Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H1D. The person who has returned to the people has been rejected.


The deceased returns, but people send him back, refuse to accept him, or bury him again. Death has been final ever since.

Bushmen, shi, mofu, moando, garo, bhuya, kannada (?) , Kalmyks, Oirats, Bellacula, Pomo, Mountain Mivok, Hoti, Kanamari, Chacobo, Nambikvara.

SW Africa. Bushmen! kung [the little son went with Heiseb to look for food; berries fell from the trees; H. said they were only for adults; the boy said he was starving, lay down as if he were dead; H. buried him; but the boy returned to his mother; H. said that the deceased must be dead and killed the son; since then, only the dead have been in the graves]: Abrahamsson 1951:64.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Shea [man took two wives for the first time; one died leaving a baby; got up from the grave, asked the other to let her cowhide cover herself to feed the baby; the other told her to return to grave; the returning husband scolded his second wife, said people would now die forever]: Abrahamsson 1951:63.

West Africa. Mofu [the dead used to lie in the grave for two years and returned; the old man died leaving his young wife with three children; when he returned, the wife asked if she had suffered little; the old man returned to the grave, the dead are no longer reborn]: Beek 2010:53.

Melanesia. Moando (Madang) [the woman died, her soul went to the world of the dead; her husband was so sad that she decided to return 4 days later; began cooking for the child in the house; turned into a butterfly See what the husband would do; he ate some of the food, threw away the rest; the woman became angry, returned to the world of the dead; if her husband ate everything, the dead would return in 4 days]: Tranel 1952:467; (cf. savi [people were reborn like snakes; a man named Tafumon was killed by an arrow; went (i.e. his spirit went) to the village to wait for a new body; but others brought his old body there; karasu built a burial platform for the body and told people to die; the lizard wanted them to live forever; elephant grass, which is also a symbol of wilting and death, entered into an argument; the bird had to give in, people since then pores are dying]: Yost 1988:88-89).

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Garo: Mandal 2009 (author's note 1987) [Megamdaorapa fished for a pond made by others and deliberately released fish; did not react to reproaches; one person told him that he would die as punishment; M. fell ill and died, this was the first death; in the coffin they put a sickle, an ax, etc.; in the land of spirits, his soul was slaughtered with the soul of a cow slaughtered at the funeral, and there were no other people; M. became bored and returned to earth; the eldest son ran to tell his mother that his father had returned, but she threatened to beat him for lying and continued to go about her business; M. thought that his wife probably fell in love with his nephew and returned to the world of the dead; at this time his other son ran into a sharp chip and joined his father; on the way, M. saw a banana, a vine, a woodpecker and a crab; M.'s wife decided to return it; on the way she asked a banana, etc., when her husband was passing; reaching the dark and Cold country Balpakram, began to ask her husband to return; he replied that he returned then because he was alone, and now his son is with him; from now on, the living will not see the dead, they will only hear them voices; let his wife marry his nephew; widows have been doing so ever]: 89-91; Rongmuthu 1960 [people didn't die at first; Mehgam Gairipa and her daughter went to the river; the fisherman asked them to cross the river far away from the top, but MG said he would go wherever he wanted, frightened the fish; the fisherman cursed him; then MG tied up Misi Sayong's servant and put a stick in his head from ear to ear; this servant is an iguana (or other lizard); The MG spirit then freed the servant, but the hole in his head remained; MS punished MG with death, this was the first death; after cremation, the MG spirit was reincarnated as the former MG and went home; the children were happy, but the wife ordered they should be silent: the father died and will not return; when she heard this, the MG spirit went to the land of the dead; the wife, when she saw the necklaces brought by MG, believed that her husband really came and went to return him; asks the reeds, How long has my husband passed; reeds: a long time ago, his broken stem had already given a new shoot; Ahtakmeh-a Jongtak Phante {animal} gave a similar answer: when he passed, I just started eating branches, and now I'm almost finished; spider (same): just started to weave the web and now it's almost finished; sand (same): its tracks are almost worn off; crab (same): just started digging a mink, and now you can live in it; Bonepa Janepa: I cut down then the trees are on the site, and now they are dry; she finally caught up with MG, but he advised me to marry his nephew; if you do all the rituals, I will be born again in the same matrix clan; since then, widows Marry their husband's nephews]: 247-252.

