Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

G8. Overgrown felling, D1565.1+, E30.1. .10.-.14.16.19.-.23.25.-.

People or animals cut down or gnaw a tree, a mountain, or a sky support. As soon as employees are distracted from their work (usually go on vacation) or periodically at a certain time, the injuries caused disappear.

Hottentots, Zulu, Xhosa, Ronga, Yaka (Baja), Bolia, Maragoli, Rwanda, Ijo, Mamprusi, Mosi, Manden, Bambara, Lobi, Von, Felupe, Tangale, Temne, Songhai, Joluo, Tuaregs, Arabs Morocco (Reef), Kabila, Algerian Arabs, Egyptian Arabs, Scots, Monumbo, Bukavak, Cooney, Motu, Dobu, Santa Cruz Islands, Banks Islands, Yap, Ulithi, Truk, Mokil, Marshall Islands (Voto), Gilbert Islands, Tuvalu, Bellona , Tonga, Maori, Hawaii, Tuamotu (incl. Pukapuka), Cook Islands (Aitutaki, Rarotonga, Manihiki, Pukapuka), Mangareva, Marques, Lepcha, Burma Naga, Khasi, Shans, Chaams, Khmers, Viets, Nepalis, (Malays), Paiwan, Chinese (including ancients), Miao, Meo ( Vietnam), Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Belarusians, Georgians, Kumyks, Turks, Persians, Kafirs (Prasun), Lithuanians, Estonians, Norwegians, Bashkirs, Komi, Udmurts, Eastern and Southern Khanty, Ket, Japanese, Southern tutchoni, shuswap, southern utah, jicarilla, tarahumara, sayula popoluka, kekchi and mopan, rama, bribri, kuna, embera, chimila, yaruro, sicuani, guayabero, maquiritare, taulipan, kofan, napo, aguaruna, piapoco, ufaina, yukuna, makuna, kabiyari, okaina, yagua, chikuna, ashaninka, kashinahua, kayabi, nambiquara, paresi, kayapo, apinaye, caduveo.

SW Africa. See G8B motif: They try to cut down a tree to get a person who has climbed it. Hottentots: Schmidt 2007, No. 17:45-54

Bantu-speaking Africa. See G8B motif: They try to cut down a tree to get a person who has climbed it. Yaka (baya): Tessmann 1934b: 236; bolia: Mamet 1960:115-119; Rwanda: Smith 1988:79-80; ronga: Knappert 1977, No. 17:58-63; Zulu: Snegirev 1937:107-112; Callaway 1868:48-52 in Parsons 1922:10; Xhosa: McCall Theal 1882:115-119; Maragoli: Kavaji 2005, No. 14:232-236.

West Africa. See G8B motif: They try to cut down a tree to get a person who has climbed it. Ijo [the king always bathed in the spring; once he was away for a long time, and when he returned, it turned out that a tree had grown around the spring and it was no longer possible to swim; the king ordered that the tree be cut down, but felling immediately overgrown; then he went to cut him himself, but a sliver fell into his eye; the king was getting worse; finally he was told that only a healer from the spirit world would cure him; he came and demanded the king's daughter in exchange; took her away, and the next morning the eye passed; in the spirit world, a girl is fattened; she gives food to a good skull; he warns what to eat, teaches her to run, gives a drug; she throws the drug at a fork and two roads are made alone; does not talk to anyone, does not turn around; resorts to his father; orders all kinds of cattle to be slaughtered; the spirit came running, ate this meat, returned to its world; the king forbid calling the dead from the spirit world to treat someone]: Dayrell 1910, No. 28:98-103; mamprusi: Anpetkova-Sharova 1966, No. 12:22-24; mosi: Frobenius 1986:91-92; Sissao 2010, No. 28:75-78; Senufo: Diep, Bamba 2007, No. 2: 13-15; manden: Frobenius 1922b, No. 95:170-177; bambara: Zeltner 2013:47-62; felupe: Nikolnikov, Katasonova 1976:119-121; tangale: Jungraithmayr 2002:404; dark : Turay 1989:165-191; Songhai: Hama 1967:258-259; Lobi: Anpetkova-Sharova 2010:127-131; background: Herskovits, Herskovits 1958, No. 17, 51, 63, 65, 66:186-190, 240-241, 271-272, 275-284, 274-187.

