Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

G8C. They cut down a tree to get valuables.

. (.68.) .72.

They try to cut down the tree to get cultivated plants hanging from the branches or water or fish in the trunk.

Monumbo, Dobu, Kekchi or Mopan, Kuna, Embera, Chimila, Yaruro, Kuiva, Sicuani, Guayabero, Makiritare, Taulipan, Kofan, Napo, Piapoco, Ufaina, Yukuna, Makuna, Kabiyari, Yagua, Chikuna, kayapo, apinaye.

Melanesia. Monumbo [Kain ("snake") turned into a snake, lay down on the path; Daria walked along it, brought the snake to her; gave birth to a son with a human head and the body of a snake; while K. was fishing, D. killed and cooked a son, she broke her husband's weapon, crashed the boat, ran away; in different villages, many men offered themselves to her as husbands, but she went to Kamadonga; to stop her pursuers, she wrote, drew a line - a river appeared; Kam. did not have cultivated plants, D. cooked bananas and tarot for him; he did not have genitals, she made them for him from pepper tree fruit and betel nuts; let him see her genitals, met him; went to Lubou on an island near the island. Manam also gave him genitals; walked along the shore, turned the stones into fish, became a fish between the stones herself; Ngapem shot her, surprised that the arrow that pierced the fish was smeared in tarot; he brought the fish home; while N. was gone, D. (in the form of a human being) removed fire from her genitals, regurgitated bananas and tarot, baked and fed her husband; N.'s children also ate and slept; and N.'s younger brother's children cried from hunger; N. told his brother to go ashore; If he sees Daria fish, he should not converge with it; but he got together; became a Pakei tree; bananas, yams, tarot grew on it; fell and rotted; two brothers sailed in a boat with a dog; the dog jumped out, I ate by the tree, came back; they tied a rope to the dog, found a tree; they brought it home, gave it to the old woman, she became young; people sharpened their axes, began to cut the trunk, it remained intact; they broke off the sliver was burned; and so on, the trunk was cut, the tree continued to hang on the vine; this vine was the hand of a character; they sent a boy upstairs, the tree told him to call his mother to meet her; the boy's father was told to call his wife; the men left; another came with two wives; hid the beautiful one, let the tree meet with the ugly one, the tree fell; the man from Dagoi came when all the cultivated plants dismantled; Daria advised him to make tops out of vines and exchange them for bananas; people in this village do that]: Höltker 1965, No. 2:72-77; Dobu [people ate yams; there was fish inside the mango tree ; they gave the old woman a try, she liked it; they began to cut, went to bed, the thickets were cut down during the night; the next evening the woman took one sliver home and this place was not overgrown; then the chips began to burn, for the trunk was cut for several days; before the tree fell, ugly women were placed from the sea, beautiful women from the land side; the tree fell, the beautiful women were thrown up on the Trobrians, and the ugly on the main island of New Guinea; water poured out of the stump, filled the sea; the woman took off her skirt, put the sink between her legs, covered the stump with this sink, sent the water to pour; her brothers Tobwaliton and Tobebeso (they cut it down) became a kokoko shark and fish (also predatory), made the sea salty; the fallen tree is somewhere under the ocean]: Fortune 1932:263-266.

Mesoamerica Kekchi, mopan [several men find a mamei tree in the forest; beans, sweet potatoes, pumpkins and all crops except corn grow on it; people cut down a tree, and felling disappears overnight; animals put chips back; then people cut down day and night; the tree falls, people get cultivated plants]: Thompson 1930:134-135.

Honduras-Panama. Kuna [woman carries fish, sings about Palu-huala (salt tree); Ibelele Olovaipilele (Sun) spends the night in the surba (a special section in a house where initiations are celebrated) girls), finds out where this tree is located; on it and in it all cultivated plants, fresh and salt water, fish, game; Wild pigs (Dicotyles torquatus, D. labiatus) and Coati (Nasua sociales) are nephews I.; he tells them to cut down a tree; in the morning the trunk is intact; Jaguars, Snakes, the leader of the Frogs licked the felling at night; I. sends his brother Equaquinialilele (Venus) to guard the tree; he kills Jaguar, Snake, Frog; people cut down a tree; chips fall into the pond, turn into inedible fish; the top is entangled in bunches of clouds; I.'s servants only reached half of the trunk; Little Squirrel reached only half of the trunk; Little Squirrel reached clouds, cut off bunches; I. caught salt water in the net that formed the sea; people received fish, tree seeds, bananas, cassava, and other cultivated plants]: Nordenskiöld 1938:175-178.

