Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H32A. Lost abundance: a resentful wife.


A young woman is the embodiment of fertility, she comes to live with people, and food becomes easily available. The woman is offended, she leaves, the superabundance ends.

Aoba, Maewo, Zhuang, Muria, Java, Yami, Koryaki, Tanaina, Tagish, Taltan, Tsetsot, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Bellacula, Heiltsuk, Quakiutl, Quarry, Seneca, Vintu, Kawaisu, Huichol, Cora , tepecano, Western Mexican nahua, tzotzil, juice, jicake, embera, guajiro, warrau, pemon.

(Wed. Bantu-speaking Africa. Ronga [when the grooms arrive, the beauty's mother dances ridiculously, drives everyone who laughs away; the Chameleon does not laugh, gets a wife on the condition that she does not work; one day Chameleon's mother makes her grind corn; her daughter-in-law falls into the ground; the mother of the missing woman smashes Chameleon's village; he drives her mother away, finds another wife]: Junod s.a., No. 7:79-81).

Melanesia. Aoba: Codrington 1891:160-171 and Aurora, Codrington, p. 168 in Dixon 1916 [Tagaro saw heavenly winged maidens go swimming; hid one pair of wings at the base of his pillar at home, he married this girl; when she touched the yam plants, she made the tubers ripe; the T. brothers thought that she was pulling yams instead of weeds, scolded her; when she returned to the house, she began to cry, tears made a hole, she found her wings, flew away; var. (Whitsuntide, Codrington, p.169): When the wife flew away, she took her son with her; T. asked the bird to find them; she sat on a tree under which T.'s wife was, scratched a portrait of T. on the fetus, threw it to her; the boy found out portrait of her father; the woman asked to tell me what T. would take back if he reached the sky; he started shooting, made a chain of arrows; the root of the banyan descended from the sky, wrapped around arrows, took root in the ground; T. and the bird climbed into the sky; T.'s wife agreed to go down, but after him; cut off the root; T. fell, his wife and son returned to heaven]: 139; Suas 1912, No. 10a [Sun wives go down to swim; Takaro hides her wings Baniha Mamata, takes her as his wife; she has a young son with him; he turns yam leaves into tubers; mother-in-law swears, thinking that the boy is digging up unripe tubers; BM and her son find wings, fly away; T. asks Stork to draw figures of event participants on a sheet, throw it in front of the BM; he makes a chain of arrows himself, the root of a pandanus winds along it, T. rises to heaven; BM sends it back, cuts off the root]: 54-67; Maewo (New Hebrides) [heavenly women came to swim, left their wings on the shore; Qat hid one pair, married the woman; when she touched the yam leaf, all yam were dug up; bananas - all the bananas were ripe; K.'s mother began to scold her; the wife cried, tears washed the hole, she saw her husband's wings buried, flew away; K. began to shoot arrows into the sky alone in the tail the other, forming a chain; the root of the fig tree wrapped around it, reached the sky; K. got up, took his wives, began to descend; the man in the sky dug the root of the fig tree, the chain of arrows collapsed; K. crashed, his wife returned to heaven]: Codrington 1891:397-398 in Lessa 196:129 (translated to Permyakov 1970, No. 54:137-138).

Burma - Indochina. Chuang [dying, the mother tells A-dao that his hunter father was turned by rich Huang-mo into a half-beast after demanding payment for the killed wild animals, and the hunter failed to pay; A. finds a horned, shaggy father in the forest; leads him home, but dogs rush at him; he runs away, breaks his horn; A. drags the horn on a rope; where he pierces the ground, makes a field; compressed rice there immediately grows again; seven heavenly maidens offer help; their rice does not grow; A. hides the youngest's wings, takes her as his wife; A. demands a woman for herself; she asks for her wings to be returned, flies to heaven A. lowers the rope; heavenly father-in-law demands 1) bring a gong and a drum from the monstrous Xiashanpo (her eye incisions are vertical) from South Mountain; his wife gives three needles, A. leaves them responsible for himself while S. sharpens her teeth, runs away with a gong and a drum; 2) a tiger from West Mountain; the wife gives an iron umbrella to put an iron umbrella in the tiger's mouth; his wife sends A. from home; he summons S. to fight, she licks her wounds; A. overhears her telling her children that a knife rubbed with human or dog feces is fatal to her; A. kills S., comes to her sons; they say that their mother's staff kills at one end, revives others; A. kills them, revives the people killed by S., goes down with his wife to earth, kills H., finds his father]: Cherkasova 196:319-327.

