Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

G13A. Humans ate the land .

Before the appearance of cultivated plants or fire, people ate earth, clay, and stones.

Bangubangu, Watut, Susure, Tahiti, Khmer, Chukchi, Yokutz, Kupeno, Popoloka, Makiritare, Yanomami, Maihuna, Uitoto, Okaina, Quechua Yura, Ashaninka, Machigenga, Matses, Kashinahua, Sharanaua .

Bantu-speaking Africa. Bangubangu [the first ancestors of Mulolo Mulohwe and his wife Lolo came out of the cave; at first they ate only white land; they have many children; they met dwarfs in the forest, they taught them how to get fire by friction ; after that they began to eat differently and no longer ate the earth; they dug a well to get water, but it dried up; then they began to make a huge tree to climb into the sky and get water from the clouds; all descendants The first couple climbed there and when the sky was very short, the tree could not withstand their weight, the branches and people fell into different areas, and now there are different languages]: Maes 1933:498.

Melanesia. Cotton wool: Fischer 1963, No. 3 [a lonely man ate the ground while drying it in the sun; two women came down from the sky, gave him cultivated plants, showed him how to cook in a clay jar; she became his wife, the other went back to heaven], 4 [husband, wife and daughter ate the ground; the man came down from heaven, visited the girl, gave her yams, bananas, sweet potatoes; told her to throw the earth away; her parents watched, asked the man to marry their daughter; one day he climbed back to heaven as usual, but an old woman in the sky pulled up her rope and closed the door; he hung between heaven and earth, fell, crashed]: 138, 138-139; sushi: Lehner 1975, No. 2a [there were no cultivated plants, people were cooking stones; old Mekue died; her husband found a dead rat in the forest, started making a fire at home, sent two grandchildren to bring meat; instead those rats saw their grandmother (or her spirit); she gave them a tarot, everyone liked it; M.'s two sons told her grandchildren to spy on her getting tarot; it turned out that she was extracting it from her skin; M. ordered her to clear plot, kill her, pour blood on the site, put her side closer to home, legs under a tree, put her genitals on a tree branch; after the rain, tarot, yams, bananas and other plants grew in the garden; because grandmother killed by a younger brother (the elder refused), he took twice as much of the garden], 2b [there was no tarot, people were cooking stones; old woman Mekue told her sons Kulubob and Wailele to clear the plot and kill her; Spread blood on the ground, put your side closer to home, your thigh under the tree, the clitoris and the shoulder of your hand on a branch; the youngest, W., agreed to kill; after the rain, bananas, tarot, cultivated and wild sugar grew out of blood reeds and everything else; the thigh became yams, the eyes became beans, the clitoris a rooster, the shoulder with a hand drum, the thigh became a slit gong; the brothers put the harvest in bags, hung them on a Taman tree; on a tree Tarot fruits grew; they fell, pigs picked them up, the village foreman noticed a tarot in the pig's mouth; they followed the pig with another man, but lost their trail in the depths of the forest; then they attached the pig to the ear a rattle, found a tree, if tarot; decided to cut down a tree; they cut down a tree for two days with a break for the night, knocked down; the spirit of Miani took the best tarot from the top of our head, and the Mawake spirit and we were below, worse; but then we got and good from Miani; had a party; the spirit of Truamun told me how to grow tarot]: 742-744, 744-746.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Tahiti [during the famine, people ate red clay; the father felt sorry for the children; he told his wife to go out in the morning to see what happened to him; in the morning, the wife found a breadtree in the place of the one who had brought herself to husband's victim]: Henry 1928:423-436.

Burma - Indochina. Khmers [above Mount Sumeru is the heavenly world of beautiful long-lived creatures - tevoda; they decided to punish the people living on earth for their sins; first, the earth was burned by seven suns, then everything was flooded by the flood; when the waters began to fall, eight creatures were sent from the sky - próm; they began to eat sea foam, then earth, then plants (when they appeared); according to another version, they ate mushrooms first, then the fruits of the vine , then rice; rice filled their bellies with excrement, they made two holes, P. split into men and women, gave birth to new people]: Chesnov 1982a: 340.

SV Asia. Chukchi [people live in the dark, eat black stones instead of meat, white stones instead of fat; in the kele world, the sun is hidden, wrapped in skins; the raven comes to play ball with Kele's daughter, persuades her ask his father for the sun to play, flies away with him; a bundle holes, the world is flooded with light, the Kele flees; after kicking branches, the Raven turns them into deer; flying above the ground, drags his wing, doing excavating them and creating rivers and the sea; becomes thunder]: Bogoras 1928, No. 4:304-305.

