Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

F41. Husbands kill wives . (.69.) .72.74.

First ancestor men kill women who behave against social norms.

West Irian, Monumbo, Porapora, Bougainville, Atayal, Czechs, Baniva, Kulina, Rickbacza, Paresi, (Karazha), Chamacoco, Araucans, Selknam, Alakaluf, Yagans.

Melanesia. Western Irian [the twins killed the ogre, bamboo grew on his grave; the women heard the wind buzzing in him, made flutes; the men heard, killed women, took flutes for secret rituals, where they are consumed with whistles and gongs]: Gourlay 1972:88; monumbo [women collected firewood, found Murup's sacred bamboo flutes in the forest; the spirit of the flutes taught them to play; men heard sounds, women and children were killed, flutes were taken]: Höltker 1965, No. 8:85-86; porapora [father left a young son named Waker where women were fishing; W. saw women call At the signal of the Minjo spirit drum, he comes out of the water, they feed him, M. copulates with them, then other spirits do the same; W. brought the men, they waited for the spirits to come ashore, killed the spirits and women; W.'s spear got stuck in M.'s head; W. created ducks and other waterbirds, they took out his spear; after that, M. died altogether]: Schwab 1970, No. 9:788-889; Northern Bougainville [woman found a whistle while chopping firewood, showed to other women; men killed all women except little girls, began to use whistles for ceremonies]: Gourlay 1972:84.

Taiwan - Philippines. Atayal [was a village of women; when they conceived children, they put their vaginas in the wind, always gave birth to girls; looking for the missing dog, the hunter came to these women; they wonder what was between his legs; he explains, they ask to show in practice; he copulates with everyone; because of the abundance of partners, he was not completely satisfied with anyone, although they liked it; the latter was called an old chief; by this time the man completely lost his erection; the old woman was offended, cut off his penis, he died; men came to take revenge on women; but wasps, bees, ants, hornets and other insects flew out of their homes, clung to clothes men, this is how they came to us (the origin of insects); the next time men burned the village along with insects and women; one girl escaped in the pig pen; a man from the village of Tahayakan married her ; their son founded a line of sorcerers; he's gone now, everyone was killed]: Norbeck 1950, No. 26:37-39.

Central Europe. Central Europe. The Czechs [{I do not yet understand the source of Irasek, but this is certainly not a falsification of the 19th century, but not a chronicle of Kozma Prazhsky}; the girls led by Vlasta rebelled against men, went to Devin, killed numerous men, executed their leader Tzirad; after that, men prevailed, killed all women]: Irasek 1943:29-34; Czechs ["At that time, the girls of this country were reaching maturity fast: like the Amazons, they longed for military weapons and chose their leaders; they were engaged in military affairs like young men, and they hunted in the woods like men; and therefore not men they chose their husbands when they wanted, and the girls themselves chose their husbands when they wanted, and like the Scythian tribe, swimming trunks and Pechenegs, they did not know the difference between men's and women's clothing. Women's courage grew so much that on one rock, not far from the named city, they built a city protected by nature, and gave this city the name Devin, from the word "virgin." Seeing all this, the young men became very angry with the girls and, meeting even more, built a hail nearby on another rock in the middle of the thicket, no more than the sound of a horn away; today's people {call} this city is Vysegrad; at that time it was called Hrasten, from {word} thicket. Because girls were often superior to boys in cunning and deceiving, and boys were often braver than girls, so war broke out between them and then peace broke out. {And one day}, when peace was made between them, both sides decided to get together to eat and drink and party unarmed for three days at an agreed place. So what's next? Young men began to feast with girls like predatory wolves looking for prey and trying to break into the sheepfold. They had fun on the first day; there was a feast and a bountiful libation. While they wanted to calm their thirst, another thirst arose, the Young Men kept their thirst until one o'clock in the morning. Night has come, and the moon has lit up the earth from heaven. One {of the young men} blew his horn and said: "We have played enough during the day, we ate enough and drank enough. Stand up, golden Venus calls us its horn." And everyone immediately kidnapped a girl. When morning came, peace was made between the warriors; food and drink, gifts from Ceres and Bacchus, were taken away from the city {Devina}, and its empty walls were handed over to Lemniac Vulcan. Since then, after the death of Princess Libushe, women have been under male rule "]: Kozma Prazhsky 1962:46-47.

(Wed. Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kabardian people [returning from the campaign, Gloomy Pshi sees his wife's lover in the house; he sees hanshi's lover at Khan's house; hansha obediently suffers beatings, but cries when the khan threw the towel at her; khan s Gloomy Pshi is ordered to destroy all women; in one village, an old man tells how an unknown warrior asked him to hold his horse three times, entered the mound, went out with blood, drank it; a warrior turned out to be a woman who avenged three others for the death of her three brothers and husband; now she is the storyteller's wife; when they heard of such valor, Khan and Gloomy Pshi stopped exterminating women]: Huth 1987:137-143).