Sudan - East Africa. See G8B motif: They try to cut down a tree to get a person who has climbed it. Gioluo: K'Okiri 1970:11-31.

North Africa. Tuaregs (central Niger) [see G8B motif: A cannibal cuts a tree to reach a man]: Rasmussen 1998:269-270 (paraphrase), 279-284 (substitch); Morocco (Reef): Coon 1931:155-156 [dwarfs as tall as two years old, old from birth, naked, humpback live underground; every day they dig a way to destroy people and live on earth in their place; every evening they say that there is not much left, we need to rest; during the night the move is covered with earth; this is because they do not say In sh'a Allah; if they guess to say, they will finish the work, destroy people], 156 [these dwarfs hajuj u majuj live in the east behind an iron wall; if they break into our world, they destroy people]; kabila [the earth rests on the horns of a bull, if it moves, the world will die; there are 7 layers of earth and 7 heavens; our layer is the fifth Below, above, there are two more; on the lower layer there are tiny creatures hatching from ant larvae; they are angrier and smarter than even ants; there is a tree growing there, if they fall, these creatures will crawl to the ground and that's it will die; they gnaw on a tree and almost gnaw through the trunk in the evening, but go to rest, and during the night the trunk becomes intact again]: Frobenius 1921a, No. 13:83-84; see motif G 8B: the tree is cut down to get the one who climbed it: Dermenghem 1945:63-67; the Arabs of Algeria [see motif G 8B; the cannibal gnawed on the tree; as soon as she went to rest, the hole in the trunk is overgrown]: Belamri 1990:11-23; Egyptian Arabs: El-Shamy 1980, No. 24:139 [Alexander built a wall against Gog and Magog; they lick it at night to make a hole, but after sunrise the sun wall is being restored], 273 [the wall is restored weekly after Friday prayers].

Western Europe. See motif G 8A: A tree is cut down to build a ship. Scots: Campbell 1890, No. 16:244-251

Melanesia. See G 8A motif: a hero cuts a tree to make a boat out of it. St. Croix Islands: Codrington 1893:509-511; Banks Islands: Codrington 1891 (Mota): 158-162; Banks Islands (Vanua Lava): http://alex.francois.free.fr/aftxt_msn-kpwet_e-3lgs.htm; Coombe 1911 (Vanua Lava). See G 8B motif: a tree is cut down to reach a person who climbs it. Bukavak: Lehner 1931a, No. 16:65-68; Cooney: Egidi 1913, No. 3, 4:998-1002, 1002-1008; Motu: Romilly 1889:107-120 See the G 8C motif: trees are cut down to reach cultivated plants hanging from branches or fish or water in the trunk. Monumbo [cultivated plants]: Höltker 1965, No. 2:72-77; Dobu [fish; sea flowing out]: Fortune 1932:263-266

