Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H36A. False news: the origin of death, A1335.1. .10.-.15.19.21.-. (.31.) .34.35.38. (.47.52.) .61.

The character distorts the message sent to him, knowingly lies, brings the wrong thing, loses what he needs, hesitates (and is overtaken by another messenger). As a result, people become mortal (they don't respawn after death).

Bushmen, Hottentots, Suto-chwana, Chwana, Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, Ndebele, Ronga, Tsonga, Chuka, Nyakusa, Yaka, Loui, Subia, Kwaya, Vute, Bube, Douala, Kuta, Ganda, Kikuyu, Kamba, Chuka, Embu , Amberre, Mwimbe, Yao, Tonga, Tonga (Malawi), Ila, Bemba, Lamba, Nyanja, Safwa, Comorians, Mkulwe, Conde, Venda, Ndau, Nyimang, Bongo, Beng, Ashanti, Ibo, Ijo, Isoko and Urhobo, Mende, Margi, Bura, Mukulehe, limba, Liberia, Akposo, Eve, Baule, Kone (Sierra Leone), Hausa, Dagomba, Bulsa, Krachi, Dithammari, Ekoi, Diola, Joluo, Mbai, Oromo, Sandave, Malgashi, Egypt, Portuguese, Gazelle Peninsula, Apatani, Lepcha, Zhuang, Lao Black Thai, Viets, Sora, Toda, Chinese (Liaoning, Zhejiang), Lisu, Ancient Greece, Armenians, Talysh, Tajiks, (Lithuanians), Khakas, Altaians, Baikal Buryats, Khalkha Mongols, Eastern Khanty, Northern Selkups, Kets, Miyako Islands, Okinawa Islands, Amami Islands, Ainu Islands (Chitimacha, Chol), Shuar, Aguaruna Islands.

