Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

F38. Women and secret knowledge. 11.-.13.18.19. (.38.) .43.


Women possessed secret knowledge, sanctuaries, or ritual objects that are now forbidden to them; they tried to acquire this knowledge or items.

Cuba, Ngongo, Mbuti, Ibibio, Dogon, Mano, Loma, Kono, Western and Eastern Dan, Yirkalla, Yulengor, Janggavtil (northeastern Arnhemland), Western Desert (in particular its northwest), Pitjanjara, Maung, Karageri, Valbiri, Elema, Walman, Busama, Kai, Ngain, Kamano, Usufa, West Irian, Anga, Baruya, Monumbo, Ngaimbom, Abelam, Gambadi, Kiwai, Melanesians of North New York Ireland, Bougainville, Buka, Malekula, Banks Islands (Ryukyu Islands), Halkomelem, Lkungen, Hurons, Seneca, Blackfoots, Sheyens, Yurok, Karok, Konkov, Hopi, Chirikahua, Kogi, Piaroa, Yanomami, Lokono, Ataroi, Taulipan, makushi, waiwai, oyana, oyampi, puinave, baniva, tariana, cubeo, barasana, yahuna, makuna, desana, letuama, kabiyari, tatuyo, tucano, bara, yukuna, chikuna, munduruku, shipibo, kamayura, calapalo, mejinaku, Iranshee, paresi, karazha, chamacoco, araucans, selknam, alakaluf, yagans.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Cuba: Torday, Joyce 1910:249-250 [King Samba Mikepe married the most beautiful and skillful girl, Kashashi; they have a son; K. went to get water, the boy after her, interferes, she spilled because of him water, he doesn't go home; then she made a mask out of calebass, the boy ran home in horror, believing he had met the spirit; K. came up with Shene Malula and Mokenga masks; SM did not like owning masks woman; has forbidden women to use them; they are worn by members of the Babende secret society, testing the courage of initiating teenagers], 250 [Samba Mikepe found his wife Kashashi with an inferior man rank; killed him; said he was eaten by a village leopard (i.e. a drum - tambour a friction); since then, people have been sacrificed to these drums]; ngongo [the little son is inseparable from his mother; to wean him, she drew a terrible face on the calebass, turned around, holding the calebass in front of her face; this is how Chenet Malula's mask appeared]: Kotlyar 1973:173-174.

West Africa. Ibibio [formerly only women had secret knowledge and men were servants; at first there were few men, but when their numbers increased, they decided to overthrow female domination; one day people from Oduko defeated the people from Urua Eye; after taking over the city, they found masks, costumes, and fetishes in the same house for the terrible cult of Destroyer Spirits (Ekkpo Njawhaw); one of the old men advised to bring the victim of goats and palm wine, ask women to explain what this meant; older women were against it, but the young decided to tell the men everything; after learning the secret of the cult, the men decided: a woman, who will try to join a secret cult, cut off her head in the market square; old women tried to continue their cult, but they have actually been beheaded; since then, women have these rituals should not leave their homes; true story: recently a woman tried to watch; she was found, hit twice on the head with a sword; her doctor came out, but terrible scars remained; comm. Talbot: Reminds the kinaine ritual of firelanders]: Talbot 1915:196-200; catch-up: Griaule 1938 [two women saw Andoumboulou (little red people living in the rocks) dancing around poles, sang, drank beer; old Alnarga sat on the iron seat, next to him was a wooden mask; the sound of the whistle reproduced A.'s voice; the woman told her husband he ordered him to be thrown at the old man a stone; the spirits ran away, leaving behind her clothes, jewelry, whistle, mask; A. could not escape, becoming unclean; the woman hid the fibers in the barn; the old man said this to her husband; he beat his wife, took possession of the mask; men took things a. from women; before that, women dominated men, oppressed them; old man A. taught men everything related to masks; men gathered in a shelter in the rock]: 59-61 (Russian per. Kotlyar 1975, No. 17:200-201); Parrinder 1967 [first, women spied on and imitated masked dancers; Moyna found a piece of iron in the forge, made a whistle; then gave it an optimal shape; women hid home in fear, M. said it was the voice of the Great Mask that would eat children and women if they went out; since then, children and women have been hiding when howling whistles]: 99-102; mano [when God sent the Devil (that is, the spirit, the patron saint of secret societies) to earth, he left him under the supervision of women; the little boy said that there were many mushrooms in the forest, the women rushed to collect them; God saw that there was only one man left by the Devil; decided to give it to men; while picking mushrooms, the women caught a turtle, ate it, returned, began to dance, hitting the turtle shell; the man said it was and there is the "devil" of women]: Schwab 1947:449; scrap [1) the woman fished the Big Devil out of the water; men and women decide to pull the rope, on whose side they break off, they will give up possession of the Devil; cut off from the women's side; 2) the husband shot the ugly animal; the wife did not want to eat, fearing that the baby would be born a freak; ate (without knowing what she was eating?) ; gave birth to a freak, threw it into the river; this was the Devil that the woman fished in (1)]: Schwab 1947:449 (=Pinney 1973:176-177); (cf. loma mende [the Sande woman caught all the fish; went to another place; the chief warned not to fish there; she put her hand in a hole in the shore, pulled out a spoon, a stirrer, a pot, a cup; then someone grabbed her, began to pull in; the women came running, pulled S. and her monster; it began to swallow women, but it was transferred to a sacred bush, called Tor-Fahr-la; those who knew how to treat him became members of a secret { Sande female} society]: Pinney 1973:93-94); kono [1) =Holas 1975:172-173; the old woman went with her daughter to the river to dig clay; dug up male and then female Beings; they did not respond to women kept silent; the daughter called the other women, they brought the Creatures home, locked the men in their houses, left one sorcerer to make the Creatures speak; he burned pepper, a male Being growled, told them to rattle into rattles; women ran, called for help from men; men took care of the Creatures, learned the secrets of their voices and masks; women, frightened, lost it knowledge; 2) women found perfume under the leaves of the vine; brought them home, began to dance, but were afraid of the voice of the spirits; men came with weapons, took the perfume to the forest, and since then they have known the secrets of masks, although women were the first to discover them]: Parrinder 1967:99; Western Dan [women owned masks; while they were picking mushrooms, men took possession of masks, kept them for themselves]: Himmelheber 1960 (Negerkunst und Negerkü nstler): 11f in Fischer 1967:714; Eastern Dan [three versions about the transfer of sacred objects from women to men]: Zemp 1965:458f in Fischer 1967:714.

Sudan-East Africa. Mbuti pygmies [molimo babmuk horns (moli - "leopard"; {cf. elima, kelima, pl. bilima, esprit de la nature, le plus souvent invisible at nkundo, Colldén 1979:409, 412}) contribute when women and children go to bed; men sing mocking songs about women until they leave; women used to have praymo, men stole them; if one of the men falls asleep during a molymo ritual, molimo will kill him]: Turnbull 1960:318.

Australia. Yirkalla [first water is everywhere, the waves knocked down the islands of foam; two sisters sailed in a boat, called the foam earth, it became dry; they dug wells with their digs, from there all the animals came out and birds; sisters gave them names and places to live; people came from somewhere; while women were sleeping, men stole their herbal bags containing quartz crystals and other sacred objects; set fire grass where the bags lay so that women thought they had burned; when women woke up, they heard the voice of a whistle that men set in motion during the ritual; since then, men have power; the Sun got angry, turned those two sisters and four men who stole their handbags into stone pillars; after sunset, the Sun becomes a fish, swims in groundwater from west to east]: Wells 1965:67-74; ulengor [women owned sacred totems, prepared the first great inter-tribal ceremony; while women collected shells, their sons stole totems, took them to the bush; shells told women about what happened; they came to take away the totems, but the young men overcame them with their singing and dancing; the women ran away with their hands over their faces; since then, totems from men]: Chaseling 1957:133-134; janggavtil [two Sisters they build a shelter, hang them inside a basket of sacred objects; while collecting shells, their Brother and other men (var.: brothers, fathers, grandfathers) steal baskets; Sisters hear the whistle of a bird living in mangroves and rush after the kidnappers; Brother begins to beat the rhythm with a ritual stick, the Sisters fall and crawl; they are afraid not of men, but by sacred chants; men have taken not only objects and songs, but also the right perform rituals; men used to have nothing; one of the Sisters says that they, women, remember everything and have retained their sacredness, although they have lost their baskets]: Berndt, Berndt 1964:215-216; Western desert [women owned sacred objects and performed rituals; adults sent girls to hunt and collect food for them, revealing to them the secrets of rituals (as men do now); one the man followed, found out that women kept their power under the bracelets on their hands; stole it; the next morning the women could hardly rotate the whistles; the man took the women down where the men were and the men brought them upstairs where the women were; now they are swapped]: Berndt, Berndt 1964:224; Valmanjeri (and second groups) [women own churing whistles; Djalaburu's man kidnaps them, steals power from under women's mice; in the morning, women find they're out of strength, get digging sticks]: Berndt 1970:224-225; pitjanjara [old man chases seven sisters; they create along the way a man's ceremony of pulling his teeth; the old man outlines sacred points on the ground with his spear; creates a ring of steep cliffs around the fleeing; girls jump into a pond, the old man drowns them there; girls - Pleiades, old man - Orion]: Waterman 1987, No. 270:34; northwest Western Desert [man sees a group of women walking carrying ceremonial objects; amazed that women own the items, not men; at night he steals power from women's armpits, takes objects, women get the tools they should have]: Waterman 1987, No. 2750:83; maung [first the ubar ceremony was performed only women; female kangaroos danced slowly, didn't move as much as they should; a kangaroo man sent them to camp saying that men would now perform the ceremony]: Waterman 1987, No. 2770 (1): 83; karageri [seeing women performing ceremonies, two Wallaby men rotate their whistles, turning the dancers to flee; ceremonies are now performed by men; women become Pleiades, their digging sticks for stars in the constellations Aries and Pegasus]: Waterman 1987, No. 273:34; Karageri [Gagamara and Gombarin, tall as trees, brought ceremonies sacred objects that named the tracts; drove the woman away, preventing her from seeing the ceremonies, turned into Magellanic Clouds; options: having sex with a woman she met, established the local characteristics of marriage ruled; created the Rainbow Snake, which then created land, sea, fish, rivers, etc.]: Waterman 1987, No. 705:41; northern and southern karageri [kuramidi dancing was first performed by female caterpillars, dancing all night long, following one after another; the male caterpillar could not sleep; screamed and dispersed the women; now this ceremony is performed by men; caterpillars of this species crawl in single file]: Waterman 1987, No. 2770 (2): 83; Valbiri [at the request of his sons, the snake father removes plaques from his body; they turn into women, they go digging water sources; two men follow, pick up women's bowel movements, these are sacred plaques of various types; men make hats out of them, dance in them; every night, hiding their planks, they go to bed with women; these events are the basis of sacred narratives]: Munn 1970:155.