The Northern Andes. Ambera: Arango Bueno 1963 [one man puts chips back; god turns him into a frog]: 185; Isacsson 1993 [the frog helps the deity cut the trunk and heals it at night]: 55; Rochereau 1929 [old Goetser had water and fish; she bathed and fished in the trunk of a huge tree; the hummingbird spied; Karagabi ordered the axes to be sharpened, the tree cut down; the notch was overgrown; K. went by himself , grabbed the old woman by the waist, she turned into a black gentleman with a narrow waist; (hereinafter referred to as Torres de Arauz, the tree was cut down)]: 87-89; Torres de Arauz 1963 (katio) [woman holds all the water in a cave; Caragabí cut a woman in half, turning her into a narrow-waisted black ant; the ant hid the water in the hollow trunk of the Genené tree (sacred to Katio); K. and his men began to cut wood, felling the old ant woman first overgrown the felling; when cut down, the trunk remained hanging on the vines; The squirrel gnawed through the vine, the tree fell, the water flooded the ground; K. and his people escaped on the rock; K. sent Heron, Duck, Raven - did not return, they were fishing; K. created the Pigeon, he returned when he found land; the trunk formed the sea, the branches formed rivers, the buds - streams and swamps; the Genené trunk and the Monpahuará rock somewhere still exist, surrounded by four lights; someday the mountain opens, the river of fire will flood the earth; then K. and his descendants will live on earth forever]: 25-26; Peñaherrera de Costales, Costales Samaniego 1968 [God gives water to a woman who becomes an ant, keeps water inside a huge tree; God sends a Woodpecker to cut it down; the next morning, the Woodpecker finds the trunk intact; God tells him to work continuously until the tree does not fall; small branches turn into streams, big ones into rivers, the trunk into the sea]: 85-86; Wassen 1933, No. 3 [the ant Conga had all the water; he refused to give water to God; he made him open his mouth, tightening his waist, which had become narrow; the water was in the tree; God gathered everyone to cut it down; in the evening, when others were resting, the Toad asked the ax to work, but with each blow, the felling did not go deeper, and overgrown; God saw, stepped on the Toad, which became a toad; four days later the trunk was cut, the tree remained hanging on the vine; all the bird people tried to cut it, the toucan, the parrot and others could not; Guacamayo cut, the tree fell, the trunk became the sea, the branches became rivers; God told the Devil to throw salt into the sea, he threw it, but the water was still fresh; God threw it himself, became salty]: 109; chimila: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1945, No. 8 [Sierra Nevada Indians eat corn, chimila only eat cassava, herbs, and wildlife; find a seiba with an ear of corn at the top; they cut down all day, by morning the felling overgrows; like this every night; one person offered to cut down incessantly, the tree fell, the chimila found corn], 9 [many years in a row, drought, everything died; one person kept some corn seeds; the land was not good for sowing, he sowed seeds in a tree trunk, corn yielded crops]: 9-10, 10.