SW Africa. Bushmen: Kotlyar 1983, No. 18 [The month-old man died; the women persuaded the Hare to pick unripe white berries; when she saw what she had picked, the Hare went to collect again, the women left their urine responsible for themselves, they left; The hare saw the grave from which the Month was getting out; he dragged her to him, ordered her to go to people to say that the dead must be reborn; the hare tells people that they will die forever, decompose and smell bad; during this Month he cut her lip with an ax; The hare took off her caross, got dirty in soot, covered the face of the Month, the stains remained], 20 [(Dornan 1925:172); The Moon tells the Turtle tell people that they should be resurrected after death; the turtle moved slowly, forgot the words of the Moon, came back to ask again; the Moon got angry, sent the Hare; he began to eat grass, forgot too the words of the Moon, told people to die forever; at this time the Turtle came up with the true news; people broke the Hare's lip with a stone; sent messengers to the moon to ask again, but the solution remained the same]: 35-39, 41 ; Scheub 2000 (Botswana) [The moon sent an insect to tell people that they should be reborn like her; The hare invited the messenger to run instead of him, it will be faster, said that they should die forever; Moon cut the Hare's nose]: 107; the Bushmen (san, or rather Xam) [A month sent a hare to tell people to respawn like him when they die; The hare specifically told people not to revive; The month heated a stone and burned the hare's mouth, the scar remains; so our bodies remain in the ground and our thoughts leave us]: Lewis-Williams 2000, No. 47:253; Hottentots: Abrahamsson 1951 [(many versions in different groups); main: 1) The moon sends Chameleon to say that as it revives, people will come to life after death; the Chameleon forgot what to say, returned; the Moon sent the Hare; he also forgot and said that people must die; the moon cut the Hare's lip; 2) The moon sent an insect to say that people should respawn like her; The hare intercepted the message, told people they should die like himself; The hare scratched the moon's face, traces remained; 3) Zoekoab sent the Hare to say that people would respawn like the Moon; the Hare tried to send the Tick with a distorted message; he refused, then he ran himself and said people should die for good]: 28-30; Parrinder 1967 [The moon sent Louse to tell people that as the moon dies and comes to life, so will they; the Hare told Lice that he would send the message faster; said that as the moon dies, people will die forever; the moon cut Hare's lip with a stick]: 67; Hottentots, Bushmen (many versions): Abrahamsson 1951:28-34.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Suto-chwana [the gods send the Turtle to tell people that they will come to life after death; then decide that people's bodies must collapse, send the news to the Lizard; she comes first people agree; then the Turtle comes; people ask the chief to change his mind, but he refuses; out of fear of people, the turtle pulls its head and limbs in, covers its shell]: Olderogge 1959:43 -44; chwana [1) advice decides that it should be reborn, the Turtle is sent to tell people this; then decides to die forever, send the Lizard; she comes first; 2) God sent A Chameleon with the news of eternal life and later the Lizard with the news of death; the Lizard ran first; 3) (Dornan 1925:289); Modimo sent a Lizard to tell people they must be reborn; then sent a Chameleon say they should die; the Chameleon came first; 4) God sent Chameleon to say people should be reborn; the devil Barimo sent the Lizard to say people should die; the lizard came first] : Abrahamsson 1951:23-24 (=Knappert 1997:67); Scythe: Abrahamsson 1951 [Unkulunkulu sends a Chameleon to tell people to live forever; changes his mind, sends a Lizard to tell them to die ; The lizard overtakes Chameleon, hits him on the head]: 25-26; Leslie 1875 [people did not need food and did not die; cultivated plants grew in gardens themselves but were not used; baby was born for the first time; mother began to wither away; another woman let her eat corn and pumpkin to make her die and she instead recover; Umvel'nqanki sent a chameleon to tell people not to die (or die, but reborn); then sent a lizard to tell people to die forever; the lizard came first]: 207-209; Scheub 2000 [Qamatha sent a chameleon to tell people they would be immortal; he walked slowly; the lizard asked where the chameoleon had gone, was the first to run to people, announced that they should die; people believed the lizard]: 214; suto [der Spiesser sent Chameleon to tell people not to die; changed his mind, sent the Lizard to tell them to die forever; the Lizard overtook Chameleon]: Abrahamsson 1951:24; Swazi [God sent Chameleon to tell people not to die; he hesitates, eats along the way; God angrily sent the Lizard to tell them to die forever; the Lizard overtook Chameleon]: Abrahamsson 1951:26; Zulu [Unkulunkulu sent Chameleon to tell people that they should not die; he hesitated on the way, the bush began to eat; W. sent the Lizard to tell him that all living things were mortal; the Lizard overtook the chameleon]: Zhukov, Kotlyar 1976, No. 2:34 (=Parrinder 1967:56; =Bleeck in Koropchevsky 1874:26); Abrahamsson 1951 [as in Zhukov, Kotlyar; many versions]: 26-27; Held 1904 [The Great Spirit sent a chameleon to land to tell people that they should live forever and a salamander to die; a salamander to die; a salamander ran quickly, and the chameleon caught insects along the way and came late]: 12-13; Werner 1933 [Unkulunkulu sent Chameleon to tell people that they should not die; he walked slowly; W. sent the Lizard, telling people to die; The lizard came first]: 31-32; Ndebele (Transvaal) [Zimu sent a chameleon to inform people that after death they will be reborn; the lizard overtook him, said death would be final]: Scheub 2000:272; ronga [chief sends Chameleon to tell people they will die and be reborn; the chameleon is walking slowly; the chief sends a big crocodile with a blue head say death is final; he comes first; the Chameleon brings the news of revival, but it's too late]: Junod s.a., No. 7:78; ronga [God sent Chameleon with the news of eternal life and the Lizard with with the news of death; The lizard came first]: Abrahamsson 1951:25; tsonga [people came out of the reed swamp, the man and woman of each tribe from a special reed; everyone has those garments and the tools they are now using; the swamp chief sent Chameleon to tell the people that they will die and be reborn; sent the great blue-headed Lizard to say that people will die and decay; She came running much earlier, people replied to Chameleon who came that they had already accepted the Lizard's words; when they saw the chameleon, people throw tobacco into his open mouth and rejoice at his agony]: Junod 1927:351-352; Chuka (Meru) [Murungu (Ngai, Mwene inya) is the creator; people lived in Mbwa, without clothes, did not work; God created a young man first, then a girl, they gave birth to a child; God forbid eating fruit a certain tree; the snake said that whoever tasted them would find the mind of God; the woman tried, the man refused, but finally agreed, Adam's apple was formed; God punished the snake by flattening it head; sent a mole to tell people that they must be reborn after death; the mole met the hyena, talked about God's commission; the hyena resisted - it would have nothing to eat if people became immortal; threatened the mole to swallow it, he agreed to tell people that death would be final; God punished the mole by telling him to live underground far from heaven; since then, the mole has been getting out of the ground only at night]: Scheub 2000:162; yaka (Congo) [Nzambi sent the Dog and the Goat to tell people that the old month will disappear forever and people will be reborn after death; The goat along the way began to eat grass; The dog came first, said that people would die forever and the moon would revive; then the Goat came, said correctly, but they didn't believe her anymore]: Abrahamsson 1951:12; yaka (Baja-Kaka) [a person sends a Chameleon to God to ask if people will die forever or if they sprinkle medicine in their eyes after the funeral and they will come to life; the Chameleon goes slowly, then they send the Toad, which gets first; God is offended by her appearance, replies that death is final; when the Chameleon shows up he gets the same answer]: Tessmann 1937:9 (retelling in Abrahamsson 1951:8); Kuta: Andersson 1974:61 (Mbamba , Pangala District) [Nziame sent the Dog and the Goat to people; the Goat stopped to graze, the Dog came running, said that the man would die forever and the moon would be reborn; then the Goat came, said the opposite, but it was late; (variants of other kuta groups do not mention the moon; =Abrahamsson 1951:11-12)], 61-62 [Nzambi gave the first man and woman Bisis and Saule different fruits, but banned eating a certain type of yam; children B. and S. ate and died; the parents were in grief; N. sent the Goat to people to call them to his place, but she began to eat the leaves; sent the Dog, which came, but when they all went to N., the Dog rushed after the antelope, returned to N. alone; N. punished her by obliging her to serve man, taking away her human language, punished the Goat, making her stupid, making her food for humans; when people came, N. comforted them, saying that not everything would die at once and that new children will be born instead of dead children; (retelling in Abrahamsson 1951:12)], 61-62 [Zambie sent the Goat and the Dog to tell people that they will die but be reborn; the Goat lingered to graze, the Dog said that people would die forever; the Goat came with the news of the revival, but it was too late; Z. punished them by making them a goat and a dog; he also sent an antelope, wild boar, guinea fowl, but they did not come to people; Z. punished them by telling them to serve man; this is how a ram, a domestic pig, a chicken appeared], 63-64 [Zambie sent people to tell them that after death they would revive, first the Goat (remained to graze), then The dog (began to nibble on bones), then the Lizard (said people would die forever]; louis: Abrahamsson 1951:33 [Leza sent Chameleon to say that the dead would be reborn; then sent A lizard with the news of final death; the lizard came first], 33-34 [Nyambe's dog died, his wife Nasilele told her to be thrown away; then Nasilele's mother died; she asked for her back, but Nyambe refused because it did not want to return the dog; they sent Chameleon to tell the people that they would come to life, and the Hare (var. Lizard) to say that they will die forever; the Hare (the Lizard) came first]; subia [Leza sent Chameleon to tell people they should be reborn; then sent the Lizard, telling them to say if The chameleon hasn't yet reached the point that humans should die for good; the lizard came running early]: Jacottet 1901:111-114 in Frazer 1926:177; duala [in a chimpanzee village is discussing whether a person should die; sent for judges; the lizard carried leaves, came first, said that we must die forever; the Chameleon carried stones, said that the one who stood under the pepper tree for nine days would be younger again; but the Chameleon came later]: Abrahamsson 1951:10-11; bubi, yaounde, coco, bulu [like dual]: Abrahamsson 1951:11; ganda ["the story of the chameleon and the moon is not unknown"]: Abrahamsson 1951:18; chuka, embu, emberre, mwimbe [The sun sent the Mole to bring people the elixir of life; he met Hyena along the way; fearing that she would have nothing to eat, The hyena begged him to give her the elixir of life, gave him the Elixir of Death instead; the Mole confessed what he had done to the Sun, who told him to live underground]: Abrahamsson 1951:19; mkulve [people gave the dog bones sheep - meat; old woman Mwawa ordered to change; The dog quickly ate meat, barked, We will die, we will die, we will die; Sheep messed with bones for a long time and unsuccessfully, failed, We will die and be resurrected; people said the Dog was ahead of her, they beat the dog]: Hamberger 1909, No. 4:300 (retelling Abrahamsson 1951:21, in Frazer 1926:195); kikuyu [God sent Chameleon to say people should not die; changed his mind, sent a bird with news of human mortality; while the Chameleon was slowly walking, the bird had time to declare God's will]: Abrahamsson 1951:19; kamba: Abrahamsson 1951 [=Frazer 1926:257-258, =Radin 1952 , No. 12:62; God sent Chameleon to say that people should not die; changed his mind, sent a weaver bird with news of human mortality; while the Chameleon was slowly walking, catching flies, and then could not finish the phrase and declare immortality, the Weaver managed to bring the news of human mortality]: 19; Arewa 1961 [God sent Chameleon to tell people that after death they would be reborn; he walked slowly, Magpie asked for permission to fly in a circular way; God allowed; she came first, said that people would die irrevocably like tree roots; the Chameleon came later; now people are getting old and are not reborn]: 13-14; Arewa 1980, #33 [God sent a chameleon to tell people that they must be reborn after death; the magpie began to shout, "I'll tell you!" , but did not say what; she flew to people before the chameleon reached and said that they must die irrevocably, like tree roots]: 13-14; Lindblom 1920 [(=Abrahamsson 1951:19, =Frazer 1926: 257-258, =Radin 1952, no. 12:62); God sent Chameleon to say that people should not die; changed his mind, sent a weaver bird with news of human mortality; while the Chameleon walked slowly catching flies, and then nothing could not finish the phrase and declare immortality, the Weaver managed to bring the news of human mortality]: 253; Hobley 1910 [retelling in Frazer 1926:255-257, Scheub 2000:172; Engai sent a Frog to people, The chameleon and the bird Itoroko; seeing the dead, the Chameleon called them gently, they opened their eyes; the bird cried out cheerfully that the dead should die forever; people had already opened their eyes, but the bird told the dead stay like that; flew away; the chameleon and the frog returned to E.; the chameleon told him everything, E. called the bird, which explained that the chameleon began to say all sorts of nonsense and had to intervene; N. punished Chameleon with slowness and toothless mouth, and praised the bird, told them to wake people up in the morning]: 107-108; quaya [the man sent his daughter-in-law to tell the Snake that when she dies, he will remain dead, and if if a man dies, he will be reborn; the daughter-in-law confused, said the opposite; her father-in-law asked her again, got angry, sent her again; this time she said correctly, but the Snake refused to obey; so snakes change skin and revive]: Huber 1967:796-797; couple [God sent Chameleon to tell people they would respawn as a Month; after changing their mind, sent the Frog to say people would die forever like a broken pitcher; when the Chameleon started talking, the Frog finished with his message]: Abrahamsson 1951:20; ngoni [God sent Chameleon to say that people would come to life after death; then sent the Lizard to say they would die forever; the Lizard came first]: Abrahamsson 1951:20; yao [1) The chameleon is sent to tell the dead to rise up from their graves; later Salamander sent to tell them to stay in the graves; comes first; 2) The chameleon is sent to say that the dead will be resurrected; later Salamander is sent to say that they must be buried; when the Chameleon comes, the dead are already buried]: Abrahamsson 1951:20-21; yao, nyanja, tonga [Chiuta sent Chameleon to say that the dead will be resurrected; the Lizard (or Frog) that they will die finally; The lizard comes first]: Abrahamsson 1951:21, 22; Tonga (Malawi) [the creator of Chiuta sent Chameleon to the people with the news that they will be reborn after death, and the Lizard to say that death is final; the Lizard came first] (Malawi): Scheub 2000:31; Tonga [people sent Chameleon and the Centipede to God; the Centipede comes first, but bursts, little ones run out of it; God understands this as a sign that people want to die and have children; later the Chameleon comes, asks people for eternal life, gets rejected]: Abrahamsson 1951:25; ilah [1) Leza sent Chameleon say that death is final; then Hare with the news of eternal life; the Hare came running and announced first, but the Chameleon said that only his message was true; L. agreed; 2) Leza sent Chameleon with the news of eternal life, then the Hare with the news of death; the Hare came running and announced first]: Smith, Dale 1920:100-101 (quoted in Abrahamsson 1951:22; Janssens 1926:561); safwa [The sheep wanted people revived, the Dog to die for good; whoever reaches man will be the first to be; the Sheep won for the first time, but the Dog insisted on a second attempt, threw salt in the Sheep's way, ran while the Sheep was licking salt]: Abrahamsson 1951:21; Condé [those who wanted immortality sent the Sheep to God, and those who wanted to die forever sent the Dog; the dog ran first, sent the request]: Fülleborn 1906: 331 in Frazer 1926:192, in Abrahamsson 1951:21; Comorians [God sent a Raven to a man to hang an immortal necklace around his neck; the Raven asked him to do the same, but God said he forgot he can't make magic formulas; on the way, the Raven put on the necklace, but that lost its power, so no one got immortality; God drove the crow out of his possessions]: Hatubou 2004, No. 25:108-109; mkulve [people give the Sheep a piece of meat, the Dog a bone, but if the old woman wishes, they changed this one; whoever eats first will say whether death should be final; Dog quickly ate, said that, Yes]: Abrahamsson 1951:21; bemba (or lala) [Nzambi told Chameleon to tell people that they would be reborn and the Month would die for good; the Chameleon was coming slowly, and the Dog heard, ran, said the opposite; the Chameleon brought the right news but it was too late]: Andersson in Abrahamsson 1951:12; bemba [God sent Chameleon with the news of eternal life and A lizard with the news of death; The lizard came first]: Abrahamsson 1951:21; lamba [God sent Chameleon with the news of eternal life and later the Lizard with the news of death; the Lizard came first]: Abrahamsson 1951:22; the lower reaches of the Zambezi [fearing overpopulation, the lords sent the Lizard to tell the spirits that people were taken from the ground after a while; people found out about this, sent Chameleon with asking them to leave them eternal life; the Lizard came first]: Abrahamsson 1951:22-23; ndau [God sent Chameleon to say that the deceased should be reborn; then sent the Lizard to say he should die follows forever; the Lizard reached first; Chameleon people replied that they had already accepted the Creator's command sent to him with the Lizard]: Boas, Simango 1922, No. 12:183-184 (retelling in Abrahamsson 1951:23); Wenda [God sent Centipede to tell people they should be immortal; she stayed on the road, eating fruit; at this time, the evil god Ralowimba sent Chameleon to tell people to die; when The Centipede came, they didn't believe her]: Wessmann 1908:82-83 (narrated in Abrahamsson 1951:23); fang [Nsambe sent Chameleon to say people should not die; he walked slowly, the Lizard came running, said people should die and be born]: Abrahamsson 1951:11; nyakusa [like other Bantu's, the motive for the "false news" is: Sheep and Dog are sent, one with news of eternal life, the other about mortality human]: Wilson 1959:15.