South Asia. Bhuya [the dead used to return; the old man returned, at home the daughter replied that her mother went to the clearing for roots; the daughter went to call her, she said that her husband could not return, since died; when he heard this, he sprinkled ash on his forehead and feet, left forever; his wife grieved that she did not come right away]: Elwin 1949, No. 4:415-416; Juang [the dead were buried, they came out of the grave and lived on; the widow did not have the strength to dig the grave, she dragged her husband's corpse into the forest; Mahapurub said that those buried would revive, but those thrown away would become evil spirits, they must be burned; the woman's husband returned, but he was mistaken for an evil spirit and burned; corpses have been burned ever since]: Elwin 1949, No. 17:423; kannada (? ; Malay Portuguese, i.e. Kristans {"Christians"}, descendants of mixed marriages between Portuguese soldiers in Goa and local women; hardly mixed with Malays) [woman and man spoke that they cannot live without each other; the husband died first; promised, at the request of his wife, to return, but to remain silent and leave before dark; as his body decayed, visits became unbearable and the wife left while he was at home; then he asked if his wife wanted him to go away for good; she answered yes; the dead have not returned since then]: Bernard 1982:211.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kalmyks: Tyaginovan 2011:45 in Basangova 2017, No. 45 [=Basangova 2019:104; when father was not at home, brother and sister were baking pretzels in ash; their dead mother came in; at that time the deceased came to life Three years later he was coming back; brother and sister were frightened, accidentally hit her with fire tongs saying: "You've been dead a long time ago, why are you scaring us?" ; the mother turned into a gray hare, the place from being hit with forceps fell on the hare tail, now it is black; and the man has stopped coming to life], 46 [at first people were always 15 years old; they asked the burkhan to give they were old; but they did not like to live long, then they asked for old age and death; one old woman died; returned home a few days later; her three daughters were just drinking tea; when they saw their mother come in, they became beat her with a soot-stained poker; the old woman returned to the grave; people have since died]: 95.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Oirats (turguts) [the widow did not tell her daughter to eat delicious food (any particular one) without her; she began to eat; the deceased husband got up from the grave, looked like a hare, came and condemned the girl; she cut him with a stick, the end hit the tail, stained with soot; now the hare has a split lip and black tail; after that, people stopped resurrecting]: Potanin 1883, No. 8:348 (=1881, No. 26:167).

NW Coast. Bellacula [a bird with bone wings carries Raven's son to the land of the dead; a carpenter helps the Raven make a wooden whale; four bird brothers get stuck in it one by one, trying to raise the whale into the air; their father sends Raven's son home; the Raven does not recognize him because he is bald; he recognizes him by his tattoo on his legs, but it's too late; so the dead do not come to life four days after death]: McIlwraith 1948 (1): 83-85.

California. Pomo [Coyote made his men out of canes, Wolf made his own, they came to play ball with Coyote's men; the Wolf ambushed the Bear; when Moonhawk rushed for the ball, she was his bit, he died; the bear kept her mouth closed, but when she laughed, Coyote saw meat on her teeth; ambushed two rattlesnakes, two Wolf people died; Coyote mixed the ashes of the burnt body LA, mixed it with water and pine juice, revived it, brought him into the house; The lark said he smelled burnt; when he heard this, LA ran away so that others would not understand that he was the spirit of the deceased; Coyote created a geyser, his washed off the coals from LA's body with water]: Clark, Williams 1954:65-67; mountain mivok (lower reaches of Sacramento) [Falcon's wife Gray Goose is in love with the Bald Eagle; she has two sons, a boy and a baby; Falcon He kills her; the son carries his brother every day to the house where the dead mother comes to breastfeed him; the Falcon grabs her, asks her to stay; the Lark says he smells dead; therefore, the dead do not revive; people-birds turn into birds]: Merriam 1993:127-132.