South Asia. Muria [Mahapurub sends a crow to find out where the greatest happiness is; she comes back, replies that in the middle world; the youngest of seven daughters M. descends to earth; kills an old woman, puts her on skin, comes to the house of a man named Seth; to the horror of his parents, his son marries her; at the wedding, the old woman sheds her skin, the dog takes her skin away, the wedding is rearranged brilliantly; the wife tells me to collect ploughmen, brings them rice and porridge in peacock and woodpecker shells; her husband beats her, she disappears; there was plenty of food for everyone]: Elwin 1944, No. 4:139-140.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Java: Bezemer 1903 [a poor widow finds a baby in the forest, raises her like a son; he grows up, hunts, chases a bird, goes to a lake where heavenly maidens swim; grabs clothes for one of them; takes her as his wife; one day she tells him to look after a pot of rice on the fire but not to lift the lid; he sees only one seed in the pot; the spell has broken, and his wife has had to work hard since then to cook; in empty, she finds her husband's hidden wings; tells them to put their little daughter on the roof, she will fly in and feed her; rose in the sky in a column of smoke from burned rice straw; husband raised daughter beautiful]: 162-169 in Lessa 196:358; 1904:46 f in Dixon 1916:208-209; (retelling, apparently from the same source: Rassers 1959 [from Kyai agng Ing-Kudus three sons, the youngest (he is from another wife) refuses to marry, becomes an ascetic in the forest; comes to a pond whose owner's daughter refuses to marry; they unite, the girl dies during childbirth; K. finds the baby, but leaves him in pursuit of a deer; the boy is picked up and raised by a woman; while hunting, he sees heavenly maidens bathing, hides the clothes of one of them, Dewi Nawang Wulan; she gives birth to a daughter; forbids her husband to lift the lid from the vessel where rice is cooked; he picks it up, there is only one rice; she has been left alone, since then she has to cook a lot of rice; DNV finds his clothes and returns to heaven; returns to feed his baby daughter; then he rises back to heaven in a column of smoke from rice straw]: 266-267).

Taiwan - Philippines. Yami [Iranmilek village: the island is empty, the supreme deity drops a stone from the sky, the first man comes out of the stone; a boy and a girl are born from his knee, they populate the island; after a lot For generations, earthquakes and tsunamis have destroyed everything, two men remain; the deity sends them two maidens from the sky, the island is inhabited again; the village of Iratay: wooden boxes come to Irala, each person; one the box is nailed to Tabedeh, where Yayo is now, the second in Lyos, where Ivatas is, the third is in Iraralay; people have multiplied; blindness follows incest; the sea departs; when the white coral is disturbed stone, the flood began; two brothers were saved, the supreme deity sent them two heavenly maidens, the eldest was ordered to marry the elder, the youngest to marry the younger brother; contrary to instructions, the eldest takes the younger brother as her husband; the youngest returns to heaven to complain (what happened to the older brother is not said); the older brother is happy with his wife because she miraculously supplies them with food, but forbids them to see exactly how she does it; Iranmilek had another man with a heavenly wife, the narrator transfers the story to him; the husband learns that snakes and rats help his wife create food; after that, the wife returns to heaven; the husband goes Warn little brother from Iratay not to try to reveal the secret; it doesn't help, the younger brother's wife and child fly to heaven]: Bennedek 1991.

SV Asia. Koryaks [resume; Big Raven marries a Salmon woman; his family no longer knows hunger; his first wife Mita offends a Salmon woman who returns to sea; Big Raven family is starving again]: Jochelson 1904:424.