Micronesia-Polynesia. See motif G 8A: wood is cut down to make a boat or other object (Manihiki, Yap, one of Uliti's texts). Yap: Mitchell 1973, No. 19:63-66; Ulithi (West Carolina): Lessa 1980, No. 45, 52:68-69, 89-91; Truk Islands (Central Carolina): Krämer 1935:276 in Lessa 1980:72; Mokeel (Eastern Carolinas): Zap. Takuya Nagaoka (via A. Kozmin, Personal Communication, 19.10.2012); Marshall Islands (Voto): Erdland 1914, No. 9.4:245-246; Tuvalu (Vaitupu): Kennedy 1931:206-207, 213-216; Bellona: Monberg , Kuschel 2006:4; Tonga: Beckwith 1970:271; Tuamotu: Henry 1928:495-515 (retelling in Beckwith 1970:267-268); Tuamotu (Pukapuka): Beckwith 1970:270; Cook Islands ( Rarotonga): Beckwith 1970:268-269; Cook Islands (Aitutaki): Gill 1876:142-148 (narrated in Beckwith 1970:269-270, in Dixon 1916:68-69); Pukapuka (South Cook Islands): Beaglehole, Beaglehole 1938; Cook Islands (Manihiki?) : Gill 1876:81-87; Tahiti: Henry 1928:468-495 (retelling in Beckwith 1970:266); Hawaii: Beckwith 1970:263, 465-466; Mangareva: Buck 1938:326-329; Marquises: Beckwith 1970:269; Maori: Beckwith 1970:265, 272; Reed 1999, No. 7:79-85. See G 8B motif: they try to knock down a tree to get a person who has climbed it; Gilbert Islands: Koru, Gullivan 1986:81-93; Tuvalu (Niutao): Koch 1966:71.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. See G8D motif: trees are cut down or gnawed or prevented from doing so to save the world (gods, king) from danger. Lepcha: Siiger 1967, No. 4:175-176; Khasi: Rafy 1920, No. 8:43-48; Burma Naga: Zapadova 1977:229-230.

Burma - Indochina. Shany [the husband loves his eldest wife, her daughter Nang Hsen Gaw, the youngest daughter Nang E; the husband caught many oysters, the wives came to carry the catch; the youngest ate everything herself, the eldest brought it; the youngest said that the eldest is a witch, she took everything; the youngest was killed, she turned into a turtle; the turtle asks her daughter to bring cotton so that she can spin and weave; the mother DID NOT follow, pretended to be sick, agreed with a doctor to recommend a boiled turtle as a medicine; the turtle was caught and cooked; she asks her daughter to bury her bones; the mother DID NOT give bones to the dogs, but one ran away, the NHG took the bone, a singing tree has buried and grown; the king sent servants to bring him a tree; they cut down with the best axes, the felling is overgrown, the servants are executed; the king promises to make whoever brings the tree an heir if it is a man , and the eldest wife, if a woman; NHG easily brings a tree, becomes a queen; an unrecognized mother is NOT hired as a maid, led the queen to the spring, stabbed her, buried her under the road, put her clothes on her daughter; the singing tree stopped and withered; the king allowed the sparrow to nest in the room, for which he told him everything; announced the replacement of the queen; the king ordered the imaginary wife to be cut off; the NHG grew up on the grave a flower, a man picked it up, brought it home; the man's mother is surprised that someone cooks and cleans the house; the woman peeked, crushed the flower, the NHG remained a girl; the sparrow told the king everything, ordered the mother to be executed NOT, bring NHG; the tree began to play]: Griggs 1902:66-76; tyamas [see G8D motif: wood is cut down or gnawed or prevented from doing so to rid the world (gods, king) from danger]: Cabaton 1904:113; Khmers [Siam attacked Cambodia, the king called for brave souls; Somryt came, was placed at the head of the army, defeated enemies; stopped in Angkor on his way home, accidentally took someone else's bag. mango fruits in it; his wife planted them at home; mangoes grew; after S.'s death, a pagoda was built there; the birds ate the fruits, contaminated it; the rector ordered the mango to be cut down; the workers went to rest, felling thickets; the abbot ordered to cut down without stopping; the tree fell down, but it did not dry out, and the abbot went crazy; believers built a new pagoda, and grew even more on the site of the old mango]: Foshko 1981, No. 7:183-185; Viet Nam (Vietnamese publication, Hanoi 1984) [a single woman stepped on the trail of a giant and became pregnant; gave birth to a son named Thuan, she was expelled from the village; T. became a lumberjack; once He found every tree cut down unharmed in the morning; watched for an old man who pointed his staff at the felled pine tree and it was reborn; the old man gave Tuan a staff: one end of it revives, the other kills; T. revived the snake killed by the boys; she came to him in the form of a young man and brought him to the underwater world, whose king thanked T. for saving his son; the king's son advised him to ask for a book as a reward, fulfilling wishes; T. received it]: Knorozova 2020:303-304.