California. Wükchamni (central foothills) [just a small island in the waters; a turtle comes to Eagle and Coyote, telling it to dive; they find some land under their claw, put it on the water, the earth grows; six human pairs make, send them in different directions; people have nothing to eat, they eat the land, some have already been eaten; the Eagle and the Coyote send a pigeon, which brings a seed; the earth is covered plants; underground and now water]: Kroeber 1907a, No. 25:218-219; cupeño (Palm Spring) [darkness at first; Feminine and Masculine gave birth to two embryos in the placenta; they were born before term, soon grew up, talked to each other, named themselves Mukat and Tamayawit; each claims to be older than the other, to be the first to hear sounds from the darkness; they begin to extract from their hearts various objects and objects; each time M. gets black (connected to the West) and T. gets white (east); pipes, tobacco, they smoke, create the central pillar of the world, climb it, put land on it , they get the sky, the sea; everything swings, they tell spiders, ants to keep everything; two Vortices are told to hold the sky at the edges; compete in the creation of people; T. took the Coyote out of his heart, made his own assistant; M. took out an Owl; M. sculpts people from dark clay, T. from white clay; people have a second face on the back of the head, abdomen in front and back, feet pointing in both directions, hands like dog paws; he says that Everything will go through your fingers, but it's good to grab it with your paws; M. objects that you can't take anything with them; T. takes his creations and falls underground; T.: There will be no death; M.: People will die. - But come back. - With a terrible smell. - We'll smoke, wash it off. - There's not enough space for them. - Let's expand the world. - There's not enough food. - Let them eat the land. - And they'll eat everything. - Let's make more land; T. is angry, falls into the lower world, taking its creation; trying to drag the earth and sky, but M. rests; mountains and rivers formed during a terrible earthquake]: Strong 1929:130-135 (translated to Zolotarev 1964:156-160).

Mesoamerica Popoloka [The Sun (Jose) is the younger brother, Luna (Maria) is the older sister; only the Morning Star is shining; people want more light, asking X. and M. to jump into the fire; M. is afraid falls into the fire, burns; H. jumps over the fire; the sun rises; there was no corn before, people ate sand and rocks; sometimes you can't see the moon, it's the mountains that cover it]: Jacklein 1974:284-285.

Southern Venezuela. Makiritar [the inhabitants of the earth ate the earth; the monkey Kúshu found out that a giant cassava bush was growing in the sky; got there, made the bush small, hid it under his fingernails; the owner of cassava Suamo followed, peeled off K.'s skin; sister K. restored it to its former appearance; K., with cassava under his fingernails, went down to the ground, gave Kamáso cassava to plant it; only a rickety plant grew; the same in second place; in third place it grew well; the Daríche bird brought water from the sky, watered cassava; Eréñahádi took the seed to plant {cassava does not reproduce by seeds}, but the seed did not sprout; Uanádi's mother (cultural hero), on the advice of the sorcerer Wádi, planted a seed in Maráhuaca, where it grew into a giant tree with fruits of all kinds on branches; they fell and killed animal people, in including Wade's son was killed; all animals and birds, under the direction of Seménia, collected fruits from the ground; Tapir and Jaguar collected only for themselves, hid them; S. sent them to bring water in the basket, cut down the tree; falling, it formed three mountain ranges; S. ordered the bird Darice to spill the water brought from the sky, it formed rivers; Tapir and Jaguar ran to the fallen tree, but the rivers blocked their way; the waters became the master of the waters a huge snake; when Jaguar reached, he said "Now we'll eat humans"; Tapir heard "We'll eat leaves now"; so the jaguar became a predator, a herbivorous tapir]: Civrieux 1960:185-188; yanomami [ people ate the ground; there was no night; people had sex in front of each other; Hõrõnami's son shot a guana; the arrow slightly hit the wing, it became dark for a moment; H. killed the guan, night fell; then H. grew the first bananas]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 62:134.

Western Amazon. Maihuna [at first people did not bake tortillas from manioc flour, but from the ground]: Bellier 1991b: 29.