Llanos. Yaruro [at first only a tapir knows about a tree with various cultivated plants on its branches; then like chimil]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990c, No. 39, 40, 43-45:65, 67, 71, 73-74; shikuani [first felling overgrows; they knock down with a good ax and work day and night]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1992, No. 45-49, 51:204-210, 211-214, 215-218, 219-220, 221-223, 227-228; Yépez 1984 (guajibo) [early world 4 men (Tsamani, Livirnei, etc.), they ate only wild fruits; all animal people came to their village; the opossum found the Kalivirnai tree (fruit tree); the vine along which he departed from it moved to the other side of the Sipalo River (a tributary of the Orinoco); this is where the tree grew; under it he found tubers and fruits of cassava, peach palm, sweet potato, mapei (Lilium sp.); paka traced, swam across the river, found pineapple peel; one whole opossum pineapple dropped, paka brought it and let everyone try it; Paka with an opossum began to fight, burned each other with hot coals; C. and L. gathered people to cut down a tree; some are bad axes, but the felling made by good axes was overgrown by morning; then they asked the ants to carry the chips; they threw them into Orinoco, so the rapids formed; for this they spoke to themselves the right eat cassava leaves and other cultivated plants; the tree still did not fall, it was held on top of it by a vine; the mochilero and piapoco birds tried to cut it; the first juice splashed into the eyes since then green; a squirrel cut the vine; when the tree collapsed, all types of seeds and shoots were collected; each branch had its own plant species; a branch with a peach palm fell into the water; each group of cutters picked up its branch, so ethnic differences (cuiba, piapoco, etc.) appeared; the turtle only picked up pepper, and the tapir took the last branch that fell into the water; C. told everyone to plant what they had picked up, but the tapir I wanted to keep everything for myself, fished my bunch out of the water and hid it; but while I was climbing for the second bunch, C. stole the seed from the first one; this is how all the cultivated plants were extracted; they arranged a holiday, took the drug yopo; there were no people then; the tree fell east, below the mouth of Vichada; the fallen parts became mountains, visible in clear weather; if the tree had fallen otherwise, it would have blocked the Orinoco; houses in which they held holidays, they also petrified]: 8-11, 16-17; Folklor 1974 (sicuani or cuiva): 206; guayabero [a man ate a fetus in the water, became pregnant; his stomach was cut, the boy Naxén came out; he taught people agriculture, there were no cultivated plants before; N. had a sparkling rainbow head; the Sun wanted one for himself; they began to fight; N. left, took all the cultivated plants with him, famine came; N. went to the island at sea, turned into a giant tree with cassava, sweet potato, peach palm and other plants (but not corn); told the Forest Dog that he could eat, but forbade giving it to the Sun; Sun I noticed papaya leftovers in his excrement; he saw the way, sent the Rat, who did not catch up with the Forest Dog, but Lapa (aguti?) I found a tree; they began to cut the trunk with stone axes, the felling overgrown overnight; two months later they asked ants to carry away the chips, now they are white pebbles in the mountains; the trunk was cut, but the tree was cut down behind the vine suspended from the sky, the vine led to N.'s heart; the squirrel cut off the vine; when the tree fell, the tree hit the Squirrel; the tree fell into the sea; the tapirs collected fruits]: Schindler 1977a: 226-228.

Southern Venezuela. Makiritare [there were no birds, Wanadi turned sticks into birds {i.e. bird people, first ancestors}; Semenia's bird chief taught how to cultivate the land; Jaguar and Tapir did not work together with others, they collected the fallen fruits hid them; S. sent them to bring water in baskets; the rest, under S.'s leadership, began to cut down the Marahuaca tree with all the cultivated plants on the branches; Tucan's ax broke (so it is now crooked beak), Woodpeckers continue to cut; go on vacation, by morning the felling overgrows; they cut down alternating without interruption; the trunk is cut, but the tree hangs entangled in the sky (top of the head the tree faces the ground); this is reported by the Squirrel climbing up; S. gives him an ax, the Squirrel cuts off the heavenly roots, M. fell, heavenly waters poured into the ground from the chopped roots, rain, forming rivers; The land has turned green with vegetation; the trunk fragments have turned into mountains; everyone is happy]: Civrieux 1960:132-139.

Guiana. Taulipan [five brothers at the foot of Roraima: Makunaíma, Ma'nape, Anžikilan, Wakalámbe, Aníke; Aguti finds a Wadhaká tree; bananas, corn, papaya ripen on its branches etc.; he eats them alone; Makunaima invites him to sleep, finds pieces of bananas on his teeth; sends Kali a squirrel, then Manapi's older brother to follow Aguchi; Aguchi shows Manabi a tree with with wild fruits, K. is a real Vadhaka tree; K. climbs a tree, bitten by wasps, since then his eyelids have swollen; finally, Aguchi and K. show the Manapi tree, who brings bananas to his brother; Aguchi tells not cut down the tree, water will flow from there; Manapi cuts, tells the wood to be soft; Aguchi heals the felling with bananas and wax; Makunaima's other brother tells the wood to be hard; but Manapi knocks down the tree ; the water is pouring out, the fish is with it; the big and good fish is on the north side, and there is only a small one here]: Koch-Grünberg 1924, No. 2:36-38.