West Africa. Beng [everyone is going to tell Heaven that they want to be reborn, and let the grass that covers the roofs die forever if it is burned; they sent the Dog, but she began to gnaw the bones, lingered; first Cat came running, mistakenly asked that the burnt grass grow again and people die forever; that's what happened]: Gottlieb 1986:479; limba (Sierra Leone) [Kanu told the Snake to take it to people the elixir of immortality; but the Toad took it and spilled it along the way, so people are mortal]: Scheub 2000:103; Liberia [people send the Cat to the sorcerer for the elixir of immortality; on the way back, he puts it When received on a stump, swims in the river, forgets the errand; he is sent to find the loss, but the elixir has already absorbed into the stump; so the felled tree grows out of the stump again, while people die irrevocably]: Bundy 1919, No. 3:408; Terns: Cardinall 1931:27-28 [=Scheub 2000:263, in brief in Abrahamsson 1951:6; the cannibal toucan killed people; Wulbari called his people together for everyone to choose their subjects; goat said that her people were grass, her dog was people; V. sent the dog to bring people the elixir of life to revive those killed by the toucan; she found a bone, began to gnaw, put the elixir aside; the goat passed by, took the elixir, poured grass on her people; so people die forever, and the grass is reborn every year], 28-29 [people sent a sheep to Nyame saying that they do not want to die; for After a while, a dog was sent; the sheep came across grass, on which one woman poured salt, began to eat; at this time the dog reached Nyame and said that people wanted to die; on the way back, she met a sheep and she explained that the dog was wrong; both returned to N., but he refused to change his mind]; Dagomba [people were slaves, sent a dog to Wuni to change his mind] position; she stopped to see what the old woman was cooking (it turned out that she was boiling water); the goat heard people's request, came to V., said that people were going to die; when the dog came running, V. refused change mind; now humans are both mortals and slaves]: Cardinall 1931:29-30 (=Abrahamsson 1951:6-7, =Scheub 2000:264); dithammaribe (battamaribe) [everyone wants people not to die, only the Chameleon against; the supreme god Kuyey suggests that whoever gets to him first decide the fate of people; they decide to send the Dog, but she finds meat in the bushes, stops chewing bones; Chameleon came first, so people are mortal]: Anpetkova-Sharova 2010:219-220; bulsa [people sent a dog to God to ask them to die and be reborn, and the moon to die forever; the dog hesitated, When he saw food on the way; then a goat went and said that people wanted to die forever, and let the moon revive; when the dog made a true request, God replied that it was too late]: Schott 1989:262; eve [people sent a sheep to God to ask for eternal life; then they sent a dog with the same request; the dog overtook the sheep and told God that people wanted to be mortal; when the sheep came, God had already made a decision] : Scheub 2000:141; akposo [people sent a dog to tell Uwolowu they wanted a resurrection after death; the dog stopped at a brew, and the frog came to W. say people want to die; people have been dying ever since, but if a frog dies and then thunder is heard, it respawns]: Anthropos, 2:203 in Abrahamsson 1951:7; baule [Nyamye sent to his Anambela's brother give the dog to make humans and animals immortal; just in case, he instructed the cat to do the same; the dog found a bone, began to gnaw, the cat overtook it, ran over the rat, but decided to eat it her on the way back; the dog came running later than the cat; A. said that since life and death meant so little to them, let everyone be mortal]: Himmelheber 1951b: 30-31 (translated into Himmelheber 1960:97-98 ); akan [people sent a sheep to Nyame to ask for immortality, then a dog just in case; the sheep found a place where the woman threw salt on the grass, stayed to graze; the dog came first and said people want to die forever; I met a sheep, who explained that the dog was wrong, they both ran back, but N. refused to change his mind]: Scheub 2000:186-187; Ashanti [Nyame warned people that Death walks between them, kills them; but sent a goat to say that the dead would be reborn and rise to him in heaven; the goat stopped eating grass; then N. sent a sheep, but she said that death would occur final; when a goat came to people, it was too late]: Scheub 2000:87; Igbo: Abrahamsson 1951 [God sends a dog to say that the deceased should be sprinkled with ash, he will be reborn; the dog satisfied his hunger, stayed late; God sent a sheep, she also did not come right away, confused everything, said that the dead should be buried; when the dog that came running gave God's words correctly, they did not believe it]: 7; Beier 1966 [when Death appeared, people sent a dog to Chuku to ask if the dead should be reborn; The dog hesitated along the way; the Toad overheard, came to C., said that people did not want to be reborn after death; C. I decided so; when the Dog came, he refused to change his mind]: 56; isoko and urhobo [Oghene made people immortal, old people shed their skin like snakes, became young; earth overflowed; the dog, being man's companion, wanted people to live forever, and W. expanded the world; the toad wanted the dead to die forever; decided that O. would agree with who was first to him will come; the dog first overtook the toad but decided to sleep; the toad came first, people became mortal]: Scheub 2000:198-199; Hausa: Abrahamsson 1951:7 [God sent a chameleon to say he was dead you have to touch it with bread, he will come to life; the lizard heard, quickly ran to people, said that the dead should be buried; the chameleon dressed up for a long time, and when he brought his message, he was told that it was true which was delivered first], 7-8 [The month sent the Hare to say that man should be like a Month dying in the morning and reviving again in the evening; The hare said that people should die forever; Month wanted to hit him on the head with an ax, but only cut his upper lip; The Hare scratched the face of the Month, the marks are still visible; ran away and still runs]; Margie: Abrahamsson 1951:8 (=Beier 1966:57) [ people sent a chameleon to ask Iju why they were dying; he sent him back to say that if you put baked porridge on a corpse, the person would come to life; seeing that the chameleon did not return for a long time, people sent followed by a lizard; I. was angry that he was being asked again, ordered to tell him that the dead should be buried; Var.: I. sends the old news, the lizard distorts it]; Scheub 2000 [var.: people sent the Lizard to Ija ask what to do if the person fell ill; I., angry, ordered to pour hot porridge on the patient, he immediately died]: 76-77; mukulehe [(brief mention); the chameleon was an ambassador to tell people that they were not must die but it came too late]: Lembezat 196:59; ecoi [Obassi sent the Frog to tell people that death is final and Duck to tell the dead will be reborn; The duck sat down to drink palm Grazed and forgot the errand, the Frog brought news]: Abrahamsson 1951:9; ijo (kalabari): Dayrell 1910, No. 23 [The creator was sorry that people were dying; he sent a dog to tell the deceased they left him to lie, sprinkled with gold; in a day he would come to life; the dog found a bone near the old woman's house, began to gnaw on it, and then fell asleep; the Creator sent a sheep; she began to pinch the grass, and then forgot that it was accuracy should be said; told the dead to be buried in the ground; when the dog came running and conveyed the Creator's words, she was told that they had already received another order; they did not like the dog, because of it people were mortal]: 81- 82; J. of the African Soc. 18:194 (1906) in Frazer 1926 [people didn't die, one got sick and died, others sent the Dog to ask God what to do; she kept not coming back, people sent the Sheep, she came back say that the deceased should be buried; The dog came, told him to put hot ash on the dead's stomach, he would come to life; but it was too late, so dogs are treated badly]: 192-193 (=Abrahamsson 1951:7); vute [God sent Chameleon to say that the dead should be reborn, but he did his hair for 14 days; the Serpent heard, came to people, said that they should die forever; the Chameleon came later, he began to complain to God, who ordered snakes to be killed]: Abrahamsson 1951:9-10 (Lembezat 196:236); kone (Sierra Leone) [God told husband, wife and their child that in old age they would change their skin and to rejuvenate; sent new skins with the Dog; the Dog was invited by other animals to eat rice and pumpkins; at this time the Snake stole the bundle, distributed the skin to snakes; Man and Dog came to God, but it was too late; snakes punished by driving them out of settlements, people kill them]: Parrinder 1967:54 (=Scheub 2000:268-269); mende [Ngewo sent the Dog to say that people should not die and Toad should; The dog saw how the woman cooks, she just has to wait to be fed; the toad came first, now people are mortal]: Parrinder 1967:54 (=Scheub 2000:174-175); diola (? ; in any case, Senegal; Jacklyn Ndiaye informant, recorded in France; a note to one of her texts states that "probably a diola"; in any case, diola is Christian, like informant) [God sent a hare to tell people that the moon should die forever and people should be reborn after death; the hyena met the hare and, finding out why and where he was running, undertook to hand over the assignment herself; said that the moon should be reborn and people should die forever; God began to revive, but it was impossible to change the direction]: Reuss-Nliba, Reuss-Nliba 2018:14.