NW Amazon. Uitoto: Girard 1958 [Buinaima water snake copulated with Amena-cogoena or Monayyalque (identified with Nafuey - moon, first woman); a boy was born, on the fourth day he turned into a tree with cassava, peanuts, peppers and other cultivated plants on top; the mother collected the fruit, and people then ate the ground; to get the fruit, people cut down a tree; water poured out of the trunk - rivers, from Edible plants appeared, mainly cassava; this child tree was named Faqurani, its attribute is an ax; var: Buinaima (forest owner, thunder) cuts down the tree himself to give people fruit]: 74- 76; Preuss 1921, No. 2 [Hitiruni ("black") girl rejected all suitors, including the Sun; Sikire ("bamboo") Buneima (aquatic mythical creatures) imperceptibly fertilizes her when she sits on the trough; appears as a young man, leads under water, sends them back; she gives birth to a boy who turns into a huge tree; all cultivated plants and roots are edible on its branches; the woman bakes them under her arms and under her arms knees, brings parents; people stop eating crushed stones, white clay and rotten wood, go to cut wood; Nofuyeni (one of the first ancestors) takes a toad axe, but from blows the liver comes out of her mouth; receives a red parrot axe from her ancestor, knocks down a tree; throws chips into the water, they turn into fish; carves a woman out of one sliver, marries Hitoma (to the Sun); turns into a cat, flies to heaven]: 170-188; Yépez 1982 [Aime Huram has a daughter; Jusido Bunaima came to chew coca, asked her to marry; AH, his wife and daughter went to the station; when they returned, HM became as a bird, the daughter asked her to catch it, kept it in the basket; when they came again, the birds were gone, and HM was a man; they decided that he took the bird; the next night AH and HB chewed coca again; HB: must endure; but AH still went out to urinate; HS: if you don't want coca, tobacco, you can't stand it, you'll eat soil, dry wood; AH Monayaterisai's daughter was sitting on a mat; HB snuck to her from below in the form of a worm, conceived a son Housitofe (cassava); his mother sent M. to bring water to a sieve to sift manioc flour, found a worm, filled it with boiling water; HB in a dream told M. to put the baby she would give birth to in a pot, cover it do not show the parents with a leaf, make a cake from the foam that has risen; they saw an ant running with a piece of cassava, found out that their daughter had cassava; M. told them not to sleep, watch the child; from the child grew a manioc tree, pineapples, caimo, aguacate and other fruits on the branches; a lake grew along with the tree, the fruits fell into the water; they were taken out by the Old Rat; Father AH began to look for an ax; a woodpecker axe , a bird axe with a hard beak, an ordinary ax, a toad axe, a piranha axe were not suitable; he hardly woke up his fox uncle; he took a knife, cut off the vine for which the tree was tied to the sky; when he fell the fox tree injured the throat, the sons of the AH smeared the wound with yellow medicine, since then the foxes have a yellow throat; foxes are allowed to eat fruits in the gardens as a reward; AH collected oil from the water, brought, planted, and grew cassava; from the same lake and tree, ritual songs and accessories]: 63-69; okaina [amena Kog (oe) n virgin became pregnant from a snake crawling out of a hole in the ground to her, bringing a lot of food; her mother she noticed a hole in the floor, poured boiling water into it, the serpent died; in a dream, his spirit tells him to leave the son she will give birth to in the upper reaches of the ravine; four days later there was a giant tree; on its branches it was sweet and bitter cassava, corn, peanuts and other fruits; the girl ate them and other people ate the ground; when she told them, people cut down a tree, planted fruits; where the tree fell, a spring hammered; as punishment for that What was cut down, people have been dying ever since]: Girard 1958:133-134, 137 [this is the first woman]; 196:130.

The Central Andes. Quechua yura (Southern Bolivia) [the first humans (chulps) lived in the moonlight, grew stones in the fields; their master was the moon god; when our god Tyusninchis (sun) appeared, he destroyed the chulps fiery rain]: Rasnake 1988:143.