Melanesia. Elema [the whistle was a crocodile with this voice; he came to a place of worship, where a woman looking for fire found him; he left, he was killed, his entrails were thrown away; two women found them in them whistle; decided to intimidate the men with it; in the end they took the whistle, now they have the secret]: Gourlay 1972:80-81; (cf. bargham [cannibal corshun takes everyone away; woman masturbates, gives birth to three children; they make bows, hunt lizards; old Dilubay made a wooden vessel, brothers split the vessel with arrows, D. did not was able to catch up with them; the brothers grew up, began to cut out large vessels themselves; made a trap pit; split D.'s vessel, he chased them, failed, they finished it off; convinced of their strength, they built a house with a small hole in the roof; the youngest brother, Wilwil, turned into a sugarglider, the kite brought it to the nest; he overheard the kite explain to the chick that it could only be killed by hitting it in the groin and in head; V. returned, told the brothers, ordered him to make a smoky fire; the kite flew in, put his paw into the hole in the roof of the house, V. hit him with an arrow in the groin; the brothers finished him off with clubs on the head; mother She told the brothers to put it down, turned into a slit gong, ordered it to be beaten to summon the hidden people; people gathered, the corpse of the kite was burned, but one feather flew away, and little ones appeared out of it kites; the Simiyangpain woman came, hid; when everyone fell asleep, V. found her, married her; the enemies took the gong mother, but V. said that their gongs would be bad, and the sound of gongs would be heard far away]: Hepner 2006:142-165); walman (New Guinea's north coast) [two Panyuo women saw men playing sacred flutes in the woods; told others, the men heard it killed all the women; came to Valman, got married here]: Becker 1971, No. 15:36; busama [a woman was cutting wood, a whistle-shaped sliver bounced, she began to twist it; the husband took the whistle, the men They kicked women out of the men's house with her (they thought about how to do it for a long time); one woman did not believe it was a spirit (she knew it was a sliver); she was killed and burned, said she was eaten by an ogre]: Gourlay 1972:81; kai [like Busam, but the leader's sister (not wife) wants to be killed so as not to reveal the secret]: Gourlay 1972:81; West Irian [the twins killed the ogre, bamboo grew on his grave; women heard the wind buzzing in him, made flutes; men heard, killed women, took flutes for secret rituals, where they are used together with whistles and gongs]: Gourlay 1972:88; ngaing [the kalebasa horn was created by the deity Yabuling to honor the souls of the dead; first for women, they played it in the men's house; they and their children contaminated the horns with menstrual blood and feces; the men washed the horns and home]: Gourlay 1972:87; camano, usurufa et al. (eastern mountains) [the first man's wife Morufonu made the first flute, but her husband stole it; Var.: M. pretended to be a woman, deceived the girls, stole their flute; two young men climbed the slippery slope, asked two girls to let them play, took the flute away; women showed men the secret of swallowing reeds (to induce vomiting); this is now being hidden from women]: Berndt 1965:82; baruya (Papua Mountains) - New Guinea) [women invented sacred flutes; during initiations, boys are told that flutes are vaginas; women invented onions, clothes; but they did everything wrong, turned the bow the other way around, they killed too much game; one day, while the women were away, the men sent a young man to steal flutes hidden under a bunch of skirts stained with menstrual blood; after stealing the flutes, he strangled him and heard a wonderful sound; put the flutes back; when the women tried to blow, the flutes did not sound; the women gave them to the men, or threw them to the ground and the men picked them up, they have since played]: Godelier 2003:192 ( Godel translation 2007:156); anga (=kukukuku) [according to myth, sacred flutes were first owned by women, not men]: Herdt 1987:186; monumbo [women collected firewood, found them in the forest Murup's sacred bamboo flutes; the spirit of the flutes taught them to play; men heard sounds, killed women and children, took the flutes]: Höltker 1965, No. 8:85-86; ngaimbom [Osprey took the baby; fed meat, instead of milk, gave his urine; the boy grew up to be a handsome Sandam boy; two girls saw him, the tree could hardly fall down, the young man jumped into the river, hid in a flooded deck; women hear from there sounds, bring the deck to the village, bring slotted gongs there, dance, prohibiting men from watching; men got in, took Sandam's sacred bamboo flutes]: Höltker 1965, No. 7:106 -107; abelam: Huber-Greub 1988, No. 8.1.20 [first, women owned a man's house, ritual instruments, sang and dances, men performed women's duties; then men did coup], 21 [~ (8.1.20)]: 283, 283; Kaberry 1941 [wal( marsalai spirit type) live in remote places in their ancestral territory, women bypass such places; among the most important w. yam keeper Nya-mbabmu; while planting yams, he tries to spear those who did not follow the sex taboo; the waljeiga-tagwa woman made the first ritual musical instruments and others tamberan items; then men took them away from women; Luna and Cassowaries were wala-tagwa, not ordinary women (bagna tagwa)]: 360; gambadi (quawara) [Tiv'r comes from the west; his wife Engu has a defect that prevents her from copulating normally; T. manages to get pregnant, but she does not have a baby, but a whistle; T. is surprised to hear the sound for the first time; consistently sends birds to steal her; E., bending over and with his legs apart, he sweeps the village, but every time the bird tries to snatch the whistle out of her vagina, it sits down; the Karara parrot has almost succeeded, its feathers turn red with blood; the little bird snatches a whistle, brings K.; and E. bleeds from her vagina (the origin of menstruation)]: Williams 1969:307-308; keraki [like shambadi; the first whistle is hairy; Kambel snatches it out himself, about birds not says]: Williams 1969:308; kiwai [a woman cut wood, a sliver bounced howling; at night she came to sleep, said that she was a whistle, taught me how to make a whistle, use it during planting yams; a woman and her husband made their first whistle, everyone was afraid of a roar; women and children were sent away, men began to own whistles]: Landtman 1927:81-82; Landtman 1977, No. 63:201-202; Melanesians of the North New Ireland [a woman went to the forest to look for missing pigs, spent the night in a cave; heard raindrops hitting pandanus leaves like a slit gong; in her dream, her soul flew to a house where perfume they wove malanggan (images used in rituals of remembering the dead and initiating boys) in the shape of a sun (like oara); when she returned home, the woman told the man everything; finding out how they were doing Malanggan, men hanged a woman for being sacred; women are now forbidden to see oara]: Krämer 1925:67-68 in Lewis 1969:107; northern Bougainville [female found a whistle, chopping firewood, showed it to other women; men killed all women except little girls, began to use whistles for ceremonies]: Gourlay 1972:84; Buka [on Rororan Island on the west coast of Buka, a woman was harvesting firewood, the sliver flew off with a buzz; she tied a rope to it, began to rotate it, and met her husband on the way; he took the whistle and showed the men; they thought that this would be the voice of god Luahan; the woman was killed, only older men knew the secret; it was said that the powerful Liahan needed food; they themselves took her to the forest, where she was eaten by chiefs and elders]: Thomas 1931:231 ; Malekula [a woman collected edible mollusks, cuttlefish spoke to her; promised to always show her where the shells are good if she does not eat cuttlefish; described the secret rituals of two secret societies; a woman taught the rituals of one society to the first of her two sons and the other to the second; they established a tradition; to prevent a mother from telling a secret, her sons have made her choke; since then cuttlefish is taboo for women, sacred to all]: Colette 1935:60; Banks Islands: Cordington 1891:76 [a woman saw a Tamate spirit sitting on a tree, he gave her a picture of wood, on the figure was a hat and a cloak; the woman hid the image, allowed men to come to look at it for a fee; the men took the figure of the spirit, she taught them the rituals of secret society that were forbidden for women tamate], 80 [a flat stone scraped against it with palm leaves, making a sharp sound; two members of the Tamate Region on Vanua Lava Island saw an old woman scraping a palm tree stalked leaf shell on stone to make shell money; they killed a woman, took her tool, and began to use her in secret rituals] (retelling in Poignant 1967 [members of a secret society robbed vegetable gardens, people considered them spirits; a person who joins society contributed pigs and money]: 95).