Subarctic. Tanaina [like the Tlingit; no details]: Smelcer 1992:11; Tagish [after the death of his wife, the hunter stays with his little daughter; cannot get marmots; a woman approaches him, forces him regurgitate mucus, then he gets marmots; the woman becomes his wife; does not tell him to kill two black marmots, her brothers; he kills, she revives them, they run back to the hole; the husband should go there behind his wife; the girl finds her father's brothers, tells how he went to the marmots; only the youngest manages to trap him; this dead marmot is left for seven days, he comes to life as a man, becomes a shaman ]: McClelland 2007, #96:430-432; taltan [people leave a lazy young man; he grabs a woman's baby; she's a Groundhog, marries him; one day he kills her children; she leaves, and meat and skin marmots come to life and run away; he follows his wife into the underworld of marmots, becomes a marmot himself; his brothers catch him, extract him from his marmot skin; he becomes a shaman]: Teit 1921a, No. 65:343-345; tsetsot [ a young man catches a baby marmot; a groundhog's mother turns into a woman, asks for her son to be given to her; in return, rewards the young man with hunting luck; marries him; he kills her groundhog brother; she commands meat and skins marmots turn back into animals, takes them away; he follows her into the crevice of the rock; inside the house, marmot skins hang on the walls; he gets alone, lives like a marmot; his brothers kill him, find him fresh bracelet; a man comes to life, tells his story]: Boas 1896-1897, No. 7:263-264.

NW Coast. Tlingit: Smelcer 1992 [Tumana nad Salosami agrees to give Raven a daughter; tells her not to offend her; she fills the basket with water, creates salmon in it, the Raven always has a lot of food; the Raven is increasingly common scolds his wife, hits her salmon with a dried tail; she runs away, he wants to grab her, but her body is like a fog; she goes into the water, turns into fog; all dried salmon come to life, follow her]: 11-12; Garfield, Forrest 1961 (Ketchikan) [A raven with his two servants named Gitsanuk and Gitsaqeq fell into the fog; suddenly a woman was on the boat, asked the crow for his hat, collected all the fog in it, became a wife A crow; creates salmon by immersing her finger in water; creates a lot of salmon by immersing his head in water; during a quarrel, Raven hit his wife, she left, followed by all the salmon, including dried ones; but since then, salmon They return every year; the daughter of a Mist woman lives in the upper reaches of each river]: 60-63; Hyda (Masset): Swanton 1908a: 303-304 [The raven comes to the woman, lives with her like a sister; wonders how she is catches so many salmon; because of his bad words (the informant refused to say them), the dried salmon came to life and returned to the river; the woman fell ill with syphilis, the Raven helped her find a cure (grass?) in the swamp , cured], 331-332 [The raven is married to the Salmon Woman; they have a lot of salmon; when passing, he clings to hanging dried salmon, swears why there are so many of them; salmon come to life, swim away]; tsimshian [Txä MSem (Raven) sees a beautiful woman appear in his boat; she is Salmon, tells her to be treated well; putting her fingers and feet into the water creates salmon; T. caught salmon, left his eye to guard them from crows; they take away both salmon and eyes; his wife makes him a new one; makes his hair beautiful; soon all the pantries are full of dried salmon; T. unreasonably suspects his wife of infidelity; she sees him Gambling with a stump all day; salmon bone gets entangled in T.'s hair twice, he swears, throws a bone, laughs at his wife; she tells the dried salmon to come to life, disappears with them; her don't grab it, her body is like mist; T.'s hair and skin become as ugly as ever]: Boas 1916, No. 22:76-79; bellacula: Boas 1898 [The raven marries a widow, he likes her daughter; he asks various trees how they burn; thuja replies that sparks from it fly off to women's genitals; the raven advises the girl to cure the burn by sowing on a plant in the forest; hiding, exposes his penis, she sits down; The raven is not invited to the party; pretends to be sick, comes up secretly, screams, tells his sons to sprinkle ash on it as if he hadn't left the house; says that those screams mean approaching enemies; people leave, the Raven eats holiday food; asks the Deer when it is fattest; leads to the meadow to the edge of the abyss; says that he, the Raven, was already there when the mountains began to grow; The deer replies what it was when the Sun was just beginning to give the world its current form; the Raven pushes the Deer off the cliff, eats; when he enters an empty house, sees fish stocks; tells the sisters to load everything into the boat; invisible hands they beat him and his sisters; The raven goes to the guests, asks for return visits; the bird cuts his leg with a stone knife, caviar falls from there; the seal holds her hands over the fire, fat drips; another bird sings, a box fills with berries; the Raven only hurts himself, there is excrement in his box; he sails to the Salmon; tells his sisters to hole the boats; asks the chief's daughter to help carry food to his boat, takes the girl, Salmon in full of holes boats can't chase him; at home she tells his wife to make his hair as long as hers; she warns that salmon hanged to dry will get tangled in his hair; as it happens, the Raven screams that she does not want to catch them again; the offended wife jumps into the water, all the salmon come to life and sail for her]: 90-95; McIlwraith 1948 (2) [two var; Raven marries a sockeye salmon woman; she creates salmon immersing his toe in water; warns her husband not to tear off the heads of the caught salmon; the Raven's long hair becomes entangled in the teeth of the sockeye salmon hung to dry; he tears off the fish's head; the wife falls ill, leaves; all dried fish follow them into the sea]: 416-419; Heiltsuk [The True Chief (Raven) makes salmon out of alder; it does not have enough bone, it swims crooked; the raven tries to steal a bone from salmon owners, but caught; pours the water of life on the grave of two twin girls; one comes to life, creates salmon by immersing her finger in water; creates flocks of fish while swimming; the Raven says she pulls his hair; the wife is offended, whistles, disappears; with her, dried fish comes to life and disappears; the Raven loses its long hair]: Boas 1928b: 27-33; quakiutl [Omean (Raven) asks his brother Deer dig a ditch, turns it into a river; his aunt Star Woman tells him to find the twin grave; he digs it up, revives the woman by sprinkling living water on her remains; takes her as his wife; in his absence she puts his finger in a bucket of water, creating salmon; when the Deer laughs, the Raven notices salmon meat on his teeth; asks his wife to create more salmon; this and other versions end in a story of resentment Salmon women (she's leaving, salmon can no longer be harvested as easily as before)]: Boas 1916:667-668.