Southern Venezuela. Hoti [Ñamulie jañe is the son of the first man and the first woman he carved out of wood and revived; the sun did not go down; to create an alternation between night and day, Ñj rose to heaven , killed the former Sun, showed the new daily route through the sky (jkyo), earth (jne) and the underworld (jne jkwa); when he returned to earth in the form of a bat, his mother bathed him with the first mushroom, which grew up on her leg because she herself came from a tree; the son regained his human appearance; one day he went on earth to look for wild honey with his younger brother, but the honey was stolen by a jaguar; three days later he returned to his parents' cabin, and without going inside, he began to cry and ask him to let him in, saying he was thirsty, he was hungry and froze; his parents did not answer or let him in; then he says goodbye, declaring that people have now lost the opportunity to be forever young, they will now die, and it opens the way for the dead, which everyone will now have to go through; the dead go to the Sun]: Matusovsky 2010.

Montagna - Jurua. Kanamari [after turning his companion Kirak into a battleship, Tamakori sent Djano to hunt with a sarbakan; he took the form of a jaguar himself, attacked him, who wounded the imaginary jaguar in the shoulder, and returned home; there he found K. dying in a hammock; when he learned the whole story from him, he was so shocked that he died; after a few days he returned playing the flute; K. said that this should not be the case, let the dead not return; c since then death is final]: Tastevi, MS, in Carvalho 2002:287.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Chacobo: Kelm 1972, No. 3 [Nova Pashava escaped after the world fire, climbed into the battleship's hole; he is afraid of the voice of a turtle and a grasshopper, goes with the Anteater; he brings little tinama, says it's the fire, asks me to tell him if he needs to light it; but the NP does not say, the tinama is flying away; the anteater brings a big tinama, the NP sleeps peacefully at night; he comes to Agouti's house, he gives him chichy, says that corn with his mother's fields; NP spied - Aguchi makes chicha out of his snot, NP did not drink; Agouti took him home, told him not to laugh; NP saw his genitals, laughed, Agouti told him to look for his own way; The woodpecker took her mother to the house; she first thought it was her son's ghost; he ordered as many clay vessels to be made as people died in the fire; three days later skeletons came, each taking a vessel; soon everyone had a head, but there were not enough vessels for two old men, they had to wait; but their wives left them because they could neither drink nor sleep without heads; two Pulsatrix sp. birds flew in; other people told the women that these are their husbands; since then, people have not been reborn after death], 4 [about like in (3); a man runs away from a tapir man; in front of him there is a lake, asked the caiman to translate; he wanted eat the rider, but the man managed to jump off and grab hold of a branch; then the episode with Aguti, Anteater and Tinamou, Woodpecker and returning to his mother; the dead come (not burned in the fire, but any), an old woman looking for her husband, he doesn't have a head; she gives him a calebastic head but he doesn't have a mouth; she takes off her calebass to pour chicha, but her husband turns into a bird; since then people have died forever]: 223-225, 226- 229.

Southern Amazon. Nambikvar [Kalenra.ikitesu's wife died; he found a dead parrot, blew, revived it; the same with the beetle; realized that he was the first shaman; dug his wife's corpse, revived it, washed it, painted Uruku; mother-in-law sent grandson to his son-in-law for coals for the hearth, he saw a lively woman; mother-in-law did not believe it, began to cry; when she heard crying, the woman died again; K.: because of this, the boy will not be able to revive the dead; K. disappeared, not the corpse was buried; the deceased apparently turned into an evil spirit atasu; one man shot him, a sukuri snake was found dead by the lake; the man kept the atasu bone in calebas, from which the bone arose other atasu]: Pereira 1973, No. 1:1-2.