South Asia. Nepalis [see G8B motif]: Heunemann 1980, No. 6:75-78.

(Wed. Malaysia-Indonesia. The Malays [there was a bamboo shoot bush to which all the trees in the forest leaned; as soon as one shoot was cut down, a new one appeared on the other side; when King Dasaratha began to cut down, he was in front of him A girl (who was in a bamboo stalk) appeared; he solemnly brought her to the palace]: Skeat, Blagden 1900:17-18).

Taiwan - Philippines. See G8E motif: The character unsuccessfully cuts down a tree growing on the moon. Paywan: Yamada 2002:49.

China - Korea. Ancient China [commentaries to The Book of Horus (V century AD) contain a legend that seems to date back to 739 BC; the prince sent men to cut down a wonderful tree; the wounds on the trunk immediately healed; one of the messengers injured his leg, lay down under a tree; from a conversation between the spirits he learned how to cut down a tree; the tree broke, turned into a buffalo, disappeared into the water]: Riftin et al. 1977:459. See the G 8E motif: The character unsuccessfully cuts down a tree growing on the moon. Ancient China: Yuan Ke 1987:154-159, 317 (note 94); Chinese (Guangdong, Zhejiang, Guangxi): Eberhard 1937, No. 25:37; Chinese (Hebei): Bai Gengsheng 2007a: 148-150; Dungans ( Zhejiang): Shujang Li, Luckert 1994:185-186; Miao: Vakhtin, Its 1956:131-136; Schotter 1911:327; meo (Vietnam): Nikulin 1990:52-62.

The Balkans. See G 8D motif: trees are cut down or gnawed or prevented from doing so to save the world (gods, king) from danger. Greeks: El-Shamy 1980 (written by a 20-year-old student in Egypt who heard this from his Greek mother on Fr. Leros; there is no such plot in Egypt): 267; Serbs: Janković 1951:12; Plotnikova 1995 (Homolye): 313; Macedonians: Tsenev 2004:23. See G 8B motif: a tree is cut down to reach a person who climbs it. Bulgarians: Karaliychev, Valchev 1963:281-283; Mladenova 2006:56-57; Gagauz people]: Moshkov 1904, No. 52:90-92; Romanians: Uther 2004 (1), No. 450:265-266. See motif G 8 E: They cut down a tree on the moon. Greeks: Czocha 2009:184-185.

Central Europe. See G 8B motif. Belarusians: Romanov 1887, No. 49:268-269.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. See G 8B motif: a tree is cut down to reach a person who has climbed it. Georgians: Kurdovanidze 1988, No. 46:182-187; Turks: Stebleva 1986, No. 33:131-134; Kúnos 1901:1-11; see the G 8D motif: if dwarfs make a pass through mountain, the world will end. Kumyki: Khalidova 2012, No. 34:54.

Iran - Central Asia. See G 8B motif: A giant cuts to get a girl who gets inside: kafirs (prasun): Snoy 1962:85. See the G 8D motif: the mountain is prevented from gnawing through the mountain to save the world from danger. Persians: Donaldson 1938:90-91.