The coast is the Plateau. Quarry [a young man marries two daughters of a heavenly god, descends with them to earth; first they are two rainbows, then they take on a human form; there are many salmon; one orphan decorated her hair with a pen; the feather sticks to the salmon giblets hung for drying; the orphan is angry that there are many giblets due to the fault of the daughters of the deity; giblets come to life, salmon swim into the river; hunger begins]: Jenness 1934, No. 1:114.

Northeast. Seneca [after the flood, people eat bark; Corn lives in the south, sends her daughter to people; she marries, fills the bins with grain, satisfies many people's hunger with only fish; her husband's brother refuses her bread, throws it into the fire; she returns to her mother, the corn disappears; the husband comes for her; she gives him corn seeds, beans, pumpkins; he brings them to people; his evil brother died from hunger]: Curtin, Hewitt 1918, No. 121:636-642.

California. Vintu [a man marries an Acorn woman; his uncle Coyote or father sees her nose filling baskets with acorn soup; refuses to eat; the offended woman leaves, the husband follows her; uncle/father is starving; nephew/son sends him a grasshopper who turns into food]: Dubois, Demetracopoulou 1932, No. 38 [a woman always sits facing the wall; Coyote tries in vain to see her face, telling her spark fall on her back], 39 [father]: 464-471; kawaiisu [two options; Blue Jay is married to Eagle; she takes only three acorns (or one) when cooking; eats almost everything herself, gives only a little to her husband and mother-in-law; mother-in-law tells me to take more acorns; husband spies on his wife, tells his mother; mother-in-law scolds Soyka, she leaves; if she were not told to take more, three acorns would be enough]: Zigmond 1980, No. 13:59-60.