(Wed. Japan. Ryukyu Islands [Chûzanseikan historical work, 1650; Mr. Neba told God Amamiko that there is only water below, and we need to create a place for the gods to live; he went down and saw that the waves of the East Sea connect with the waves of the Western Sea; returned to heaven and lowered the earth, stones, grass, trees, creating numerous islands; at the request of A., Mr. Neba lowered a man to the ground and a woman; they learned to copulate by watching other living beings; a female goddess gave birth to three boys and two girls; the eldest son became the first king, the middle son became the first local elder, the youngest was the first peasant; the eldest daughter was the first princess priestess, the youngest was the first priestess; having risen to heaven for the third time, A. brought the seeds of five cereals from there, tripled the feast of heaven, earth and gods; later the gods disappeared, disasters hit the country]: Matsumoto 1928:114-115).

(Wed. The Arctic. {The relevant texts either remained unknown or were not available during the era of contacts with the Russians. However, they may have existed because the male rituals described are almost identical to those of Papua Melanesian and South American. In both Melanesia and South America, these rituals are usually associated with myths in which women were the first performers of rituals and men were subordinate to them}. The Aleuts (Unalashka. I.E. Veniaminov stayed there from 1824 to 1934) [/309/ This action was called gan agalik, i.e. they are devils; and its mystery was known only to adult men who, under strange threat death, kept it true and did not dare to reveal it to his wife, mother, or sweet mistress; otherwise, not only no kinship could save the traitor from diarrhea, but even the son's father and father's son could and should have killed him with impunity if he found out he was giving this secret to women. The initiation of young men into this sacrament was nothing more than when they came to perfect age, and was done /310/ either through an uncle or through a father. The Aleuts kept the secret of this action so firmly that until the Aleuts were enlightened by Christianity, no woman knew about it; and with the adoption of Christianity, leaving everything contrary and indecent to it, they discovered and the mystery of their actions is the apparitions of devils. /paragraph/ The action took place as follows: when the Aleuts come up with or see the need to make such an idea, they assign their roles and place of action to each and every one in advance and etc., and in the morning, on the day of the performance itself, one part of the men who are supposed to represent the devils leaves the village for two days or more under the guise of fishing animals; and others who stay at home when it will be late in the evening, suddenly, as if in some fright, they begin to listen or imagine that they feel like they have a bad feeling and thus frightening women who are not allowed to the street, as if out of fear. A few hours after the first act of fear, it's not an ordinary noise that happens outside; then men choose from among their brave man and send him outside to see what it's like that. As soon as he can get out, at the same minute /311/ he runs back, in great fear and horror, and says: the devils will appear soon. With his word, at the same moment, a terrible knock and noise begin on the street, from all sides, so that it seems that the yurt wants to crumble to dust and, at the same time, an extraordinary roar and scream disgusting and in an unknown voice; then all the men in the house stand on the defensive and speak to each other; hold on, be strong, don't give in. After that, they suddenly see that someone terrible of extraordinary height, up to the highest part of the ceiling, with a terrible whistle and roar, goes down into the yurt through one of the holes that serve instead of a window and smoky pipes. A horror story is nothing more than a person dressed in a huge herbal scarecrow that looks like an ugly man. Then the men shout: rather turn off the lights, and as soon as it gets dark, a terrible knock, howl, whistle, scream begins in and outside the yurt; one of those in the yurt commands: fight, fight, drive; and with the word, his knock, and the scream increase and a terrible creak, squeak, break rise, and all possible sounds are heard in the word. This mess goes on for a few years; and then it's like men will defeat the devils and drive them out /312/ and come after them themselves with such noise and scream, which then subside a little and finally everything stops. After that, the devils enter the yurt and tell them to light the fire; and when the yurt lights up, they begin to testify whether all men are alive and well; and they usually do not find one person alone. Then let's rather shout a woman at the victim and at the ransom of the dragged one. And with this word, they grab a woman who had been appointed before, and without letting her pick, they pull her out into the street, almost half dead. After some time, a woman is brought back to her honor. And immediately they begin to revive the dead; for this purpose they hit him with an inflated bubble, saying: Get up with us now. And the imaginary dead man comes to life little by little and finally becomes completely alive and well; then his relatives give him to the woman who saved him from the hands of the devils; and that ends for everyone presentation. A few days later, the men who have left return to fish; they are told of what happened in their absence, and they listen with extraordinary attention and horror. And the gullible /313/ Aleutki sincerely believed that all this was an exact invasion of devils. /paragraph/ They say it is necessary to be surprised how the Aleuts knew how to withstand the roles they took in presenting this toy; not only does no one seem to be suspicious of deception; but also at everyone faces could see exactly the expressions required by the presentation]: Veniaminov 1840 (2): 309-313; Kodiak [/205. Paragraph/ This afternoon I was back in Kazhim for a merrymaking game. From the beginning, five people came out one after another, all in different guises, some of them covered with ferns. They blew pipes hung from guts threaded through a hole in the nasal cartilage, and each grimaced in a special way. One of them was smeared with red pencil, the other with charcoal, two dressed in parks, and the fifth in a camley, /206/ with trinkets in their hands. Naked and in the camley, they were wearing something made of bird skin and hanging to their knees. Two Americans sat near the bowl, uncleaned, but in their ordinary clothes. I couldn't find out what this performance meant. Tolmach said that these are devils deceiving people, but he himself did not know anything else, because they know about the legends of these games, especially related to the concept of spirits, or betray themselves as experts, alone the so-called Kasyats by the local Islanders, that is, wise men who invent these ideas, interpret the arrival of the inhabitants of Kodiak and neighboring islands, about the Devils, etc. If the Islander does not know how to explain the question asked to him, he answers: Kasyat knows about it. /paragraph/ When the devils grimaced and left, the men began to drive women and boys out. This happens to them after the games, when islanders gather in different villages, who /207/ at the end talk about public affairs and expel women for this purpose, but how is this now habit could not be the reason for this, and of course it was a superstition rite, which is why I wanted to know the interpretation of onago very much. When all the extra ones came out, a man in a camley appeared with larvae and trinkets in his hands, representing an evil spirit. He screamed and ran from place to place, in tune to a song that all the audience sang, and one hit a tambourine. Sim is all over. After that, there should have been a different show, but I didn't want to wait for it. /abtsaz/ Meanwhile, I learned the following about the reason for the expulsion of women from the Russians: at the end of the presentation of spirits, women really mistaking them for Devils, are looking for a place to hide; for these spirits run everywhere and pinch whoever they meet. Previously, they even pricked people with small knives wrapped in grass for this purpose, except for the end /208/, so that the wound was not so deep. Today, the Islanders do not do this, but women are no less afraid of imaginary spirits, either from superstition or from the fear of being plucked]: Davydov 1812:205-208).

The coast is the Plateau. Halkomel [a young man who is sick with leprosy jumps into the lake to commit suicide; everyone in the aquatic house is sick because people spit in the water; the water man heals him, he heals the aquatic inhabitants; asks a mask as a payment; returns to people, sends her sister to throw a fishing line into the lake; she fishes for a water man; he teaches her songs and dances, gives her a mask and a suit; she makes a copy; her daughters marry men from other villages, they also bring copies of the mask there, teach rituals]: Duff 1952:123-125; Teit 1917f, No. 6:132-133; lkungen [in a dream, two people invite a young man to a lake or river; in an underwater house he sees ritual costumes on the walls; when he returns, tells his sister to throw the fishing line; she catches two masks; he is invited to different villages to show him how to use masks during rituals]: Stern in Codere 1948 [ the young man falls ill, has a vision]: 12; Stern 1934 (lummi) [father trains his son; kicks him out of the house when he learns that he has violated the ban on talking to his sister]: 113-115.