Baltoscandia. The Norwegians [the king promises a daughter and half the kingdom to the one who cuts down an oak tree, digs a well on the rock; in place of each chipped chip, two new ones grow, the oak only grows; losers are cut off their ears they exile to the island; the youngest of three brothers named John goes to the sound of an ax, then shovels, they chop them, dig them themselves, he takes them; walks down the stream, the stream flows out of the walnut, John plugs the nut, takes them with him; the oak is cut down, the well is dug, John throws a walnut at it, the water flows out; John gets the princess and half the kingdom]: Dasent 1970:330-336. See G 8B motif: a tree is cut down to reach a person who climbs it. Lithuanians: Löbite 1965:105-107; Estonians: Järv et al. 2009 (Väike-Maarja) [a person saws a tree in the forest, it becomes whole again; the spirit allows sawing for a promise to give what at home, he will be the first to meet; a three-year-old son comes out; the boy is given his spirit; he leaves with his son, gives the boy the keys, forbids him to unlock one room; he unlocks, there is a horse and a dog; in front of a horse meat, oats in front of the dog; when he returns, the spirit scolds the boy, but does not kill; the next time the boy asks the horse for advice; he tells him to take a piece of gold from under the spirit pillow, a drop of water from the window, a grain of sand and knot; a boy sits on a horse, jumps away, a dog with them; a horse tells them to throw a grain of sand (a sandy mountain; the spirit sends a son behind a shovel; they hide a shovel, the crow screams what he sees, the spirit sends the son to carry a shovel home), a knot (forest), a drop of water (lake; the son of the spirit drank, burst; the spirit rushed into the water, drowned); the horse tells him to remove his hooves, hit him three times with a rod; the horse and the dog turn into the same boys; all three live with the boy's father; since then, tree felling has not been overgrown]: 36-37; Mälk et al. 1967, No. 87 (Yuri) [whoever cuts down an oak tree in his garden in a day, the king promises a daughter, and whoever does not have time, from him belts would be cut out from the back; the older brother went, cut down more than in the middle; the princess came up with lunch; when the guy was about to finish the work, he saw that the gun was intact again; came back with his back torn off; then but the middle brother; the younger burak took a pipe with him; on the way he saw an ax chopping, commanded him to "Get into the bag!" ; the same with a shovel; with a whip; the ax cut down the oak tree himself; the king ordered to dig a well by morning, dug a shovel; ordered the hares to herd and return them safe by evening; the guy plays the pipe, the hares gather; the king sends his daughter to buy one hare; she paid in gold; the guy played the pipe, the hare returned; the same with the second daughter; with the king himself; each time the pay is higher; the king promised to give his daughter, but first ordered the guy should spend the night in a room with a bear; the bear demands to shave him; the guy asks to put his paws in the crack of the log first; the paws can't be pulled out, the guy whipped the bear, he tore off all his hair; the king let the guy and his daughter go, then sent the bear to lift them both up; the guy stripped the princess, showed the bear; the bear came back and told the king that those as naked as himself, he could not do anything against them]: 296-298.

Volga - Perm. Komi [in Ust-Vym, near the idol, there was a large birch tree, which was donated with fur animal skins; Stefan Permsky began to cut it, left an ax in the trunk for the night; in the morning the trunk was intact, the axe was lying on the ground; it was cut down only on the third day, the storm began]: Mikhailov 1851:63-68 in Popov 1938:22. See G 8B motif: a tree is cut down to reach a person who climbs it. Udmurts: Klabukov 1948, No. 27:69-73; Bashkirs: Zelenin 1991, No. 98 (108): 428-431.

Western Siberia. See G 8B motif: a tree is cut down to reach a person who has climbed it. Eastern Khanty: Kulemzin, Lukina 1978, No. earlier they killed his father, grandfather and all relatives stumbled upon him ate; the boy steals a sword and 97:87-88 (= Lukina 1990, No. 33:132-133); southern Khanty: Patkanov 1999, No. 3:328-330; Kets: Dulzon 1966, No. 5:23-27 (quail in Alekseenko 2001, No. 125:222-225).

Japan. Japanese: Ikeda 1971, No. 577 [1) a camphor tree must be cut down to build a new mansion for a local feudal lord; 2) a huge tree causes the illness of a wealthy peasant, it must be cut down; 1) the ax does not make notches; 2) cut down chips grow at night; from the conversation of the spirits of neighboring trees overheard at night, it turns out that salt water (or infusion) should be poured onto the roots seagrass); the tree is cut down, the secret is awarded by the master]: 153-154; Markova 1991 [someone comes to the girl at night; she sticks a needle and thread in her lover's dress; finds a needle in the bark of the old one cryptomeria; tells parents; people cut down the trunk, felling overgrows overnight; all trees come to visit Cryptomeria; she says to Chernobyl that shrubs have no place among trees; he revenge advises people to burn chips; a bridge was made from the fallen cryptomeria; the trunk was moved after the girl whispered something to him; when she stepped on the bridge, the girl died]: 172-174.