Sudan-East Africa. Bongo: Andersson in Abrahamsson 1951:13 [1) Nzambi asked people if they wanted to be reborn themselves or the moon when they die; Ambassador Goat and Dog's people say they want to be reborn; Goat stopped to graze; The dog said people wanted to die and let the moon revive; when the Goat came, it was too late; 2) Nzama created the world and people; sent the Goat and the Dog to say people should not to die; The Goat stopped to graze, and the Dog said that people should die and the moon should be reborn; The Goat brought the right news, but late; N. punished both by turning them into animals; 3) Nzama created the sky the earth and everything on it; brought down the first human couple to earth; sent the Goat with the message of the Sun and the Dog with the message of the Moon (which exactly means the informant did not explain); The dog said that people would die forever and the Moon reborn; the Goat said the opposite, but it was too late], 13-14 [Nzami created humans; Muloghi insisted that some of them die; N. sent the Goat and the Dog; the Goat stopped grazing, The dog told people to die forever and the Moon to be reborn; then the Goat said the opposite, but people did not believe her]; nyangi [God sent the Dog to say that the dead would be in two days reborn; The Frog overheard; while the Dog was eating palm oil, the Frog rode, said death was final; the Dog that came later was not listened to]: Abrahamsson 1951:9; joluo [people descended from heaven, but Death began to destroy them; Nsasaye took pity, sent him to say that if he was sacrificed of pure fat, he would stop death; people sent Chameleon, giving him a package with the best mutton fat; he dropped it, brought it dirty; N. furiously left Death raging on the ground]: Belcher 2005:153-154; Nyimang (ama) [when the man died, God said he just fell asleep He ordered to leave the body for the night, and in the morning the man would come to life; but the Rabbit came to people before God and ordered the dead to be buried, otherwise God would destroy everyone; when he learned what had happened, God said that let them die once listened to Rabbit]: Scheub 2000:5-6; mbai: Fortier 1967:123-125 [Sou and Loa lived together; L.: let cereal fields cover all the land; S.: but then there will be no place to relieve the need; let people dig graves for the dead; this is how S. made people mortal; L. wanted people to die and be reborn; the lizard quickly ran to L. and said that people would die forever; the chameleon walked slowly and came later; said people would die and be reborn; L. replied he was late], 125 [Sou sent a chameleon to tell Death: let the moon die for good and man be reborn; the lizard overheard, came first to run and gave the order: let the moon revive in three days and the man die for good; when the chameleon came, Death did not listen to him]; Oromo [God sent the Holawaka bird to say people that when they are old, they will change their skin and be reborn; along the way, H. promised the Snake, who ate the animal's corpse, to tell the message if she shared food; the Snake agreed, although not immediately; H. said that snakes will shed their skin and get younger, and people will grow old and die irrevocably; that's what happened]: Abrahamsson 1951:16; sandave [Sheep to Dog: people must die and then be reborn; Dog: no, die forever; The dog offers to run to Sixafumbo; The sheep ran first, made its demand; the dog offered to try again; scattered salt on the Sheep's road; she stopped to lick salt . At this time, the Dog ran to Sixafumbo, asked people to die forever; when the Sheep came running and asked them to be reborn, it was refused; the Sheep offered to run again, but the Dog refused; therefore, the sheep is man's friend, and the dog is a curse (more precisely, a "club")]: Arnold 1984:156-157; the malgashi [1) Bara; the big-winged bird and the big-headed ant descended to the ground to Revalu, who burned his father's corpse; the bird told me not to do this, flew to God for the elixir of life; on the way back he began to swim, lost the elixir; the man's bones were buried, death became final; 2) Antimerina; Zanahary's son threw what life gives into the water; 3) Betsimisaraka God sent a goose to bring people the amulets of life, who dropped them into the water]: Abrahamsson 1951:126-127.