Western Amazon. Kofan: Borman, Criollo 1990, No. 3 [After that, the young men went to cut down a tree with fish; they went to bed in the evening, and by morning they were felled; the same the next night; then they brought torches and worked until in the morning; but the cut down trunk hung in the sky; the woodpecker, the toucan, and other birds tried to cut the vine, but became birds, their axes became beaks; the squirrel also failed, returned; the little Tiriri squirrel refused for a long time, finally he climbed into heaven, received peanuts and another nut from God, cut down what was holding the tree; when it fell, it twisted its jaw; people took peanuts, and the other nut left T. - these are his "bananas"; the tree fell into the river, chips of different sizes became different types of fish; the tree stump is in the upper reaches of the river, it's like a rock]: 47-58; Calífano, Gonzalo 1995, No. 112 [shaman owns a tree with fish; Parrots cut down by morning, felling overgrows; then they cut it down all night, the little Parrot has the best ax (beak), by morning the trunk is cut; the tree is suspended by the vine to the sky; the squirrel cuts the vine, killed by a falling tree; chips and leaves fall into rivers, turn into fish; the remains of the tree are rocks], 113 [the old man owns a tree with fish, prevents his son and grandchildren; they send birds to peck out his eyes; they ask what he is afraid of; Not jaguars, not anacondas, big birds; boys pretend that birds have arrived, throw the old man into the water; he turns into a thunder stone; (cutting wood as in (112)]: 140-143, 165-166, 167-170; napo [Apustulu alone uses a tree with fish in its trunk; a wasp boy helps him fish; a Jaguar and others pull the Wasp's belt with a rope; he reports a tree; they can't catch fish, they cut down the trunk; the felling overgrows as soon as it is not looked at; they work without interruption, they burn chips; the tree still does not fall; the bird sees that it is tied to the sky by a vine; The squirrel climbs upstairs, cuts off the vine; the tree falls, turns into rivers, leaves into fish; A. in anger throws his feather fan and belt into the water; they turn into a poisonous stingray, an eel; turns the remaining chips into fish and aquatic animals; makes rapids to prevent fish from going up the river; turns squirrel into stone as punishment]: Mercier 1979:69-80.