Subarctic. See G8B motif: A tree is cut down to reach a character that climbs it. Southern Tutchoni: McClelland 1987:305-306.

The coast is the Plateau. See G8B motif: a tree is cut down to reach a person who climbs it. Shuswap: Teit 1909a: 635-636.

Big Pool. See G8A motif: a man cuts a tree to make a raft. Southern Utah: Lowie 1924, #55:84

The Great Southwest. See G 8A motif: a man cuts a tree to make a raft. Jicarilla: Goddard 1911, No. 22:214; See G 8D motif: The dead are trying to enter our world. Jicarilla: Opler 1960:45, 134.

NW Mexico. See G 8B motif: He cuts down a tree to reach a person who climbs it. Tarahumara: Olmos Aguilara 2005:252-255

Mesoamerica Sayula popoka [man clears the area; felling on a huge chikosapote tree overgrows by morning; the old man (the Sun, or Jesucristo) restores the trunk with his rod at night; people They watch him; he predicts a flood, gives cedar seed, tells him to plant, make a boat out of cedar; after the flood, people fry dead fish; God sends the king of the white Vultures to find out what is going on; he also eats fish; God turns people into monkeys, tells Vulture to eat carrion (and makes him black?) ; Hummingbird becomes God's messenger]: Münch 1983a: 160-161. See the G 8C motif: trees are cut down to reach cultivated plants hanging from branches. Kekchi, mopan [several men find a mamei tree in the forest; beans, sweet potatoes, pumpkins and all crops except corn grow on it; people cut down a tree, and felling disappears overnight; animals put chips back; then people cut down day and night; the tree falls, people get cultivated plants]: Thompson 1930:134-135.

Honduras-Panama. See G 8B motif (wood is cut down to get a snake hiding on it). Frame: Loveland 1990:46-47. See the G 8C motifs (wood is cut down, it turns into water) and G 8D (wood is cut down to rid the world of danger). Bribri: Bozzoli 1976:420-421. See the G 8C motif: trees are cut down to reach cultivated plants hanging from branches and fish and water in the trunk. Kuna: Nordenskiöld 1938:175-178.

The Northern Andes. See G8C motif: wood is cut down to get water and fish in the trunk. Embera: Arango Bueno 1963 (katio): 185; Isacsson 1993:55; Rochereau 1929 [old Goetser had water and fish; she bathed and fished in the trunk of a huge tree; hummingbird spied; Karagabi ordered to sharpen the axes, cut down the tree; the notch was overgrown; K. went by himself, grabbed the old woman by the belt, she turned into a black gentser ant with a narrow waist; the tree was cut down]: 87-89; Torres de Arauz 1963 (catio): 25-26; Peñaherrera de Costales, Costales Samaniego 1968:85-86; Wassen 1933, No. 3:109; chimila [Sierra Nevada Indians eat corn, chimila only eat cassava, herbs, and wild animals; they find a seiba with an ear of corn at the top; they cut down all day, by morning the felling overgrows; so every night; one person offered to cut down incessantly, the tree fell, the chimila found corn]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1945, No. 8:9-10.