North Africa. The Arabs of Egypt (Delta) [Western 1970; at first there are few people, few are born; people decide to ask God for the dead to return in three days; send Kite as a messenger; halfway Crow meets him, offers to continue flying instead, tells God that people want to die irrevocably; since then, the Kite has been attacking crows]: El-Shamy 1980, No. 28:145-146; (cf. Southern Arabs Egypt [the women sent the Raven to Satan to ask for equality with men; she has not yet returned; so when women hear the crow, they say (May God make it) good, Crow!] : El-Shamy 1980, No. 28:277; Berbers Zuahua (Kabylia) [The raven was white; God gave him a bundle of money to give to Muslims and a parcel of lice to Europeans; because the money was heavier, Raven gave them to the first people he met, who turned out to be Europeans; Muslims received lice; God punished the Raven by making him black]: Basset 1887:11; retelling in Kabakova 2010:161).

Southern Europe. The Portuguese [donkey brought people eternal youth; stopped drinking by the river; snake: if you don't give me what you're carrying, I won't let them drink; the donkey gave it back, the snake changed its skin and rejuvenated, and people were to blame donkeys get old (and die)]: Correia 2018, No. 43.

Melanesia. Penn Gazelle [That Kabinana sent To Karvuva to the lower world to teach people how to shed their skin and make snakes mortal; he gave people death, and the serpent taught immortality; now they shed their skin and not dying]: Isis 1998:30.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Apatani [Wiyu Ditu Popi sent the Monkey and the Anteater {Pangolin?} Tell people that they should not die; they said WDP told them to die; WDP killed messengers, and now people are killing them]: Elwin 1958a, No. 1:282-283 (=1958b: 313-314); lepcha [first created Himalayas, male mountains and female mountains; they are older brother and sister to the rest of the mountains and rivers; the Earthquake spirit is their son; brother Takbo-thing and sister Nazong-Ngyu were the last to be born; married, gave birth many children; first, the spirits of diseases and poisonous snakes were born; N. threw them away; then the lizards, centipedes, also threw them away; the couple went down to the ground; at night N. took off her bracelet, it grew mango to heaven; Rum (supreme god) asked N. who the father of her children was, she did not confess; only the Dog told how T. came to N. at night; N. threw a ball of thread at her for this; R. told N. and T. to part; they divided their property; N. let her animals and birds freely, they became wild; T. placed his own in China, India, so they were poor; T. put his house on the mountain; N. rushed after him, but could not climb; told her children (different grasshoppers) to make a ladder; most ran away, taking her jewelry, two species remained (now they live a long time); when N. almost reached the top, gave birth a human child, gave him a breast (she did not give him perfume and animal children); N.'s other children were jealous, so the child died; N. prepared two graves - for Mung and for Rum (unclear: gave birth to twins? the twin from the afterbirth?) ; sent two birds to T. for water of life and water of death; T. gave, ordered to pour water of life on Rum's grave, death to Mung's grave (mung is spirit, evil spirit); they poured the opposite; therefore they die and come to life in Rum during incarnation, and Mung is born only once (and do not die); N. reached N., but he did not accept her and she built a separate palace for herself; the Creator decorated the sky with stars and clouds; began to send the land of his various children (bumblebees, grasshopper), but they planted the wrong plants; the latter took ginger, garlic, and a tree whose resin burns slowly, went down to the ground to become a shaman, a healer; there mungues are already everywhere; they agreed to give them the opportunity to treat the sick if they donate chickens, eggs, etc.; another son, Tarbong-mu, was born, went down and grabbed a heavenly fairy who stole birds from him from snares, married, she is pregnant; the wasp stole sourdough from the old woman for an alcoholic beverage; old woman: people will quarrel over him; various snakes tried - they got excited, but did not die; everyone drank Tarbong-mu and Narib-nom wedding]: Stocks 1925, No. 1:345-354.