NW Amazon. Baniva [Yurupari (Kovai) ate Christ's people, he decided to kill him, Y. fled to heaven; H. ordered him to be invited to the dabukuri festival; Yu told his wife that he was going to a feast where H. he would be killed, but that he would return and from then on people would die and go to him; when he was burned, so it was; women stole the secret of the holiday with flutes and masks; women danced and men baked cakes and did housework; Yu pretended to be a woman, smeared his genitals with blood as if he were on his period; killed women, threw his aunt to Rio Negra; since then, men have been celebrating, women have been working home]: Galvão 1959:47-49.

Montagna - Jurua. Kulina [women take Otters as lovers; they bring them fish, copulate on the shore; a shaman sends a snake to follow women; men kill Otters; in a community house they ask their wives to take them out husbands of insects; the blood of dead Otters drips on women; husbands kill wives by blowing tobacco smoke into their nostrils; young women turn into wild pigs, old into anteaters; children into birds; hunters kill pigs can't eat that much, meat goes bad; they turn into vultures]: Adams 1962, No. 16:128-130.

Southern Amazon. Rickbacz [during ritual dances, a man and a woman violate the ban on sexual intercourse; the rest of the men kill all women, commit suicide themselves]: Pereira 1994, No. 24:170-173; paresi [boy and girl sleep together; mother kills them, buries them in a copulation position; two Caryocar brasiliensis trees grow on the grave; women make a drink from their fruits, give men something whether peeled, they drink their own pulp drink; men kill women; one spared his wife, but she was found, killed too; men go to look for new wives; marry the daughters of the Tree Master; they have no vaginas; The battleship teaches what size vaginas should be; men make their wives pubic hair from palm fiber; at first, copulation lasts a long time, like dogs, then people and dogs have changed]: Pereira 1986, No. 2:79-82.

(Wed. Araguaya. Karazha: Baldus 1952-1953:210 [two old men quarreled, one dug a hole, made a fire in it, people, animals, fish, and all living things died in the fire; old men shot each other in the stomach, died; a green parrot flew in; the surviving young man asked him to marry him {apparently, the parrot has already taken on a human image}; carage does not kill the Pougaev; var.: after the old people have taken each other killed, leaving two boys and two periquito parrots in the house; the boys watched periquito grind and cook corn, became girls; when the boys grew up, they married them, from them new people], 210-211 [(this is option 3 in Ehrenreich 1891); there is a festival in the village; the dancers took off their masks; the rest went hunting and fishing; each promised to return with their prey; three boats sailed up with the flow, one young man swam down; his blind, lame mother remains at the hearth; when he returns, he asks her if the dead really danced; the mother replies that men danced with their fingers on each other a friend in the manner of the dead; then the others returned, including two strongmen Tenira and Sokrä; one of them cut off the old woman's head with a knife from piranha oaks, showed everyone, ordered them to dig a grave in it set fire to firewood, threw all the carages into the fire; began to fight, hit each other in the eye, died; two parrots remained in the village; two young men came, who were late hunting; returning the next day from hunting, found food cooked, heard women's voices, knocks; on the third day they found two girls; from these two couples - the current carage]; (=Baldus 1937:216-217); Ehrenreich 1891 [1) a young man escapes , asks the Parrot Girl to marry him; 2) two boys escape; find two Parrots cooking in their house, becoming girls; boys grow up, marry Parrots; 3) as in (2) ); two young men who hunted in the forest are saved]: 39-40).

Chaco. Chamacoco [women are not diligent in teaching rituals, or they mislearn ritual secrets]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1987a, No. 68 [no details; one woman turns into a capybara], 80, 84, 85, 87 [(Metraux 1943:116); an uninitiated boy was lying sick in his hut; his mother climbed to repair the roof, he saw her genitals, met her; told her about the mystery of Anãpö sö (women's frightening perfume is mummer men); after learning that the mystery has been solved, the men killed all women; one ran away in the form of a deer; men had to do women's work; a woman who ran away hid in a tree; spat; a man under the tree noticed her; the men climbed the tree, but were hampered by their erected penises, they sprayed the entire trunk with sperm; then they climbed from the other wood, raped a woman; she told them to cut it into pieces; the pieces fell into the sprayed semen; each took a piece and brought it to the village; the men went fishing, sent a shaman to find out what was in village; the shaman was afraid of the jaguars, came back halfway, said that the pieces had rotted; they sent another, who turned into a bird, saw that the village was full of women and children; but when he returned, he said that the meat had been eaten vultures; men came and saw children and women; those who took pieces from their hips got fat wives, and thin wives from their fingers]: 291, 322, 332, 348-349.