Llanos. See G8C motif: wood is cut down to get water and fish in the trunk. Yaruro: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990c, No. 39, 40, 43-45:65, 67, 71, 73-74; Sicuani: Wilbert, Simoneau 1992, No. 45-49, 51:209, 213, 217, 220, 223, 228; Yépez 1984:9; Folklor 1974 (Sikuani or cuiva): 206; guayabero: Schindler 1977a: 226-228

Southern Venezuela. See G8C motif: wood is cut down to get water and fish in the trunk. Makiritar: Civrieux 1960:132-139

Guiana. See G8C motif: They cut down a tree to get cultivated plants. Taulipan: Koch-Grünberg 1924, No. 2:36-38

Western Amazon. Kofan [a man poisons fish not with poison, but by dipping his penis into the water; when he learns of this, the boy refuses to help him; the man asks him to get a parrot, pushes him into the hollow; the boy's parents chop trunk; by morning, the felling overgrows; they cut down all night, find a son, but already in the form of a tree frog; lure a person into a plot prepared for burning, set fire to the vegetation; he turns into a fish, escapes; he is thrown to the ground; he turns into stone or ends up in the lower world, (becomes) a quanqua (a race of underground inhabitants)]: Calífano, Gonzalo 1995, No. 81:140-143. See the G 8B motive: chopping a tree to reach a person. Aguaruna: Chumap Lucía, García-Rendueles 1977 (2), No. 84:666-668 See motive 8 C: They cut down a tree to get water and fish in its trunk. Cofan: Borman, Criollo 1990, No. 3:47-58; Calífano, Gonzalo 1995, No. 112, 113:165-166, 167-170; Napo: Mercier 1979:69-80.