Northeast. Hurons [a woman falls into a trance; she is the White Otter, tells her to have a party, teaches how to dance on it]: Barbados 1960, No. 10:12-13; Seneca: Cornplanter 1938, No. 7 [people leave the girl on the island; a horned serpent takes her back, teaches rituals on the way; the girl then teaches people]: 77-80; Curtin, Hewitt 1918, No. 122 [girls who embody corn, beans, pumpkins swim along the river on the back of a beaver; women hear them singing; an old woman carries Corn ashore; it turns into corn; teaches the old woman agricultural rituals]: 642-646.

Plains. Blacklegs: Wissler, Duvall 1908, No. III1d (piegan) [an old woman and her grandson drowned at the crossing; they get to aquatic animals; Otter wants to kill them, Beaver does not allow them, teaches songs, methods of treatment; When she returns, the old woman goes through four steam rooms, free from swallowed sand and algae; gives people her knowledge], III6a (blood) [while her husband is hunting, an elk in the form of a man comes for a woman, gives her ritual clothes and witch doctor's knowledge], III6b (piegan) [his wife left Moose, who wanted to kill her with his song, but began to fall into the ground; Moose turned into a woman, brought people sacred songs, costume; she is depicted by a woman during the Sun Dance], III8 [the girl marries Thunder; together with her husband and two children, brings her parents a ritual Thunder Tube; after staying, Thunder leaves youngest son, warning his wife to be afraid of dogs; once a dog bit a woman's son, a woman and her son disappeared; the owner of the Thunder Tube is still afraid of dogs]: 77-78, 83-84, 84-85, 89-90; sheyens [the daughter is naughty, the mother kicks her out the door, says that owls take her; the owl takes her to her parents' house; in the morning she is sent for brushwood; the Sparrow, then the Flycatcher, Blackbird say that the Owls are going to eat it; the Hawk takes her to the mountain; calling Hawk her husband, she enters the cave; the owl demands to open the door and return his food; the hawk grandfather tells her to open it a little, the girl pushes the door again , cutting off Owl's head; they burned her body, beads and jewelry fell out of it; the girl wanted to take them, the hawk grandfather shoved everything into the fire; the girl grew up, wanted to go home; she was dressed up as Backward-Talking- Warrior (Shayen's best warriors); Grandfather hawk gives caress; a woman calls to her on the way, offers a brain cauldron, the girl feeds everything to caress; eats bison meat; at night a woman scratches her leg, making her a club; the girl does not sleep, lets go of caress, she gnaws meat out of the woman's leg; she dies; the girl comes to her own; the boys ask for her costume; she teaches that the warriors of the Backwards Alliance must do something do the opposite (if they are told to go forward, they must go back); this is how the Shayen military alliances arose]: Marriott, Rachlin 1975:43-48.

California. Yurok [women, not (only) men, sat in the sweat-house; the hero made a hot fire; the women couldn't stand it and left; since then, only people gather in sweating houses men]: Kroeber 1976, No. C1, F1:212, 273; Karok [Coyote wanted women to own a public space (sweat-house) and men to own a residential one; because women littered the house to sweat with rods for baskets, etc., Coyote changes his mind]: Kroeber, Gifford 1980, No. II12:158; horses [no fruits, no berries, no grasshoppers; Piu'chunnuh sends a boy to Hai'kutwotopeh ("great") and Woan'nomih ("killer") who are far north in the land of ice; when a boy enters their teepee, both sleep on high platforms, their hair hangs to the ground; they say they know everything and will show up as soon as it gets dark ; they never come out; people gathered in a community house, both old men spread the roof and sat down among the audience; one is holding a shaman's rattle, from which the current ones come from; W. tells to initiate the boys (first initiation); for three days everything should pass silently and in the dark; P.'s heart rejoiced; but on the third day, two boys decided to look at the visitors and came in with torches; only P. covered his face so as not to see ; also one curious woman looked in; W. says it's okay, they are leaving, now there will be fruits and grasshoppers, rituals should be performed in community house; boys and a woman fell dead; in the afternoon, a fire came down from the sun and burned everyone except P., because only he did not see W. and Hai'kutwotopeh (H.); H. came to play with sticks in one of the villages; there was a cavity inside him that he could quietly throw chopsticks from one hand to the other; he won all the inhabitants and took them to his land of ice; only the old woman and her daughter Kiunaddissi remained; P. went to live with them; K. met a young man who was Red Cloud at sunset; became pregnant and gave birth to a boy, he grew up immediately, his name is Oankoitupeh; the old woman asks people to lie on their stomachs, fix their backs, drops a heavy stone; O. saw what was behind his back, dodged, killed the old woman herself with a stone; the eagle carries people away, O. made a trap, killed the eagle; both times the grandmother advised his grandson not to go where the monsters are; O. came to play with H.; at first he lost everything except his mother; at the last moment he closed the hole in H.'s body, played back his people; giving them law and order, O. went to heaven, last appearing in the form of a rainbow ]: Powell 1877:294-305.

The Great Southwest. Hopi: Cushing 1923, No. 4 [when people went up to the third world, women danced in shrines and men cared for children]: 165; (cf. Malotki, Gary 2001, No. 5 [Chief Oraibi's daughter and wife dance in kiva with other women (there are men there); the chief brings her to feed their baby, she feeds them, continues to dance; he has to do everything himself at home, his younger sister helps him; he makes prayer sticks (pahos), flies in the form of an eagle to the outskirts of the village of Zunyi, where a group of people died; summons the dead, asks them to come dance so that people stop dancing crazy; the spirits of the dead enter the kivu, the dancers faint; some, including the chief's wife and daughter, are dead; but the dancing has stopped; the chief thanked the spirits by giving every paho]: 21-29); chiricahua [the person says he will teach a chiricahua to dance in masks depicting gahe mountain spirits; forbids children to look at it; one girl peeks, identifies the dancer; people hide her in a hole under the hearth; gahe comes from four sides of the world, find a girl, cut her to pieces]: Opler 1942, No. 2:75-78.

The Northern Andes. Kogi [the mother goddess transfers ritual primacy to her sons; since then, women have not entered the temple]: Chaves 1947, No. 14, 15:491-493; Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985 (2), No. 1-II, 2-3:19, 27-31 .

Southern Venezuela. Piaroa: Boglar 1971 [(note 7); there are myths that women used to perform current men's rituals, women had their own menyeruda (shaman)]: 333; 1977, No. 10 [woman trying to see sacred objects]: 272-273; Yanomami [(Becher 1974:45-47); Petá was married to Uruhí and his three brothers, was the main one; passed the rope through the foreskin of her husbands, tied to her hips; she decided for herself who would copulate with her, untied his penis; two younger brothers were dissatisfied; to prevent them from killing her elders, P. taught ritual stick fights and martial arts, the winner copulates with her; in the past, martial arts were often accompanied by anal sex between participants; long after the P. era, the community was led by a female leader and a shaman, ruling along with others women]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 17:50-52

Guiana. Taulipan [women remained in the Sapará community house, all the men went hunting; mountain spirits came into the house; they were wearing macaw feathers crowns, ear ornaments; they began to sing, dance and drink kashiri together with the women; they went with them to the lake; before hiding in the water with the spirits, the women sing two songs; the dog hears them, passes them on to the returning men; they also jumped into the water and disappeared; the dog told the rest of Sapará; it is now a Sapará tribe song]: Koch-Grünberg 1924, No. 35:117-119; Makushi: Soares Diniz 1971, No. 20:96-97; waiwai [ everyone goes to another village for Shodewika, leaving an old woman and a girl who has just finished her period; the old woman warns that when a girl goes to get water, she can't look at in the middle of the river; she looks, anaconda people (various fish and aquatic creatures in human form) come out of the river; an old woman hides a girl under a vessel, anaconda people come looking for a girl to take her to wives; dancing; the old woman assures that they saw only her; the little fish man climbed under the vessel, the girl stepped on him, since then the fish has been flat; the spirits go away, leaving their jewelry; the water floods village and vegetable gardens, old woman and girl go to the forest; people come back; they love pendants and necklaces; they turn into caviar and fish, but people remember how to make them]: Fock 1963:48-50; oyana : Coudreau 1893:176; oyampy: Grenand 1982, No. 30 [the first arrows are handed to people through a girl from the son of the sun], 32:211, 220-224; lokono [girls find the first riual scourge, but forced to hand it over to men]: Roth 1915, No. 163:228-229; the Ataroi [the Ataroi heard music from under Mount Keridtaua; came to the pond at the foot, carried out sacred flutes with which they are using it now; there is a lot left, everything can't be taken away; music is being heard there and now, but people don't hear it anymore; if you go there, you'll fall down and live with perfume; Tuminkar warned a woman with two virgin daughters did not watch men carry flutes; the mother looked in her daughters in their heads, they faced the pond, looked; T. turned all three into stone; because What the girls saw, people weren't allowed to come back for the remaining instruments]: Farabee 1918; 133-134.