NW Amazon. Piapoko [after eating the fetus, a person becomes pregnant, is allowed without pain as a boy; when the grandmother bathes him, the trough is filled with manioc flour; the boy asks to cut off his fingers, sows phalanges, from them cassava grows; the father does not love his son, so he leaves, taking away all the crops and placing them on the same tree; the tree is found by a night monkey; agouti picks up the pineapple she has dropped and brings them to people; they cut down the trunk day and night, but Cayman swallows the fire; in the morning it turns out that the felling is overgrown; Cayman is killed, fire is taken out of his belly, the trunk is cut; the tree remains hanging behind the Barbasco vine ( fish poison) attached to the sky; The squirrel cuts it, falls with the tree; the branch with all the fruits falls into the water; the tapira is sent to dive; as he gets the fruits, people hide them; he discovers deception, hides some of the fruits; current cultivated plants come from those taken away by humans]: Wavrin 1937:604-606; ufaina [four Imarikakana brothers come to the Sun; a huge tree remains uncut on his plot, he asks him to cut down; the brothers cut down half, go to rest; at night, the daughter of the Sun puts chips back; the next day Imárika Kayafikí ; throws them into the water, they turn into fish; the daughter of the Sun ties a tree to the sky with vines; IR turns into a squirrel, climbs up, cuts off vines; the tree falls west, breaks the spine of the Sun's daughter, turns into the Apaporis River; IR could not be found for a long time, found almost near the sea]: Hildebrand 1975, No. IX: 343-345; yukuna: Folclor 1974 [Lajmuchí built a house with his people; Master of the Leaves gave a bag of leaves to cover the roof, people opened it on the way, now the leaves are in the forest; it takes night, otherwise people eat all the time; the Master of the Night gave a package, one person opened it on the way, night fell, people fell asleep; the Master of the Night turned into a bat, ate his sleeping eyes; one put bags in his eyes in advance, the Master took them away, not his eyes; L. and his nephews came to the mistress of the Yameru water; she gave a little This is water from the leaves; she also has only wild pigs in her pen; one man opened the pen, the pigs ran into the forest; L. watched Hameru swim and eat fish; the water in the tree trunk, they began to cut it down, my aunt overgrows felling overnight; {apparently they cut down a tree and extracted water, there is no last page of text}]: 304-314; Hammen 1992:87-88 [Karipulakena (these are four orphan brothers) lived with their aunt Amerú ;; there was no water, A. gave them little by little; younger Lamuchí watched A. get water and fish from the tree trunk; when asked A. where the water came from, she replied that she was collecting dew at night; K. decided to cut down tree; A. ordered a balsa platform to be placed so that the tree would not fall into the lower world; but it broke through the platform, turning into a huge river in the lower world with clean water and fish; A. brought it from the lower world cultivated plants of the world; K. realized that A. had deceived them; found other trees; water in one, but without fish; in the other only snakes; in the third, all species of fish; K. made a platform out of solid wood; from fallen the wei river has flowed; the underground and heavenly rivers form the same system through which the Sun floats in the boat], 89 [four Karipulakena orphans lived with their grandfather Jeechú; he is trying to destroy them; tells us to swim to become strong; tells us to cut down the vegetation on the site, ignoring that there is a huge tree; his daughter Mananiyo laughs at K. - they will not be able to knock down a tree; K.: when we cut down, you will wet yourself out of fear; at night, M. puts the chips back and the felling overgrows; when Lamuchí found out what was going on, he threw the chips into the water, they became piranha; then J. tied the tree to the sky with vines; L. became with a small squirrel, got up, cut the vines; the tree leaned east, then west and fell into the Apaporis River; J. pegajosos grew in fear and a sticky tree (pegajosos) grew on this site leaves]; macuna [water was owned by Rômikmu (female shaman), water was inside the tree; four Ayawa brothers decided to cut it down; at night R. put chips back to the trunk, a tree remained intact; then they began to cut down day and night; the water that spilled out of the core of the trunk formed rivers; fish came out of the same tree; R. tied the top of the tree to the sky; two of A. turned into squirrels, the vine was cut off; the tree fell, one managed to go down, the other stayed in the sky]: Århem et al. 2004:454; kabiyari: Bourgue 1976 [Yakamukute (Sky) had no anus; (his umbilical cord connected to Pupuchu is a Banesteriopsis caapi vine; Hehechu Jaguar was her process; this is only in Bonnemère's paraphrase 2001:40); Hechechu is associated with land; I came to dance with H.'s children, killed them; alone I escaped, became a bird; I threw the other into boiling water like a worm; H. collected pieces of his body, joined him with cotton wool, he turned into a monkey (mico); I pretended to know nothing; invited Me to dance; loudly I started the winds; I asked him to make an anus; H. pierced his anus, he died; his body exploded, becoming the sky, that is, the sky separated from the ground; the remains of H. turn into a hill, the blood became clay; from others The remains were the sons of Y. - Munully's four cultural heroes; they measure the land to determine where its center is; they build the first maloka by cutting down the only Teviji tree, the others are not yet; the roof flat, falls after the first rain; M. takes the night at the Karu toad; at first they do not pay, K. hands them a vessel with wounds; demands gold; after receiving the night, M. carelessly open the vessel, darkness sets in; M. create nocturnal animals screaming at a certain time; when dawn comes, the sun rises; M. receives a vessel with earth from the Mapitare worm, opened inadvertently, the earth is dispersed; water Pira-Parana is hot, fish cannot be eaten, it is sick, and there are no other rivers yet; M. come to a tree with water and fish, owned by Kamanatana, the wife of the Mapitare worm; brothers eat ants, and Camanatana feeds them with tapioca; the youngest is M. (his name is Mamitiri) spies, sees that this tapioca is Mapitare sperm; Mamitiri, in the form of a hummingbird, finds a tree owned by Kamanatana; M. opens a hole in which she kept animals and animals spread through the forest; M. dazzle Kamanatana, send them down the river to the rapids; they cut down trees that turn into different rivers; when a tree owned by Kamanatana is cut down, it does not fall, it is suspended for the vines; they send the white Maniritare squirrel to cut them down; the fallen tree turns into Apaporis, the vine turns into the Cananarí River; the sky at sunset is colored with squirrel blood; the brothers tell the snake to make a channel rivers winding; brothers turn into parrots, fly to Thunder, replace its lightning with a parrot's tail, carry it away, distribute it to all communities]: 121-131 [summary with comments and interpretations], 138-143 [ accurate summary]; Correa 1989 [all the water and fish were in the hollow of the Itshuna tree, owned by old Kamatana; bathed and fished, then plugged the hole; the youngest of the Mujnuyi brothers (he is a shaman) became hummingbird, spied; the brothers did not have manioc flour, and K. took it out of her husband Mapitare's body (he is a white worm) during copulation (this is his sperm; var.: he copulated with a clay pot, K. took sperm from there); the brothers refused to eat it; burned coca leaves over the worm's mink, he died; they met the howler monkey; he told them to paint black, come to the Jejechu jaguar maloka, where the holiday is; daughter J. hid one of Muhnuya in her mouth; the brothers began to cut down old K.'s tree, but the felling overgrown; they began to carry the chips away; Squirrel cut down from above, and the chips flying from him - drizzling rain; chips fell on Muhnuya's head, since then people have had a headache; the tree fell along with the Kumaka vine, which formed the river; from the branches - channels, lakes; the root - the mouth of the Apaporis River; an ant woman (is she K.?) locked her brothers in an anthill; they turned into mosquitoes, five days later, when the exit was open, they flew away; they came to Thunder while he was sleeping, replaced his lightning with feathers from the parrot's tail (they became parrots Thunder's daughter let them in); they came back to K., asked them to cook fish; while K. was collecting fuel, one of Muhnuya stole coal; on a Cayman boat he sailed across the river, Cayman went under water, took the fire; Muhnuyi turned into a frog, lures Cayman ashore; his brothers cut his belly, the Wasp finds fire inside; masks were made from his vertebrae and intestines - they are like fire]: 43-50; yagua [owned water old man Krora, she was inside the lupuna tree, he gave the twins drop by drop; the youngest, who arose from the elder's placenta, turned into a hummingbird, swam; the brothers began to cut down the tree; by morning felling overgrown; when cut down, the tree continued to hang, it was held from above by a vine, held by the old man himself; the younger brother turned into a scorpion, bit the old man in the leg, the tree bent; then into a big one scorpion, bit harder, tree fell, becoming Amazon and tributaries]: Chaumeil 1983:155; Chaumeil, Chaumeil 1978, No. 2:169-170; Payne 1992:207-208; Powlison 1972a [the twin grandfather owns the water hidden in tree trunk; brothers call all birds and rodents to knock down a tree; at night, felling overgrows; the youngest watches his grandfather, finds out a secret; they cut down a tree; it turns into the Amazon, rivers into tributaries, chips and leaves in fish, worms in Europeans, blacks and non-Yagua Indians]: 76; chikuna [like a yukun; toad man overgrows]: Rodríguez de Montes 1981, No. 12A: 113.