Montagna - Jurua. Ashaninka (Pajonal district campa) [there were no cultivated plants, people ate the land; the father left his daughter in the cave for the first period; Manchákori (Month) came in the dark; at this time the girl chewed plants to regulate menstruation, spat at the person who came, stains remained on the face of the Month; M. gave forest fruits; when the girl's parents return, let them take them in order; but they mixed them, now in the forest was all mixed up; when the Month appeared, people ran and turned into earthworms; others in animals (in particular marten); the girl's mother, father, and younger brother remained; when the girl began to give birth, The month told her to grab a tree that was blooming in early summer; she grabbed the wrong thing, burned down, giving birth to a hot Sun; the Sun had a tail, the Month cut it off, made it out of pieces of people; from the smallest - Ashaninka; Maonte told the girl's father to take the Sun; if he burned, throw it on the ground; he threw it into the water, so mists appeared; Maonte became a bird with a black back; the Month itself also rose to sky]: Varese 1970:167; machigenga: Baer 1984, No. 1 [people eat land; girl's first period; mother leaves her in the hut, tells her not to go out, leaves to bring edible land, calling her cassava; at this time, the Month comes to the girl, gives real cassava; is accepted into the family, cultivates the garden, cassava, as well as corn, bananas, Sachpapa, Dale-Dale; the wife of the Month gives birth to a Sun Son; when pregnant again, dies during childbirth; mother-in-law rabies throws blood into her son-in-law's face, since then stains for a month; The month promises that the deceased will be reborn, but she does not believe, tells him to eat her daughter since he killed her; he cuts a tapir (= his wife or her soul); takes his son to heaven, who becomes the Sun (which son is not entirely clear); first the Sun is motionless, the rivers dry up, the children die; shamans ask him to come in motion, the alternation of day and night begins]: 423-424; García 1942 [there were no cultivated plants; people ate pottery; having no teeth, pecking it like chickens; a girl is sitting in a menstrual hut, The month (Kashiri) brings her boiled cassava, teaches her how to chew; parents are happy with her son-in-law; The month does not give cassava to another girl who also has her period; she throws blood in his face, the spots are still visible; The month leads my wife is swimming in the river, she is touched by a fish, she becomes pregnant, gives birth to four sons in succession; these are Pariáchiri (Sun), Sarípoto (Venus), Kientiámpa (the sun of the lower world, shining weakly), Koriénti (Kiénti, Tábanti) is the sun of the uppermost world that illuminates and warms celestials; stars take their shine from it; by the birth of each Month, it plants pumpkins; at the last pregnancies they dry up; the baby is hot, the wife dies of burns; the woman's mother angrily said that after the Month killed her daughter, he can only eat the corpse; the Month has resurrected his wife, but she (her soul ) decided to go to the lower world, leaving her body on earth; then the Month reluctantly ate the corpse and painted his face red, establishing a funeral custom (endocannibalism); he liked the human being; now, through fault old woman, the Month became a corpse eater and decided to leave people; his third son began to live in the lower world; this sun is evil and weak; it sends rain when it is necessary to burn vegetation on plot; with the other sons, the Month rose to heaven; the latter was too hot, stones were cracking on the ground from the heat; so the Month placed it so high that it was impossible to see it from the ground; along with the Month Only our Sun and Venus live; on the Moon River, he has set a peak for corpses to fall into it (machigenga throw the dead into the river); the toad watches the top and as soon as a corpse hits it, reports the Month; he resorts, kills (so!) the corpse hits a club, cuts off, roasts and eats limbs; the rest turns into a tapir; only daughters of the month are left on the ground - cultivated plants (cassava, sweet potato, corn, bananas, etc.; if people they scatter peels, do not clean the tubers well, etc., the manioc girl cries and complains to her father; if cassava is eaten without everything or with only hot pepper, the manioc girl is angry: she is left alone or burned; if eaten with meat or fish, the daughter of the Month is happy; especially happy when cassava is made into beer; the same applies to other daughter plants of the Month; if they are mistreated, the Month will take them to itself and people I'll have to eat earth again]: 230-233; matses [before the appearance of cultivated plants, people ate clay; there was no fire, clay resembling manioc flour was baked in the sun; powjil (Mitu tomentosa) gave people cassava, babanas, corn, peach palm and other cultivated plants]: Erikson 1994:80 (retelling in Matusovsky 2019:249); cachinahua [people eat land; The squirrel takes the form of a man, marries a woman, grows all kinds of cultivated plants; all the work is done by herself; the wife cheats on Belka with her ex-husband; The squirrel turns into a bat, cuts off his penis, takes him away; a man dies; The squirrel mixes pieces of his penis with tapir meat, lets his wife eat; she gets sick; people try to kill Squirrel, he turns into a squirrel, runs away; arrows pierce supply vessels, plants on vegetable garden; supplies turn into wasp gnezds, cultivated plants into weeds]: d'Ans 1975:172-186; sharanahua [people eat mud and shrimp, Squirrel has corn; he marries two girls his father-in-law works in the garden; made holes in the ground with a stick, the water from the river left, picked up shrimp, then the water came back; mouse, paka and other rodents help him in the garden; the next day, cassava, the corn is ripe; the father-in-law, despite the warning, comes to the garden and drives away the rodents, thinking they are stealing crops; one of the two wives has a lover; the squirrel turns into a bat, Snacks the rope of the hammock in which the lovers lie, they fall; later bites off the lover's penis, he dies; gives the fried penis to his wife, she eats, is thirsty, dies; The squirrel turns into a flying mouse, flies away]: Siskind 1973:123-125.