Burma - Indochina. Zhuang (Guangxi) [Soroka confused the order of the heavenly deity: instead of "People shed their skin when they are old, and snakes die when they are old" reported "People die when they are old, and snakes, when they grow old, they shed their skin"]: Yang 2013:460; Lao black thai [people changed their skin like snakes, and they multiplied in this way (the skin turned into a new person); there were too many people the heavenly god Thén sent rain, a flood; Kap girl escaped in one pumpkin, Ké boy in the other; persuaded T. not to kill them because they would grow rice; after the flood, the spirit is the same T.?) said that in old age people would renew themselves and snakes would die (a play on words in Thai); the snake threatened to bite him, he said the opposite; Cap and Ke gave birth to humans]: Bourlet 1907:921-922; Viets: Knorozova 2000:28 [Ngoc Hoang wanted dying people to shed their skin and come to life, but snakes did not; he sent a messenger from heaven to carry out this plan, but he told the snakes about it; the snakes forced him agree to say the opposite; snakes are now shedding their skin and getting younger; the guilty messenger was banished to earth, turned into a dung beetle; (same text in Fraser 1985:47; Frazer 1913:69-70)]; Landes 1886, No. 83 [Ngoc hoang sent a messenger to tell people to change their skin and renew themselves, but snakes don't; snakes made him say the opposite, so now everyone dies and only snakes change their skin and are being updated; NH turned the messenger into a dung beetle]: 205-206.

South Asia. Sora (Lanjhia Saora) [brothers Bhimo and Ramo survived the flood; B. lived in heaven, R. on earth; B. sprayed the water of immortality into lakes and rivers, people drank and did not die; he was tired, he asked R. take a vessel of water and distribute it himself; R. sent Leech, who drank everything herself on the way back, said that B. did not give water; B. found out, burned the Leech, but the drops remained in her stomach and she came to life; and for people did not have the water of immortality left, they began to die]: Elwin 1948, No. 21:425.

China - Korea. Chinese (Liaoning, Kharachin-Zooi-Mongolian Autonomous University; Western 1984; illiterate peasant woman 57 years old, village. Panlonggou, city Niangniangmiao, wu. Jianchang) [In ancient times, people had a tail at birth, and it dried up three years before death. Parents, fearing that people would know about the child's life span, began to pull out their tails at birth. A man died, everyone gathered and began to cry. Hearing crying, the Jade Emperor ordered the donkey to go down to earth to find out what was going on. Then he gave the donkey (paper) with an inscription on longevity to give it to people, but the donkey hung the paper on the cypress tree. A few days later, the Jade Emperor heard sobs again, everything happened again, and the donkey hung the paper on the pine tree. Since then, pine and cypress trees have been evergreen all year round, and people have been dying as before. The jade emperor became angry and exiled the donkey to earth, allowing him to return to heaven 100 days later. On the last day, the young daughter-in-law was about to cross the river, and the turtle advised her to sit on a donkey. The donkey was stained with menstrual blood and could not return to heaven. He has become an enemy of the turtle and every time he needs to cross the river, he stops in the middle of the river and relieves himself to annoy the turtle with the smell of urine]: Liaoning 1994:306; Chinese (Zhejiang, Wu . Yuhan) [Soroka confused the order of the heavenly deity: instead of "People shed their skin when they are old, and snakes die when they are old", she reported "People die when old, and snakes, when old, shed their skin "]: Yang 2013:460; fox: Dessaint, Ngwâma 1994:201-202 [the husband went to the station with his children; shot a monkey on the way, came back, gave it to his wife; when he saw a hand that looked like a human, the wife became yell that her children are dead; Vousa sent a bat to say that a man will not die until his fallen teeth fill three large baskets; but the bat said everyone should die, including babies; for this, V. flattened the bat's face and tore his mouth to ear; and people have been dying ever since], 205-206 [after creating humans, Vusa assumed that they would eat clay; they ate almost everything; then sent a dung beetle to tell people to eat the fruits of trees every three days; the beetle to people: Vusa created fruit trees and told them to eat the fruits three times a day; they ate all the fruits; V.: let them themselves they grow cereals and vegetables and eat them every three days; the beetle again said that three times a day; when he learned that the beetle had distorted the order, V. told him to collect excrement, because by eating so much food, people would contaminate the whole earth and there will be nowhere to go; and that the beetle will no longer come to him].

The Balkans. Ancient Greece [(due to the existence of snakes that are terribly thirsty to bite); Rumor claims that Prometheus stole fire, and the myth tells us that Zeus got angry and gave a cure for old age to those who caught the thief. So as far as I know, those who received this product put it on a donkey. And he set off, carrying the load, it was spring, and the donkey, feeling thirsty, went to the spring in need of a drink. But the snake guarding the spring did not let him in and drove him away, and he, thirsty, gave her the medicine he had been carrying as payment for the health cup. Thus, gifts were exchanged: the donkey received a drink, and the snake took off its old age, in addition, as history says, a thirst for a donkey]: Elian, Animal History, VI. 51.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Armenians: Harutyunyan 2007 (Karabakh) [the snake had wings; God told her to fly to the deceased, say: "Wear the shroud, come home." The snake said, "Wear the stone, come home." God cursed the serpent, ordered them to eat the earth and crawl]: 37; (in Armenian: "Avandapatum (Tales)". Yerevan, Publishing House of the Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences, 1969. P. 127-128); Nazarene 1878 [(song); a raven came, croaked, rummaged through the garbage dump, having received his punishment, croaking, said: - Woe to me, in what form I am, birds do not accept me, people drive me away, cursed my death! When God sent me to Adam's womb to tell him: "Adam, wear out your shroud (arm. "patan") and come out." I was a person like you, mortal, finite. But instead of saying, "Adam, wear out your shroud," I said, "Adam, wear out your tombstone (Arm. "tapan")". Poor Adam is still suffering and trying to wear it out... But the stone is not worn out at all, and it will not wear out unless God helps. For this, God turned me from a man into a crow, into a scavenger - He told me: - If you are cursed forever, you will die croaking, you will not see a grave, you will lay eggs with your throat, I forgive the sin who kills you!] : 10.