NW Amazon. Puinawa [the first humans lived above the clouds; the monkey quarreled with them, they died fighting each other; a woman stayed, collected bones, put them to dry on the roof of the house; Tú arose from them pana, his brother Qáitan, their sisters Máunuddua and Amárrundua; T. killed his adopted mother, made her flesh into the underworld; underground people are dwarfs; they eat cassava, they have no fish in their rivers; they hardly hunt, because the animals in their world are huge; T. descended from the sky, blew into a rolled leaf, summoned some underground people to the ground through a hole on the Isana River, where the center of the world is; blew on them through a leaf tobacco, people became normal growth; taught culture; people became bad, T. ordered the rivers of the underworld to fill the ground with a flood; divided those who escaped on mountains and trees into pairs, gave different languages; To suppress the human race again, created Yopinai, under his leadership, women began to rule men; during rituals, women sang and danced in honor of Y., and men hid in the forest; J. told women to kill all male babies, they did not listen; then he ordered to eat only land and coal for a month to make women infertile; men invited J. to a party, threw them into the fire; from the ashes grew palm trees and other trees with edible fruits; men began to control women; some J.'s bones were preserved, from which ritual musical instruments were made; T. taught how to make the same made of wood and throw the originals into a lake in the center of the world]: Waldegg 1942:195-197 in Wilbert 1963:110-113; baniva: 46-47 [stealing flutes]: Galvão 1959 [Nnapiri-Kuri (identified with Christ) was the creator of Kovai (Yurupari) wiped his sweat with a leaf of tobacco, put it on the floor, forbade his wife to touch it; the wife put the leaf to her body, became pregnant; could not give birth, because women did not genitals; NK put araku fish between her legs, she bit through a hole, but small; then jamunda fish; her mother hid the child, showed NK just born later; showed K. when he grew up; he there was no mouth; NK cut his mouth vertically; disliked it, sewed it up, did it like people do now; the scar remained (a wrinkle from nose to lip); K. taught people who were against him, he retired to heaven; NK persuaded him return; at the festival he was drunk drunk, pushed into the fire; his spirit rose to heaven; a pashiuba palm tree and Eperua perpurea Benth grew out of the ashes; they are used to make sacred flutes, with the voice of K. in them], 47-49 [ Yurupari (Kovai) ate Christ's people, he decided to kill him, Y. fled to heaven; H. ordered him to be invited to the dabukuri festival; Yu told his wife that he was going to a party where H. would kill him, but that he would return and from then on, people will die and go to him; when it was burned, so it was; women stole the secret of the holiday with flutes and masks; women danced, and men baked cakes and did housework; Yu. pretended to be a woman, smeared his genitals with blood as if he were on his period; killed women, threw his aunt to Rio Negra; since then, men have been celebrating, women have been working housework]; Hill 1993 (vakuenai) [ Inapirrikuli copulates with her aunt Amaru, Kuwai is born; for A. to be able to give birth, the fish makes a hole for her; I. hides K. in the sky, lies to A. that she only gave birth stingray (the last one turned into it); K.'s body sounds, expanding the world; he devours boys who ate fruits and thus break the fast (it causes rain, the boys hide in the cave; this is K.'s mouth; he slams it shut; one did not eat, did not enter the cave, survived; Inapirrikuli sends the Wasp to take edible larvae to heaven for K.; K. must go through a passage whose doors open and close; they Ose's sides are squeezed, since then the wasps have a narrow waist; K. agrees to return to the village, gets drunk, dances, pushes him into the fire; a palm tree grows in this place, sacred horns and flutes are made of it; A. and women steal sacred instruments from men; I. comes to A., hiding who he is; together with men enters the house when women sign up with ritual castigation and play instruments; A. runs, carrying tools to the edge of the sky; K. strikes the village of women with lightning, they lose consciousness, men who come in the guise of frogs take their tools; I. says that the tools have turned into birds and animals; A. returns to the eastern sky, Kuwai to the corner of the sky where he grew up]: Hill 1993, No. 2-9:63-72; Saake [Inapirikuri ("all of bones, without meat") created the first creatures of Zuri in a word , Meriri (both men), Amaru (also considered Aunt I.); A. ran a branch over her face; for three nights she dreamed that she was sleeping with I., became pregnant; she did not have a hole to give birth; during fishing, the fish bit him; D. took the child; I. told A. that only the last child was born; he threw it into the water, so the stingray appeared; D. and M. raised the child; D. fumigated him with tobacco smoke, it was his food; he had no mouth; he nodded to I.'s question when he asked if Yurupari was called; his body was a monkey, a human head; when his mouth was cut, the buzz filled the world; Yu with three he went to get the fruit as boys, threw them off the tree; he did not tell the boys to eat, but they began to fry fish; Yu sent a storm, swallowed it; I. decided to kill him, Yu ran to heaven; I. sent a monkey for him (var.: wasp); the monkey offered Y. smoked meat, delicious ants; Yu knew they wanted to kill him, but thought it was impossible; when he went out, he crushed the monkey with a door; on the ground he made images of dead boys, danced around; his thumb sounded like jaquine, his index finger sounded like paka, the next three like uari, his knee like a deer; his whole body sounded; D. and M. pushed him into the fire; Yu: now people will die; his spirit rose to heaven; I. visited him there, he is white, radiant (month?) ; at the site of the burning, a paxiubam jubaro palm and a sipo vine grew; I. threw part of his entrails into the forest, they turned into mosquitoes and snakes; I. sent the monkey to cut the pashiuba trunk into pieces; D. hit to him, the parts fell; 10 pairs of flutes+wari were made in triplicate, 21 in total; they sounded in the breeze, called the names of birds and animals; A. asked I. to give the flutes to her - once they took her son, to get a grandson; I. reluctantly promised; offered a competition; 30 girls came out of the hole made by A., and 30 young men from I.; 30 palm trees grew; girls hardly climbed to half, and boys easily climbed to half, and boys easily to tops; so the flutes must go to men; then the women stole the flutes at night, left, built their own little one; A. held the flute to her lips; since then, they must blow, the breeze is not enough; D. made a weapon which was like thunder and lightning; men approached the female maloka, from where the sound of the flutes could be heard; struck everyone but A.; now if a woman takes the sacred flute, she will also be struck by thunder] 1958:273-276; 1968: 267-268; Wright 1993:11; vacuenai [Made of bone got together with her paternal aunt Ámaru; she does not have a hole for the baby to come out, the UK sends the fish to bite him; the placenta turns into stingray; SK hides the baby, says A., that she only gave birth to a stingray, but she does not believe it; the children play Kuwái, placing a buzzing wasp in the vessel and hitting the vessel with a whip; a real K. comes out, teaches boys initiatory rituals; tells me to fast; drops fruits from the tree, the boys bake and eat them, do not eat them alone; it has begun to rain, K. opened his mouth, three boys entered it like a cave, he swallowed them; Éeri , who did not break the fast, did not enter; K. regurgitated the remains, flew away; the UK took wooden images of the dead boys; sent Osu-Káalimátu for K. into the "mouth" of the sky; this is a place in the sky that constantly opens and closes; Kaalimatu was almost bitten, so the wasp has a narrow waist; when his jaws opened, he flew on; says K. that the UK revived those eaten and invites him smoke tobacco; K. promises to come in two days; says he can only be killed by fire; all other substances and objects are his body; K. got drunk, put into a fire; when K. died, the world again became small; at the site of the burning, a tree grew to the sky and powerful vines; the squirrel cut the trunk in the form of horns and flutes, the UK pushed it, formed a pile of sacred instruments; A. took the instruments, let women have them; men processed cassava, and women only collected wild fruits; UK and its relatives, who took the form of little frogs, came to A., struck her with a thunder; frogs became warriors, killed A. women with poisoned arrows, carried away Kuwai's tools; K. revived A., said that the tools turned into jaguars and other animals and fish; men brought them to to the women's home, A. believed that these were really animals (horns and flutes are named after animals); later A. and her women broke in, took away the most important flutes, jaguars, and placed them in vagina; they swim down the river, SK sets traps, but they bypass them; they eventually reach the sea and both live there in a village at the mouth of the river, performing all the rituals]: Hill 2009:117-134; Hill, Wright 1988 ( vacuenai) [the same in brief]: 86; tarian: Barbosa Rodrigues 1890:105-118 [women could not conceive from old people; the shaman told them to swim, conceived by a water snake; the youngest had a beautiful girl; I was walking through the forest, the monkeys offered her fruit, the juice flowed through her body, fertilized her; her brothers asked who she was pregnant with, she told her; her son was born and disappeared; she heard crying near the tree, but no one was visible; when she fell asleep at night, the baby sucked her milk; so many times; grew up, appeared to his mother, his arms and hair were glowing; people were happy, shamans called him Isi ("conceived from the fetus"); I. said he could become chief, only having received a Nanasi stone, whose owner everyone obeys; he is on Mount Moon Sickle; I. put resin on fire, from there bats and nocturnal birds flew out, then an eagle- harpy; I. flew to the mountain on it, received a stone from the Month; told shamans not to tell women about all this; the women lay down with the shamans, they let it slip; women wanted to become leaders; men too; I. burned one shaman, ashes in the wind, so scorpions, biting ants and other painfully stinging insects appeared; I. turned the other two shamans into a toad and a snake; beat all men and women; one of those who brought out raped a secret, then killed; said that a woman who learns the secret would die; his mother overheard and died; I. cried; arranged a holiday, went up to heaven; once appeared to young men in the guise of a shaman, He told those sitting under the Uazu tree to fast; they did not listen, he swallowed them; his parents gave him drink, threw him into the fire; a pashiuba grew out of the ashes; the soul of the burned squirrel rose up to heaven; the tree was cut down] (translated in Koch-Grünberg 1921:168-172; Siebert 1972:172-174); Coudreau 1887 [Yurupari was born to a virgin who did not have genitals; shamans gave her kashiri a drink, so became pregnant; swam in the river, taire fish bit through her lower abdomen, she was able to give birth; shamans hid the baby; his body emitted light, finger movements gave birth to sounds; at the festival he said it was necessary fast, otherwise men and boys will die; children burned a fire under the uaku tree; fruits fell from the tree, which Yu forbade eating during fasting; Yu ate the children; the men gave Yu a drink at the festival, threw them into the fire ; pashiuba palm trees grew out of the ashes, these are his bones; Yu's soul climbed into the sky; before dawn, secretly from women, men made sacred instruments out of pashiuba, in which the voice of Yu; Yu wore a skin monkeys; his macacaraua mask (monkey hair) is made from obziana wool mixed with hair cut off from girls during their first menstruation; after Yu's death, women blew horns and wore macacaraua (206: weaving the hair of men, not girls, into her), summoned Yu; Yu came down from the sky, followed a woman who had horns and a mask, raped her; since then, shamans have been killing women who see with poison macacaraua]: 184-187; Moreira, Moreira 1994 [O'ã-khë called his sons to go swimming, they did not go; his three daughters heard, went, found the sacred miñapõ'r& flutes hidden by their father in the water #227;; women did not like the flutes, they tried to hide; women did not know how to play; asked caruci fish to teach them, who said that those with vaginas should not play the flutes; the same urutu fish; Crane; Duck; jacunda fish agreed; took the flute in his mouth, since then his mouth had turned white; sisters learned to play; father tried to take away their flutes, each time turning into a fish, a bird, a piece cotton wool, etc., but they immediately recognized him; they wanted to have a party and become the leaders of the Tarian; the father made rapids on the river; the father made another flute, went into the few women, played, they became like crazy; the men took the flutes, but one woman ran away, hiding the flute in her vagina; the man caught up with her, raped her; the woman drew pictures on the rocks, went to Milk Lake (Ahpikondia)]: 24-25; Stradelli 1890:667-669 [learn the secrets of rituals], 815-818 [stealing flutes]; tarian (?) [Curán, the chief's daughter, pretended to be sick, stayed at home, followed the men secretly, learned secrets, described Yurupari instruments to women, taught her songs; a young man came to her, he was an evil spirit Cudeabumá {"in Pamari; but this language is the Araua family in Purus}; promised to give Kuran copies of all instruments, but her husband's instrument must be real; when Kuran slept with her husband, she dreamed that she was sleeping from Kudeabum; {apparently, her husband's tool was not stolen, but made a copy}; women led by Kuran killed male babies, cut off their hair, folded in a yurupari house, and decided to leave the men; when Kuran's husband found his instrument, the false instrument Kuran fell silent during the dabukuri ritual; the men threw false instruments into the fire; the Kuran went to the river, she was married by the Great Serpent; at midnight appears in the middle of the river, sings Yurupari songs, disappears]: Stradelli 1890:807-819; cubeo: Goldman 1963:193 [1) Kuwai taught flouting rituals; first, women played flutes and horns, they did nothing else; K. handed over instruments to men, ordered not to give them to women; 2) Beküpwänwa's sacred musical instruments belonged to women, men were afraid of them; Decocu I found out about this, handed the tools to men; women, as they owned the tools, did not work at all; men let the old woman look at Bekyupvyanva, she went crazy], 230-231 [at first people did not died; the boy went to pick up his sister in the garden, met her; she said people beat, drove the boy away; for three months he wandered through the forest, came back, died; people said that "great spirit" (the cubeo does not have one character) punished him, decided to mourn; the body was wrapped in a hammock, buried inside a maloka; no one cried; the old man began to think what to do in case of death; decided to arrange an Oine party; dance the masks were made of leaves because they did not know how to make bast matter; Kuwai came and showed; climbed a duka tree, cut off the bark at the top, fringed the hem and sleeves of the bast shirt; people shared the little to the male and female parts; the old woman sat down in the male to sing; soon the real Xudjíko appeared, sang, people were frightened, the old woman ran away, H. took her place; K. told me to do this every time when someone dies, you can't cry for long; told me to dance and sing; then H. left and did not come again; people made a sacred horn instead; H. and her husband live in Uaracapurí, a place Cubeo origins; they were the first ancestors to die, the first to make bast costume masks; the heads of the masks are decorated with feathers; the main vertical image is H.'s wife, most importantly horizontal - Male X]; Barasana: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, No. 1D: 265-266 (143: Hye's instruments are called Old Maco, Jaguar Tree Fruit, Old Sloth, Old Amazon Parrot, Old Deer, Old Musk Duck, Woman Squeezing Cassava, Dancing Anaconda, Sabicea Flower, Old Capuchin Monkey, Old Star, White Star); Torres Laborde 1969 [father of sacred instruments heh was He-Hino, Romi-Kumu's mother; she was the first to play them, but she did it badly; so Yeba took them away from her, banned them from playing; RM removed Hino bones and made flutes out of them; so H. no bones]: 57; desana [kidnapped]: Brüzzi 1994 [+ smoke sacred cigars]: 235-240; Kumu, Kenhiri 1980 [Abé ("sun" or "moon") cut down two pieces of palm trees, hid them in the water at the pier; at home, he told his son that he would go to make sacred flutes with him in the morning, forbade talking about it; the boy overslept, and his two sisters went to the river to look for the cipó (drug, vomit) that his father hid there He did not forbid the daughters to take them; the sisters found wooden pieces of flutes, they sparkled like gold; they tried to take it, the blanks slipped out of their hands, but in the end the girls grabbed them; the fish were taught make flutes; the girls hid them in their vaginas; when they started playing, the sound spread all over the world; together with other women, the sisters came to A.'s house; there the men are busy with the things that are now women perform; when the women came in, the men left timidly; but they made themselves another flute; they created a vine from that boy's saliva that is used in making flutes; they decided to kill the women; for this was the palá toad, which carries eggs on its back; however, others spoke out against killing all women and bearing children themselves; so did the creator of Ngoamañ; when men entered home and began to play, the women threw their flutes, fell, admitted defeat; but A.'s two daughters went down the river, one of them carried a piece of flute in her vagina]: 123-125; Reichel-Dolmatoff 1971 [(=1968:20); On the doorsteps of Wainambi, the sun father committed incest with his undermature daughter; blood splashed, women have been menstruating since then; the stones left fingerprints of the girl's buttocks, red traces of blood, and pits (where she urinated); the witness was bari buge (bari uahti), a small insect; when he heard the daughter of the Sun laugh, he came closer; when he saw the act, he became human, made the first yurupari horn so that everyone announce what they saw; one day, when the men went to hide their flutes after playing, the women watched, took their instruments; when they then touched their bodies with their hands, they grew up in their armpits and pubis hair; men came back, women seduced them, although they were the same fratria as them]: 169-170; macuna [sacred musical instruments gave birth to Romi Kumu ("female shaman") in the center of the world; their father -" Vaso tree anaconda"; RK ate the caimo fruit, the juice dripped, penetrated her grave, she became pregnant; therefore, Yurupari is the "son of the fetus"; RK and others created space using Yurupari as a measure; at first Yu belonged women, men only had small Sebero whistles, which are made for some rituals instead of Yu's instruments; S. was Yu's older brother; men stole Yu from RK, since then they have been forbidden to women; when men play, RK is angry, dangerous; men burned Yu, a pashiuba palm grew out of the ashes, from which men made Yu's instruments; from the ashes came all the animals and plants that sting and biting, biting, they burn; to the uninitiated, the instruments seem to be horns and flutes, in fact they are jaguars, people Yu.]: Århem 1980:21-22; macuna [Yurupari instruments (Je) were at Rômikmu (Woman- shaman) and other women; four Ayawa brothers stole them, hid them by the river bank; a woman hid one yurupari in her vagina since the women were menstruating; R. began to look for one of A. in her head, I noticed rotten leaves (they remained when he dived into the water), guessed that the brothers stole the yurupari; A. suggested that people live forever; R. to grow up, grow old, die; snakes said they would not to die, but to change their skin; grillos - that they don't need females to reproduce their own kind]: Århem et al. 2004:449; tatuyo [Pohe-pino (pohe = anaconda) eats boys undergoing initiation; people burn it, a palm tree grows out of its ashes, sacred horns and flutes are made of it; they are hidden in water; the father asks his son to get up early and go play; it is not a lazy son who comes, but his sister, who hears the conversation; her father chases her, but she hides her instruments in her body, goes up the river, performs rituals with women, and makes men perform women's rituals duties; in the upper reaches of the river, her father catches up with her; as punishment, he opens her vagina; since then, women have periods, and men own sacred instruments; now she is Romi-Kumu, the Pleiades; sits at the mouth of the river, pulling her legs together, makes floods; its movements cause earthquakes; shamans fly to it between her legs]: Bidou 1972:67; 1983:36-40; yukuna: Herrera Ángel 1975a [ Iyamatuma's women appeared at the beginning of the world, owned sacred mounds; lived alone in Maloka without men; Kanuma asked to live with them, saying that he had nowhere else; the horns were kept outside the maloka, K. asked the lizard to steal them; when they found out that the horns had been stolen, the women decided to leave; at night, drunk, they danced; the younger sister sang spells to cause diseases in this world; they began to descend the Miriti River; K. began to block the river with stones, they were soft then, so the rapids appeared; they left the footprints and buttocks of the women's leader; K. was ready to give the horns for the women to return, but they refused; one drew an ugly face (petroglyphs) on a stone; women went down to the Amazon, at the mouth, from there to the underworld; Europeans were born from them, they make clothes, guns]: 390-394; Mich 1995: 490-493; Tucano: Fulop 1956 [the first sacred flutes could take the form of humans or birds; embodied the supreme deity Yepf Uake, they were given to people by Yupuri Bauro; in the form of birds they were hidden in boxes, in each couple is a brother and sister; women were not allowed to see them; Miriapura Turikaro has two wives, they are sisters; YuB predicted that the youngest will have two twin girls and the eldest son; the children were born in a day became adults; MT with his wives and children went to Maloka in the sky, in the sun; YuB told him to smoke there to know the future by smoke; if it's a bad omen, let him leave his family in heaven; divination it was bad, but they did the wrong thing, YuB thought it was good; the sisters heard the voices of the flute birds, went to watch; the flutes briefly turned into people in rich clothes, the girls fainted ; then at the birds, flew away with thunder; the sisters made new flutes from a pashiuba palm tree that grew from the ashes of YUB; YuB cursed MT for ruining everything, cutting off his son's head, but could not kill his daughters; ran away Diawi, let all Pamuri Mahsa in and closed the door; the fish made the flutes sound; the sisters drove all the men out of the village; Yepa Wake made new flutes, gave them to men; punished the women by shoving them flutes in the vagina]: 355-366 (retelling in Bolens 1967:65-66); Schaden 1959:153-154; yahuna: Koch-Grünberg 1910 (2): 292-293; bar [after the sacred instruments were ready, their left them in the water by the river; the men were lazy, and the women got up early, went to the river, took their tools; they tried to escape them; the women hid them in their bodies, first in the humerus and then in vagina; women gained power, refused to copulate and procreate; the shaman managed to deceive them, men returned their tools; now men go to bathe before women; women cannot see instruments, otherwise they will fall ill and die]: Jackson 1983:188 (=1991:36); letuama: Palma 1984:56 [there were four Yurupari sacred flutes; four Ayas brothers tell their aunt they go to kill fish poison, they ask to teach her; when she entered the water, one of the brothers became an anaconda, grabbed her; the brothers spread her legs, measured her vagina and abdomen, using this model they made holes in the sacred flutes; them aunt, mistress of the world, upset], 77-80 [Ayas brother did not know how to play sacred flutes; women could, took the flutes into the forest, began to play; brothers attacked women, took away flutes; women were frightened, thought that forest spirits had attacked, ran home; one woman hid the flute in her vagina, this is the only flute that women have preserved, and the other three in men; when attacked by a man aruñ arun (?) Calebasu with coca, blood has flowed; women have been menstruating ever since]; Kabiyari [sisters began to play the sacred Yurupari flutes, but their younger brother decided that the flutes should belong to men; now men have them]: Correa 1989:101-105; Yagua: Chaumeil 1983:190 [Runda's sacred horns and flutes symbolize hunting spirits; Rúnda is a man with a small penis, a great hunter; girls They clung to him, he rejected them; agreed to meet one, but could not satisfy him; he put her on a stake, screaming, Hoo hoo, climbed the vine into the sky; the men invited him to their first holiday; he agreed to come on the condition that women would not see him; one girl tried to spy, and her mother found her on a stake in the morning], 191 [once sacred instruments fell into the hands of women who, with their help, fell into the hands of women who, with their help, wanted to subdue men; but women did things wrong; var. in Powlison 1976:14: two women pretended to command spirits and use them to kill game; men saw that women only small clay vessels into which they blow, imitating the voice of spirits; women did not bring game, but frogs; then men made real horns]; chikuna: Nimuendaju 1952:77-78 [Dioi invented uaricána - conical horns made of spiral bark and wooden megaphones; painted them red, but one of the immortals ordered them to be repainted, take colorful clay, taking each color separately with a wind tube; u. taboo for children and women], 134 [before the holiday, the girl decided to spy on what u. looked like; climbed a tree and her sister was standing by the path; when the men passed, carrying u. the woman who climbed the tree saw not the tools, but the caimans, peed herself abundantly and fell; she was killed, cut, smoked, eaten; D. told everyone to eat her meat; the mother and sister of the victim smeared her cheeks with soot so that find out if they cry, if they cry, kill; summoned the girl's soul through u., she plaintively addressed her mother].