NW Mexico. A man marries Corn; her mother-in-law makes her grind corn (i.e. herself). Huichol: Benzi 1971, No. 2:183-184; Myerhoff 1974:210-212; Zingg 1982:219-220; bark: Preuss 1912:183-189; tepecano: Mason 1914, No. 4 [the lazy boy's mother sends him out of his home, so that he can learn to work; three daughters of God descend to the lake shore, one takes a young man as her husband; God allows him to take his wife, tells him not to offend her; in her mother-in-law's house, she fills her bins with corn and with beans; mother-in-law burns cakes, burns on her daughter-in-law's face in the morning; so three times, the daughter-in-law returns to God; the young man comes for her, but hurts his wife again; she leaves forever, God punished man with his head en un tepetate duro (weathering calcareous bark)], 4 [the young man marries the daughter of God; first the mother-in-law sees his daughter-in-law as a snake; the daughter-in-law asks for a jug, immediately a spring located in the distance is next to the house; she fills the cover with corn; the husband took the female Opossum and the female Raven as mistresses; the wife went to her father, who put the man's head in tepetate]: 155-160 , 160-162; Nahua, Tepecano, Cora, Huichol: Bierhorst 1990:89-98.

Mesoamerica Tsotzil [a man marries Corn; beats her thinking that the few cobs she brought will not be enough]: Gossen 1974, No. 25, 112:267, 311; Guiteras-Holmes 196:192; juice [hostess asks her husband to bring corn from the field, but every time he says that the corn is not ripe yet, and then that it is gone, we have to wait for next year; she goes by herself, collects corn, cooks at home; husband comes back, drives her away furiously; all the corn is gone; leaf cutter ants found corn inside the mountain, did not tell me where the grains came from; people asked Crab (cangrejo) for help, he threatened their ants cut it, they led to the mountain where the corn was; on the way, Cancer fell off the cliff, fell, became flat; but still did not fit into the hole, only his forehead became flat; the Turkey peeled off the feathers from his chest, the Rooster kicked so much that fingers are now far apart; the horse flattened its legs and arms, they became hooves; the woodpecker and other birds came, screamed, couldn't widen the hole either; Thunder agreed to punch it if the Wind will clear the mountain; the wind ordered the houses to be fortified, the trees on the mountain have been demolished, the thunder hit, pierced; there was a bird inside the mountain, it pecked Thunder's eyes, since then he has gone blind]: Sulvarán López 2007:158-162.

Honduras - Panama. Hikake [Chiri Tsutsus came out of the cave, collected white beans for men, shaking her hair, black for women from her skirt; her husband's brothers asked her son to get honey from the hollow; his hand got stuck; they tried to split the trunk but cut off his arm, the boy died; she returned to the cave in anger, closed the entrance, her husband was unable to enter her; the beans remained]: Chapman 1982, No. 10:72; 1992:121-122 .

The Northern Andes. Ambera [a man marries a girl from the lower world; they visit her parents; they do not give them corn with them; their son swallows grains of all kinds, on earth the father finds them in his excrement; a person lives with foster parents; his stepmother does not love his wife; she goes into her own world, takes away almost all of the corn; each variety leaves one cob]: Wassen 1933, No. 1:107-108; guajiro [the hunter's wife can make a honey drink by chewing only water; went to get water in the middle of the night, returned to dawn; carried a large vessel, a small one and a calebass; on the way she immersed her fingers in Calebasu, the water was becoming sweet; her husband's brother followed, asked for water; she offered him a small vessel, but he demanded a calebas, snatched it away from her, saw that it contained honey; took away what It was intended only for her husband; after that, the woman disappeared into the forest, became a bee; bees turn collected from flowers into their children]: Perrin 1976, No. 15:94-96.

Guiana. Varrau [two sisters always made kashiri for her brother, but the drink remained tasteless; walking through the woods, the brother wished out loud a woman who would make the drink tasty as honey; steps behind his back - "I'm Kohora" (honey bee); he brought her home, she chatted with her little finger in the water - the drink is ready; the man is tired of drinking sweets, began to quarrel with his wife; she ran away, now it's difficult to make a honey drink )]: Wilbert 1970, No. 162:347-348; pemon [a female ant falls in love with a hard-working young man, turns into a woman, he brings her home to her mother; she and her daughters go to relatives for a week, tells take only three or four cassava bushes from the garden; the young man's wife does so, but a huge mountain of manioc flour emerges from the processed tubers; the mother-in-law who has returned scolds his daughter-in-law because she thinks that she I dug up all the cassava and now there will be nothing to eat; at night, the offended daughter-in-law leaves, becomes an ant again, asks the other ants to carry all the cassava; in the morning there is no cassava, the young man waits in vain at the anthill]: Armellada 1988, № 76:199-202.