(Wed. Southern Amazon. Paresi [brothers cut down the ancestors of trees; felling overgrows itself; then the tree turns into a river]: Pereira 1986, No. 2:91).

Eastern Brazil. Kayapo: Wilbert 1978, No. 79-81 [people cut down a tree with corn on branches; felling overgrows while resting]: 224-225, 226-227, 228-229; Apinaye: Wilbert 1978, No. 74 [the young man's wife died; he cried as he looked at the sky; the star disappeared and was next to him in the plaza; after the fifth night, the young man agreed to marry her; hides his wife in a calabass, his sister finds him, he announces his new marriage; people ate rotten wood, leaves, game and coconuts; the star ordered to prepare the site, brought yams, bananas, sweet potatoes, corn, rice, beans, peanuts, etc. from the sky, taught me how to cook it all, as well as weave mats and baskets; finding her husband with an earthly girl, returned to heaven; if this hadn't happened, the Star would have brought other valuables from heaven], 75 [the young man's wife is dead; he looks at the sky, dreams of coming to him a star descends; a frog jumps towards him, he drops it, falls asleep; when he wakes up, a girl is next to him, she was a star and a frog; the next night she brought yams and yams, people ate rotten a tree; he hides it in a calebass; his younger brother finds her, she is ashamed; after that, the young man lives openly with her; she goes with her husband's mother, jumps on her shoulder three times in the form of an opossum; explains what he wants point to the tree on which all varieties of corn grow so that people no longer feed on rotten wood; men cut down wood when they left, cut down the bush; boys were sent for better axes, along the way, they killed and ate the opossum, turned into old people; the shaman poured water on them and restored their youth; people cut down a tree, the Star showed how to grow corn; after her husband's death, she returned to heaven]: 212-214, 215-216.