Central Amazon. Munduruku [three women hear music from the lake; they catch three fish with a net, which turn into three cylindrical horns; women play the horns, do not care about their husbands, who now make both male and female women's work; women's brother learns the secret of horns; women cannot get meat themselves to feed the horns, only give them manioc beer; men ask to be allowed to play the horns for one night, otherwise they will not will give women meat; women force men to get along with them; men drive women out of the male home forever, establish their dominance]: Kruse 1934:55, 57; 1952, No. 11:998-999; Murphy 1958, No. 22: 89-91.

Montagna - Jurua. Shipibo [mythical Women with Big Clitoris (their clitoris are perceived as penises) ruled men; during the initiation of girls, their clitoris is pulled out, making them feminine and Marriable]: Roe 1982:93, 106 in Gregor, Tuzin 2001:313.

Southern Amazon. Kamayura: Münzel 1973 [the man is married to two sisters who have sex with Cayman, feed their lover fish and manioc broth; Cayman wears necklaces and is decorated with feathers; predicts that her husband The women will kill him; then tells him to bury his corpse, it will grow into Caryocar butyrosum and corn; the women's husband hunts coati, who tells him about his wife's infidelity; the husband kills Cayman with an arrow, hits his wives with a stick; women burn Cayman's corpse, bury ashes, from which a peka tree grows with fruits of four colors; the parrot brings them to the Sun Murainat (owner of the village of Murena ); Quat (Sun) and Yau (Month) come to women, touch their genitals with a bake fruit; since then, the bakes have been fragrant, and the vaginas acquire the smell that the fruit had; they tell the fruits to ripen only once a year; women celebrate the first peki festival, play the sacred flutes, and Kwat and Yau say that from now on only men will play the flutes; Quat creates Khurivuri's whistle (a forest monster in the form of a fish or a snake), frightens women with it, they hide in their homes]: 162-169; Villas Boas, Villas Boas 1973 [Iamuricumá women played sacred jacu&# flutes 237;, played, danced and sang nightly in tapaim (men's house) and during the day in the square; men should not have seen it; the offender was collectively raped by women; the Sun and the Month decided to change this, they made horí-horí whistles, frightened the women, they hid in family huts, and the men occupied the men's house, started playing flutes]: 119-121; Mexico City: Gregor 1977 [women occupied a mansion and played sacred flutes there; men breastfed children, made manioc flour, wove hammocks, lived in family huts, and women cleared gardens, fished, hunted ; a man who visited a women's home during rituals was raped by women in the village square; one chief invented whistles; as soon as the women heard them, they threw sacred flutes, ran away from the women's home, hid; men entered the house, made it a man's home; now they rape women who see sacred flutes; men have begun to do men's work and women women's work]: 253; 1984:24-25; 1985:47 [female chief Iripyulakumaneju took women far away from men; they came and attacked the women's village, tore off their belts and anklets (they are now only worn by men), washed off coloring book], 112-113 [women left men; men were left alone, masturbating; men did not have arrows, bows, belts, hammocks, caught fish with their teeth like otters; did not bake on fire, but warmed under their arms; in the women's village had all cultural objects, there was a man's home; men came up with a whistle, kicked women out of the men's home, taught them how to do women's work], 196 [women owned a man's house; women owned a man's house; women had long pubic hair, the clitoris was as big as a penis, they had sex with each other; men lived in family huts, spun cotton, made manioc flour, worked hard; breastfed children, although they did not have enough milk; women discovered "songs of sacred flutes"; men, under the guidance of the chief, invented whistles, frightened women with it, kicked them out of the mansion, taught the current rules of separation labor]; Gregor, Tuzin 2001:315 [men lived without women, masturbated in the hand, had no weapons, clothes, ornaments, slept on the ground, grabbed fish with their teeth like otters, cooked it while warming it under their arms; women they lived in a separate village, owned the entire culture, a manhood and sacred flutes, and their leader was Iripyulakumanju], 324-325 [Pahikyawalu Woman (Crap Smeared) dresses up as a man, makes a penis out of a stick, comes to the men's house at night to play the sacred flute; men bury her in a hole; ten days later, her lover digs her up, she's covered in crap; he washes it in the river; she goes to another village, becomes beautiful; her former husband returns to her, wants to make love in the forest; she asks him to get honey first; shoves him into the hollow, he chokes in honey; now screams when it rains, Huru, Huru, Huru (obviously turns into a tree frog)]; kalapalo [a group of women owns sacred flutes (their transition to men is not described)]: Basso 1987 : 222-223; paresi [when Yuanalore's grandchildren copulate with the owner of the buriti palm tree, she always gets up and leaves first; Yuanalore got up first, his penis remains in his vagina, long ; he cut off a few pieces, the owner of the Buriti swallowed them; carried the rest in the basket; at night his penis crawls towards women; his son cuts the snake; Yuanalore rushes into the river, turns in a tapira; four women hit the water with a buriti stalk, summon a tapir, copulate with him; Kaimare followed, killed the tapir with an arrow, hung his penis over the entrance to the house; invited women to look for head; blood drips, women recognize the penis; call a tapira on the river, but only the Water Measure spider comes out, his penis is too small; women drink Kaimare drunk with Euterpe precatoria chicha; take sacred flutes; Dove tells K. what happened; K. rushes in pursuit; women leave flutes, reach a place where the edge of heaven beats against the ground]: Pereira 1986, No. 13:228-231; Iranian [see motif J12; the bird Sabia (Turdideo) comes to the village to teach how to play the sacred flutes; the hummingbird is among her companions; the girl gets pregnant with him; the Owl (Speotito cunicularia) hears him telling her to come to him when a child is born; at a fork, she moves a feather crown from the Hummingbird Trail to her path; a woman with her younger sister, child and mother come to Owl; women run away after meeting Cayman , Turtle, Battleship approach the village of Hummingbird; swim in the river, hear the sounds of sacred flutes; Stagmatoptera predicativa is the guardian of flutes; kills women and children with an ax so that they do not see flutes; Hummingbird regrets not going to the fork himself to meet his wife]: Pereira 1985, No. 2:36-43.