NW Amazon. See G8C motif: They cut down a tree to get cultivated plants and water. Piapoko: Wavrin 1937:604-606; Ufaina: Hildebrand 1975, No. IX: 343-345; Yukuna: Folclor 1974:304-314; Hammen 1992:89; Makuna: Århem et al. 2004:454 ; okaina [(western 1980); Gotátzika has a daughter, her suitors (these are the people of Ñamrako:Ma:ndio, Morning Star) disappear; then her son ñ marries her; father-in-law 1) gets up at night to kill him with a club, but the son-in-law only pretends to be asleep, jumps up; 2) tells you to get the game out of the trap, the son-in-law does not fall into it; the son-in-law finds the skulls of previous sons-in-law; 3) does not fall into the trap when sent to get fish out of it; 4) G. orders to cut down a tree, quietly puts the chips back; the son-in-law asks his father for help, who sends rodents, they carry the chips to the river, throw them into the water, they turn into all kinds of fish; a cut trunk continues to hang, a sloth holds it on top, this is the spirit of G. himself; the son-in-law's father sent various biting insects, the sloth let go of the tree, it collapsed, the earth trembled (the origin of earthquakes); 5) burn vegetation on the site; around the fire sent by the young man's father, the iguana, carried him out of the fire; now his son-in-law left his father-in-law in the burning area, which burned down; the daughter found his father's bones; his son-in-law revived him with tobacco, ordered to be good; they went to ñ., father-in-law swallowed the fish, his son-in-law took him out alive]: Blixen 1999, No. 9:205-238; Yagua: Chaumeil 1983:155; Chaumeil, Chaumeil 1978, No. 2:169-170; Payne 1992:207 -208; Powlison 1972a: 76; Kabiyari: Bourgue 1976 [Yakamamukute (Sky) did not have an anus; (his umbilical cord connected to the navel, the Banesteriopsis caapi vine; Jaguar Hehechu was her process; this only in Bonnemère 2001:40); Hehech is associated with land; I came to dance with H.'s children, killed them; one escaped, became a bird; I threw the other into boiling water like a worm; H. collected pieces of it bodies, joined with cotton wool, he turned into a monkey (mico); I pretended to know nothing; invited Y. to dance; let the winds blow loudly; I asked him to make an anus; H. pierced his anus, he died; his The body exploded to become the sky, that is, the sky separated from the earth; X.'s remains turn into a hill, the blood becomes clay; the other remains have given rise to the sons of Y., the four cultural heroes of Munully; they measure the land to determine where its center is; they build the first maloka by cutting down the only Teviji tree, there are no others yet; the roof is flat, falling after the first rain; M. take the night from the Karu toad; at first they do not pay K. hands them a vessel with wounds; demands gold; when they get night, M. carelessly open the vessel, darkness sets in; M. create nocturnal animals screaming at a certain time; when dawn comes, the sun rises; M. receives a vessel of soil from the Mapitare worm, inadvertently opened, the earth is dispersed; the water in Pira-Parana is hot, fish cannot be eaten, it causes diseases, and there are no other rivers yet; M. come to The tree with water and fish is owned by Kamanatana, the wife of the Mapitare worm; the brothers eat ants and Kamanatana feeds them with tapioca; the youngest of M. (his name is Mamitiri) spies, sees that this tapioca is Mapitare sperm; Mamitiri, in the form of a hummingbird, finds a tree owned by Kamanatana; M. opens a hole in which she kept animals and animals spread through the forest; M. dazzle Kamanatana, send them down the river to the rapids; they cut down trees that turn into different rivers; when a tree owned by Kamanatana is cut down, it does not fall, it is suspended for the vines; they send the white Maniritare squirrel to cut them down; the fallen tree turns into Apaporis, the vine turns into the Cananarí River; the sky at sunset is colored with squirrel blood; the brothers tell the snake to make a channel rivers winding; brothers turn into parrots, fly to Thunder, replace its lightning with a parrot's tail, carry it away, distribute it to all communities]: 121-131 [summary with comments and interpretations], 138-143 [ accurate summary]; Correa 1989 [all the water and fish were in the hollow of the Itshuna tree, owned by old Kamatana; bathed and fished, then plugged the hole; the youngest of the Mujnuyi brothers (he is a shaman) became hummingbird, spied; the brothers did not have manioc flour, and K. took it out of her husband Mapitare's body (he is a white worm) during copulation (this is his sperm; var.: he copulated with a clay pot, K. took sperm from there); the brothers refused to eat it; burned coca leaves over the worm's mink, he died; they met the howler monkey; he told them to paint black, come to the Jejechu jaguar maloka, where the holiday is; daughter J. hid one of Muhnuya in her mouth; the brothers began to cut down old K.'s tree, but the felling overgrown; they began to carry the chips away; Squirrel cut down from above, and the chips flying from him - drizzling rain; chips fell on Muhnuya's head, since then people have had a headache; the tree fell along with the Kumaka vine, which formed the river; from the branches - channels, lakes; the root - the mouth of the Apaporis River; an ant woman (is she K.?) locked her brothers in an anthill; they turned into mosquitoes, five days later, when the exit was open, they flew away; they came to Thunder while he was sleeping, replaced his lightning with feathers from the parrot's tail (they became parrots Thunder's daughter let them in); they came back to K., asked them to cook fish; while K. was collecting fuel, one of Muhnuya stole coal; on a Cayman boat he sailed across the river, Cayman went under water, took the fire; Muhnuyi turned into a frog, luring Cayman ashore; his brothers cut his belly, the Wasp finds fire inside; masks have been made from his vertebrae and intestines - they are like fire]: 43-50.

Montagna - Jurua. See G8D motif: Cosmic scale tree. Ashaninka (nomatsigenga): Shaver 1975:52; Kashinahua: Ans 1975:93-94; Capistrano de Abreu: 429 in Metraux 1944:133-134

Southern Amazon. Nambiquara [a girl living in a Ficus sp. tree asks a person not to cut it down when clearing the plot; one day he starts cutting; when she goes home, she puts chips on the trunk, felling disappears]: Pereira 1983, No. 100:125; paresi [brothers cut down the ancestors of trees; felling overgrows itself; then the tree turns into a river]: Pereira 1986, No. 2:91. See G 8D motif: a cosmic scale tree. Kayabi: Pereira 1995, No. 3:39-40.

Eastern Brazil. See G8D motif: Cosmic scale tree. Kayapo: Wilbert 1978 No. 1, 2, 79-81:29, 29-31, 225-228; Apinaye: Wilbert 1978, No. 3:75:31-32, 216

Chaco. See G8B motif: He cuts down a tree to reach a person who climbed it. Caduveo: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990a, No. 34:62-63