The Southern Cone. Araucans: Dowling Desmadryl 1971 [men were slaves to women, women did not work; they killed all women, leaving only little girls; one woman ran away, swam across the lake to horizon, became the Moon, married the Sun]: 125-126; Kössler-Ilg 1982 [men killed women for not working; after that, the Sun and his wife Luna hid under their skin; 4 days were dark; Agouti and other animals tried to bring the Sun back to heaven, burned themselves; only the Condors succeeded; then the Moon fell from under the skin (Fell des Mahlsteines); var.: 4 days later, the Flamingo peeled off his skin; c since then it is not white, but slightly burnt, pink; the skin remained in the sky, this is the Milky Way and the Southern Cross; (retelling in Keller 1962:525-528)]: 136-140; alakaluf [during the Yinchiahua ceremony men frighten women in the name of this spirit; once this holiday was celebrated by women, led by the Moon, the wife of the Sun; women treated men badly, forced them to work all the time; under guidance Men's suns overthrew women's power; women became animals of various species; the moon ran to heaven, her husband followed her]: Gusinde 1923-1924:287-288; 1984:487; Selknam: Chapman 1972 [Moon ( Kra), daughter of Heaven, was the sister of Snow and the wife of the Sun; the Sun's brother was the Wind; Snow married the Rain's sister; the Moon and Snow fell to the South, the Sun (Crane) and the Wind to the West; Rain, Sea and their sister Storm was to the North; the East was the center of universal power and the focus of shamanic power; there was Speech (Temukel), the strongest of all; at the time of Hovenkh, all of them, as well as some stars lived on earth; then people = howenh turned into birds, animals, plants, hills, lakes, rainbows, etc.; with the exception of T., the moon was the strongest; she and other women dominated men; they worked as housewives, took care of children; girls became women after undergoing rituals in the Hain hut; painted masked women depicted spirits coming out from under land or descended from the sky; one day Sat (a bird that eats oysters), Swamp Kulik, and Korolek (all from the West) looked into hain; S. whistled, warning other men; the masked woman turned into the swan; the Sun and then the Wind pushed the moon into the hearth; the moon ran to the sky, the Sun is still trying to catch it; he taught wives to beat, burn marks can be seen on the moon's face; men killed women, those turned into birds; only little girls remained]: 148-152; Gusinde 1931 [lights, winds, mountains, rivers were the forefathers of hówenh, lived on earth; men did all women's work, everything obeyed women; the women were led by the moon shaman Kra, the wife of the sun Kran; to keep the men at bay, she came up with the idea of building a large hut, painting herself, leaving the hut in the guise of perfume ( klóketen rituals); men and women, looking from a distance, believed that it was perfume that came from heaven and from the ground; women told their husbands that Xálpen needed meat, ate it themselves; returning from hunting, Crane accidentally spied and overheard two girls (according to one version, his daughters) rehearsing the roles of spirits; told them to become two timid birds (like a duck); frightened another woman, she became a swan; The crane consistently sends three men (birds of three types) to run through the large hut and make sure that there is no one but women in it; when Cran's daughter came for meat, her father left her in anger under the guanaco's feet; the women were frightened, but Kra decided to dress up as Xálpen again, go demand meat; this did not work; on the whistle of the šat birds, the men killed the women with clubs; Kra ran to heaven, Crane is still chasing her, her face shows bruises and burns; after the extermination of the women, little girls remain; they grew up, the men themselves began to make clockten; hiding them from women truth]: 600-601 (English in Wilbert 1975a, No. 57:147-161); yagans [women had power, they sat on the bow of the boat, men aft; men did all the housework; women built the Big The Kina hut, they said they were looking for Tanuva (a female underground spirit); they walked around the Big Island and where the Kina were built, there were open plains; in other places they remained wooded mountains; women wore masks and painted, men believed it was perfume; women decided not to look for more T., but to lie about what they found; they rolled their dry skins and hit the ground with a buzz with this bundle, screamed, cried; men hid in fear; women in Kina's hut needed lots of meat; Löm (Sun) hunted for them; as he passed by the lake, he heard two girls talking and seeing them wash off the paint; L.'s two daughters ruled Kina; L. told the girls to tell him everything; in gratitude, advised him not to go to camp, but to stay on the lake; they turned into two freshwater ducks; var: the main secret was that women themselves ate perfume meat; the woman Te šur .kipa (sparrow genus) told the women that L. found out the secret; the women colored and rushed in kina; men looked at the dancers, recognized sisters and wives; each man took turns running around the women; they shot him in the trail, the arrow became the tail of the corresponding animal; the Otter has a wide tail, because a harpoon was thrown at the Otter; a branched bush was thrown at the Fox - the tail was fluffy; men attacked women with weapons; two ran away, the rest turned into animals; a fire broke out, L. poured so much on the kina the waters that some of the animals carried into the sea; waves are still beating against the rocks in the sea; the sound of the sea is the hiss of water with which L. filled the burning kina; L., his brother Akainish (rainbow) and that Hanukh's wife (Moon) took to heaven; only young children remained in the camp; the kina is now celebrated by men]: Gusinde 1937:1152-1156, 1342-1345 (English translation in Wilbert 1977, No. 65:186-193).