Araguaia. Karazha [women deplete their husbands' strength by repeated copulation; take away weapons, sacred masks, shaman's magic baton, leave the village; when they return, they establish dominance over men, forcing them to take care of children and do housework; copulate with Cayman, who supplies them with fish for it; a boy watches women, reports everything to men; a shaman makes a new baton, men retake power; summon Cayman, imitating women's voices, kill him; pieces of severed penis give women food mixed with fish; women learn the truth, try to attack men who are defeated; they leave; they form a new tribe together with the children they have born]: Peret 1979 in Prinz 1997:112-116.

Chaco. Chamacoco [women learn rituals from spirits, men first push women out of the ritual realm, then kill them]: Escobar 2007; Wilbert, Simoneau 1987a, No. 79, 80 [women find melon, that it grows, a stream of water flows from it, fish and gods; they tell women to equip a ritual hut and a dance floor; women hide the existence of men from the gods; one brings a baby with her male; after learning that men exist, gods drive women away, begin to teach men rituals; goddess Aishtuwénte advises men to exterminate women, promising them their daughter in return; her daughter turns into a deer, hides in a tree; all men copulate with it, kill it, cut it to pieces, everyone brings a piece of meat to their house; when they come back they see that these pieces have become new women and children; once Shírre's son (his chamacoco father is A.'s husband) broke the rules for the initiated, the gods ate him; S. begins to kill the gods, but they come to life; A. shows that you can only kill with a blow ankle; men kill almost everyone; A. dances with the remaining gods and humans; people kill gods, only Nemourt saves himself, telling people to be mortal; A. says to each of the people, to What kind of god he belongs to depends on which gods he killed; orders men to perform male rituals in memory of the gods], 81, 84, 85, 87:274-276, 287-291, 308-309, 320-322, 329-332, 348-349.

The Southern Cone. The Araucans [men overthrow female domination]: Dowling Desmadryl 1971 [men obeyed women, were their slaves; women did not work; men killed all women except little girls; one woman swam across the lake, to the horizon, became the Moon; married the Sun]: 125-126; Keller 1962:528; Kössler-Ilg 1982:136; alakaluf [during the Yinchiahua ceremony, men are frightened women in the name of this spirit; once this holiday was celebrated by women, led by the Moon, the wife of the Sun; women treated men badly, forced them to work all the time; under the guidance of the Sun, men overthrew women's power; women became animals of various kinds; the moon ran to heaven, her husband followed her]: Gusinde 1923-1924:287-288; 1984:487; Selknam: Chapman 1972 [Moon (Kra), daughter of Heaven, was the sister of Snow and the wife of the Sun; the Sun's brother was the Wind; Snow married the Rain's sister; the Moon and Snow belonged to the South, the Sun (Crane) and the Wind to the West; Rain, the Sea and their sister Storm - to the North; the East was the center of the universe and the focus of shamanic power; there was Speech (Temukel), the strongest of all; during the Hovenkh era, all of them, as well as some stars, lived on earth; then Hovenh people turned into birds, animals, plants, hills, lakes, rainbows, etc.; with the exception of T., the moon was the strongest; she and other women dominated men; they worked on housework, took care of children; girls took the status of women after undergoing rituals in the Hain hut; painted masked women depicted spirits coming out of the ground or descended from the sky; one day Sat (a bird that eats oysters), Swamp Kulik and Korolek (all from the West) looked into Hain; S. whistled, warning other men; the masked woman turned into a swan; The sun, and then the Wind, pushed the moon into the hearth; the moon ran to the sky, the Sun is still trying to catch it; he taught wives to beat, burn marks can be seen on the moon's face; men killed women, they turned into birds; only little girls remained]: 148-152; Gusinde 1931 [lights, winds, mountains, rivers were the first ancestors of hówenh, lived on earth; men did all women's work, obeyed women in everything; The women were led by the moon shaman Kra, the wife of the sun Kran; to keep the men at bay, she came up with the idea of building a large hut, painting herself, leaving the hut in the guise of spirits (klóketen rituals); men and women, looking from a distance, believed that it was perfume that came from heaven and from under the ground; women told their husbands that Xálpen needed meat, ate it themselves; when they returned from hunting, Crane accidentally I saw and overheard two girls (according to one version, his daughters) rehearsing the roles of spirits; told them to become two timid birds (like a duck); scared off another woman, she became a swan; Crane consistently sends three men (three types of birds) to run through a large hut and make sure that there is no one but women in it; when Crane's daughter came for meat, her father angrily threw her under guanaco legs; the women were frightened, but Kra decided to dress up as Xálpen again, go demand meat; this did not work; on the whistle of the šat bird, the men killed the women with clubs; Kra ran away to the sky, Crane is still chasing her, her face shows bruises and burns; after the extermination of the women, little girls remain; they grew up, men began to make clokten themselves; hiding the truth from women]: 600-601 (English in Wilbert 1975a, No. 57:147-161); yagans [women had power, they sat on the bow of the boat, men aft; men did all the housework; women built the Great Hut for Kina rituals, they said they were looking for Tanuva (a female underground spirit); they walked around the Big Island and where the Kina were built, there were open plains; in other places they remained wooded mountains; women wore masks and painted, men believed it was perfume; women decided not to look for more T., but to lie about what they found; they rolled their dry skins and hit the ground with a buzz with this bundle screamed, cried; men hid in fear; women in Kina's hut needed lots of meat; Löm (Sun) hunted for them; as he passed by the lake, he heard two girls talking and seeing them wash off the paint; L.'s two daughters ruled Kina; L. told the girls to tell him everything; in gratitude, advised him not to go to camp, but to stay on the lake; they turned into two freshwater ducks; var: the main secret was that women themselves ate perfume meat; the woman Te šur .kipa (sparrow genus) told the women that L. found out the secret; the women colored and rushed in kina; men looked at the dancers, recognized sisters and wives; each man took turns running around the women; they shot him in the trail, the arrow became the tail of the corresponding animal; the Otter has a wide tail, because a harpoon was thrown at the Otter; a branched bush was thrown at the Fox - the tail was fluffy; men attacked women with weapons; two ran away, the rest turned into animals; a fire broke out, L. poured so much on the kina the waters that some of the animals carried into the sea; waves are still beating against the rocks in the sea; the sound of the sea is the hiss of water with which L. filled the burning kina; L., his brother Akainish (rainbow) and that Hanukh's wife (Moon) took to heaven; only young children remained in the camp; Kina is now celebrated by men]: Gusinde 1937:1152-1156, 1342-1345; English translation in Wilbert 1977, No. 65:186-193.