Iran - Central Asia. Tajiks [Khudovand gave the crow water from the Zumzum/Zamzam well in the Mecca area to deliver it to a person so that the person could live for a thousand years; the raven croaked, dropped it water from the mouth, drops fell on juniper, since then it has been evergreen, growing for a thousand years]: Rakhimov 2007:79-80.

(Wed. Baltoscandia. According to Bronislava Kerbelite (personal report, 2014), the origin of the text is unknown, so a hoax or accidental mistake is highly likely. Lithuanians [God sent the Snail to tell people they would not die and the Lizard to say they would die; the Lizard brought the message first, so humans are mortal]: Kerbelite 2001:102).

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Khakas: Dyrenkova 1929 (Sagai people) [Kudai created 10 men and 9 women; of all the birds, only the Raven agreed to fly for mogu su (eternal water) to revive them; on the way back tempted by carrion, spilled part of the water; as punishment he became black, and people lost their immortality]: 123; Katanov 1907, No. 397 [Kudai told the old man that there would be a flood, ordered to make a raft, put everyone on it creatures; the devil (Ainá) tells his wife to give him water, not to board the raft until he says in his hearts, "Sit down, hell"; the mammoth and the eagle refused to sit down, decided to pull it out anyway; but the birds and the eagle tired, they sat on the mammoth, he and the eagle plunged into the water; the old man sent the crow for living water; he did not carry it, spilled it on pine, rose hips, spruce trees and cedar; therefore the trees are evergreen]: 417-418; Altaians: Anokhin 1924 [Ulgen created human bodies, sent Raven to Kuday to ask for souls for them; he gave them, the Raven carried them in his beak; flew past the corpse of a camel, a horse, when he saw The corpse of a cow, shouted, Carr, what eyes! Souls fell into the coniferous forests, which became evergreen; at this time Erlik gave the dog guard a warm fur coat, breathed his soul into people's bodies, their bodies came to life]: 18; Nikiforov 1915 [Kudai sends The crow brings the immortal souls of people to the ground to Ulgen; he sees the corpse of a cow, screams, What eyes! , scatters what is carried over forests and mosses]: 240-241; Baikal Buryats (Olkhon, 1903) ["The cuckoo king lives in the south, the size of a ram. He sent us and his cuckoo the water of eternity (munhuin hara wa) to spray it all of us, so that the whole earth and people could live in happiness and abundance. But the cuckoo of immortality splashed into pine, spruce and other evergreen trees. She reported to the king and now reports: "There are no trees or people there (i.e. we), and I am forced to cuckle on horse droppings (tontogool). It is hot in summer and cold in winter. There is no tree that can withstand you, king""]: Zhamtsarano 2011:59; Baikal Buryats (Alar) [The raven drinks eternal black water and is therefore durable; God sent him to take it to man; he he sat on a pine tree on the road; the owl frightened him with a scream, he spilled water; since then, the pine tree has to be evergreen; you have to take water from the spring in the morning before the raven can get drunk; he arrives early and gains immortality]: Potanin 1883, No. 43:210-211; Khalkha Mongols: Benningsen 1912 (St. Zain Hure, Sede) [The swallow took out a few drops of living water, carried it in her mouth to sprinkle people and give them immortality; the wasp bit her, the Swallow dropped the water, the drops fell on pine, cedar and lingonberries, now they always green; The swallow bit off Ose's tongue, now she doesn't sing, but buzzing]: 21 (retelling referring to another Mongolian source in Yeongdong 1989:56); Potanin 1881, No. 25c [was the lama who created everyone animals and birds; having drawn beautiful water into a cup, told the Raven to pour it drop by drop on each person's head so that people would be immortal; on the way to people, the Crow sat on the cedar, croaked, the water fell out mouth; three evergreens grew in that place: cedar, ephedra and juniper; other trees, like humans, are mortal, die every winter; the lama gave the Raven the name Hara-kira (black crow), told them to eat their eyes dead people]: 166-167; 1883, No. 43c [Burkhyn-Bakshi gave the Raven the drink of immortality he had prepared arashan, ordered him to pour it on the man's head; she sat on a spruce tree, waited for the man; Owl frightened her screaming, she shed arashan; since then, the spruce has been evergreen]: 210; Mongols (Ordos) ["Ordos ardyn ulger". Hohhot, 1992:287; Burhan Bagsh sent a crow to bring people the nectar of immortality and health; he saw a mouse dying, lowered it, spilled nectar on the caragan bush; for this, BB told him to sit on even in the cold high place and hunt for mice; sent a hare to tell people to eat once a day and wash their face three times; the hare forgot everything and came back; BB threw a whip at him, his tail fell off, became small and The tail is a black spot; BB told him to be prey for everyone, including crows; sent a bull; he confused him, told him to wash once a day and eat three times; BB told him to work for people]: Yegupova 2012:25-27.

