for three years; the creator of G'ui-sha made holes in their body with a silver needle; CT conceived a baby in the thigh, but the baby fell out; NT picked it up and put it under apron in the lower abdomen; the baby was in the uterus; since then, women, not men, have become pregnant; NC gave birth to three children and left them in the thickets, telling G. that she could not raise them; G. sent them to look for a wasp, she I did not find it, he made her waist narrow; the magpie refused to fly, has not flown high since then; the bee found the children in the rivers, G. awarded her honey; sent a crab to get the children out of the water; various animals brought them and fed, G. forbade eating the meat of these animals (a long list, including a cow); 18 babies, i.e. 9 pairs (at first there were three}, each ate milk from their animal and received relevant names]: Coyaud 2009, No. 4:28-33; fox [men used to bear children; before birth, the baby would go down to the man's thigh and come out from under the knee; all week before birth, a man screamed in pain; the woman took pity and put the fetus in her stomach]: Dessaint, Ngwâma 1994:166.

The Balkans. Bulgarians, Macedonians [the story that men had periods at the beginning of the world (and men gave birth) is stable in the Bulgarian and Macedonian traditions]: Belova 2004a: 244; Macedonians: Ortenzio 2008, No. 14 [men used to give birth; one person grabbed poplar in pain, the baby fell out, crashed; then God gave birth to women], 15 [both men and women; a man grabbed a pear tree, a child fell out, crashed; God took away men's fertility]: 53, 54-55.

Caucasus — Asia Minor. Megrela [children were born by a man from a rib, each two a boy and a girl; people were immortal and did not grow old; the woman complained about her husband that he would only give birth to two children, not more; God told her to give birth a lot and in pain; people began to grow old and die]: Glushakov 1903, No. 1:7 (=Virsaladze 1973, No. 191:260).

The coast is the Plateau. Tillamook [South Wind feels pregnant; in terrible pain, ties his penis with bark, gives birth to a girl through the penis; says that women should give birth from now on; kills, buries a girl, because it is shameful for a man to give birth; a girl comes to life again and again; he puts her on the top of a mountain, makes her powerful; she sends diseases]: Thompson, Egesdal 2008:40-41.

Big Pool. Utah [the eldest of two Shin-au-av (Wolves) brothers asks Geese to give him feathers; he flies with them, they take their feathers, he falls; eats his own brains from a broken skull; this is the first meal which he eats in his life; Geese kill many people; S. finds a woman who has escaped, sees a baby for the first time in his life, wants to take it with him; Geese say he will not be able to carry it on his feet (needed for walking), in his arms (you need to hold a bow), on his back (it will fall); must carry it in his stomach; he swallows a baby, then gives birth to a girl; it hurts; decides that men will not be able to tolerate labor pains and they should be women's lot]: Powell 1971:88-89.

NW Amazon. Tariana [male first ancestors (Thunders) try to get pregnant but then pass on procreation to women]: Biocca in Brüzzi 1994:101.

Motive options.

The coast is the Plateau. Shuswap [Ancient meets people whose men are women and women are men (var.: they are all male sodomites); introduces the current gender division]: Teit 1909a, No. 54:747.

California. Yana [men were women and vice versa; those men couldn't catch deer; Gray Squirrel and Cottontail) began to think about what to do; the Rabbit put those men around the fire, put them in Fire stones, shrapnel scattered, splitting those men's genitals, those men turned into women; and women turned into men; Rabbit was happy]: Sapir 1910, No. 6:88-89.

Montagna — Jurua. Shipibo [first men breastfed, menstruated, or gave birth (it's not clear what exactly, I quote Gregor, Tuzin 2002:313)]: Roe 1982:164.