Western Siberia. Eastern Khanty: Lukina 1990, No. 14 (b. Vasyugan, Western 1971) [the man is dead, the dog asks Torum how to revive him; he tells him to put a stone on his feet, rotten on his head; the dog went to obey the order, the devil advised him to do it on the contrary; the man got up, a stone pierced his head, he died altogether; T. told the dog to wear a fur coat and eat human garbage; before that, the dog was a friend to man]: 75; Soldatova 2008, No. 17 (b. Wah, 2008) [a man died, the dog was sent to God; God: put a stone at your feet, rotten on your head; on the way back, Lunh met a dog, told me to say the opposite (a stone to your head); people did so; the man got up, the rotten stuff under his feet crumbled, he fell, hit a stone, finally died; God became angry, told the dog to be covered in hair and eat garbage, and people began to die]: 125; Northern Selkups: Pelikh 1998:38-39 [the heavenly god Pari-num invited the land Tomem to be his wife; he came for her only in the fall, when Tomem became the evil Tagam; they have a son, Kang; the father sent to find out why people are crying; he said that the first man had died; Pari-num ordered him to be told to put a stone in his feet, a rotten head, a man would rest on a stone, break a rotten thing, will stand up; Kahn said the opposite; the man broke his head against a stone, died again; Pari-num turned Kan into a dog; the dog sensed an ogre bear; he gave it warm hair to let it through], 39 [died first man; Pari-num sent Kahn to the ground to order the corpse to be hung on a tree, not to bury it; Kahn said on the contrary, the man did not come to life]; Tuchkova 2004:142 (Western 1941 on Baikha) [the dog lived in heaven; God sent her to tell people that when a person dies, he should be put on a platform; the dog ordered the dead to be buried in the ground, and told God that he ordered them to be put on the platform; God threw the dog on the ground, told eat bones], 143 [the dog had wings; a sick man asked her to fly to God to ask how to be treated; the dog confused God's advice, told her to put not a stone under his feet, but a rotten tree, Put a stone under his head; the man rested his feet on the rotten, it crumbled, he fell, broke his head against a stone; since then people began to die; God deprived the dog of its wings, covered it with hair, ordered him to pick it up crumbs thrown by man]; chum salmon: Alekseenko 2001, No. 50 (Surgutikhinsky, Lake. Nalimye, 1960) [when the war ended, few people were left; everyone kept dying; below, "on the stone side," Hosedam lived, killing the people; Big Shaman Dog told people, "Do as I tell them to do. First cut me an iron ring and a hammer with an iron handle, make iron arrows"; people forged for several days, but badly; D. already knew about it; people made a ring, one half of which was copper, the other iron; the hammer handle was also half iron and half copper; D. had to take them after all; he came to H., put an iron ring around her neck, wanted to hit her with a hammer; a hammer flew, the copper melted; D. wanted to hit again, but the ring broke; I had to go back; told people, "I couldn't free you. From now on you will die, you will disappear. She will draw you towards her, since my request was fulfilled badly"; decided: "Well, I will not live here on earth anymore, I will go upstairs"; told people to make an iron refusal and an iron aldon; people He was deceived again - copper was added to the stalk, but more than half of the iron was left; D. took what they did and said: "Whoever wants to escape from the Hosedam, follow me upstairs. Do not take thin things with you, only clean clothes"; he began to rise with the people to heaven, thunder rattled there; they rose, but did not have enough strength; those behind could not walk as if someone had tied them; it turned out that D.'s wife took her dirty pants with her; D. cut off the rope of her sledges, his wife fell down; moved on, people were tired; thunders and clouds came to meet them; D. cut them with a refusal and a sword, led people on; they shouted that they would starve to death; when they saw the forest, they tried to cut firewood without success - the trees were half iron, half wood; they cut down the wooden half of the forest, moved on; D. continued to fight against the clouds; the last cloud was the strongest, the saber on it - because of people's deception - broke; all people stayed there; those people who stayed on earth died and cried (after all, they did not die before); You heard, sent his son to find out; he came back, said that people were dying because they were crying; E. sent him back to earth, ordered: "Let the people put the dead in the storage shed, let the dead lie there for seven days, then they will come to life"; the son came to people, said: "The father ordered: dig the earth for seven fathoms, put the man down there"; E. found out that the son had deceived people, asked him if he had given people a message; he replied that he had told him; E. went to earth, saw that people were dying and his son deceived him; he was angry: "Well, let it always be like this now!" ; he lowered his son down: "Where you fall, you will be a dog, you will live with handouts from a person, eat his feces"; D. lowered his son with a loon, but people did not understand, they killed; everyone who ate the loon died; the old people warned: why are you driving, this is D. son!] : 113-115; Anuchin 1914 [When a man, an old man, died for the first time, people thought he was sleeping, but when they could not wake him up, they got scared and began to cry; Es sent them a dog (which people had not seen it before) and ordered to tell people not to be afraid, and the old man would be wrapped in herbs and hung from a tree - then he would live again in seven days. The dog deceived people by telling them to bury the old man in the ground. People have been dying ever since. As punishment, Es ordered the dog to live on earth and eat human bowel movements]: 11-12; Porotova 1982 [God heard crying from the ground, sent his son to find out what was going on; he returned and said that for the first time a man died; God ordered him to be put in a storage shed, he would live on the seventh day; God's son said to be buried in the ground; God turned him into a dog for this, ordered him to live in front of people]: 59-60.

Japan. Miyako Islands [The month gives Akariyazagama a tub of living water and a tub of dead water, sends him to the ground, orders him to pour living water on a person, a snake for the dead; when he reaches the ground, A. falls asleep, a snake splashes living water on himself; frightened A. waters the dead man, returns to heaven; the Month punishes him, telling him to stand on the moon from now on with a tub in his hands]: Nevsky 1996:269-270; Okinawa [13 records; the Moon and Sun sent a lark to bring people living water, but the lark threw water on the way and began to peck for strawberries. Meanwhile, the snake drenched in live water, began to change its skin and live forever. They poured the leftovers of water that the Skylark brought to people onto their nails, which began to grow back. The lark reported this to the Moon and the Sun, they tied him with a rope, making his body smaller and his legs thinner]: Naono Fukasawa 2015 (Tsukan, No. 487); Ainu: Etter 1949 [The Creator sends Sparrow to the god of Heaven to ask how to make people; Out of wood (willow); later God changes his mind, sends the Otter to say it's made of stone; Otter loses time fishing; wooden people are mortal; God of Heaven punishes an Otter by stepping on her face]: 22-23; Chiri 1973:196 in Mashiko 2002 [Kotan-kar-kamuy sent a sparrow to the god of heaven to ask what to make people out of; he replied that they were made of wood; after changing his mind, he sent the otter said it was made of stone; but it stopped fishing and was late; therefore, people are mortal, but they grow and multiply; the god of heaven stepped on the otter's head in anger, it became flat; because humans made from willow; in old age they bend like willows]: 4; (cf. Batchelor 1927 [God sent Skylark with a message to earth, told him to return before evening; he forgot, started playing; explains to God that he made the world too beautiful; God tells him to stay on earth and fly no higher than 100 m]: 317-318; Brauns 1883 [God sent the Rooster to earth with an important message; he liked it so much that he stayed for a long time; when he came back, God sent him forever in anger live on land; so the rooster does not fly high]: 250); Amami Islands [Journey and Tradition Magazine 6-5, 1933, article by Shomu Nobori; In ancient times, people were immortal because every year of the first On January, the Chinchin bird (probably a mountain wagtail), God's messenger, brought the water of youth; people washed their faces with it and rejuvenated themselves; one day a bird was resting in a tree, and a crow attacked it and wanted to eat it; the bird flew away and at that moment spilled water on the tree. People have been dying ever since and this tree is rejuvenating (shedding its bark) every year]: Naono Fukasawa 2015.

(Wed. Southeast USA. {Apparently African borrowing}. Chitimacha: Swanton 1917:476 [the person fell ill, people sent the Rabbit to ask God if he would die; God replied he would recover; on the way back, the Rabbit tripped, fell, broke his lip, ever since she forked; forgot God's answer, came back to ask again; God was angry, said that man would die; this is how death appeared], 476-477 [people wanted to kill the Rabbit, he said he would go to live with God; God replied that the Rabbit should live in the bushes; the Rabbit came to people, said that God told them to live in the bushes; people began to build dwellings in the bushes; God found out about this, punished the Rabbit for deception, leaving him speechless ]).

(Wed. Mesoamerica Chol [Moon had four sons; a fifth (this is the Sun) was born, died, put in a coffin; one of the sons could restore the body from bones; sent another to tell them to Mother Moon to laugh, When he came; he met the Devil, he told him that the mother should cry; the mother came, cried, her son's bones crumbled, God died forever]: Whittaker, Warkentin 1965, No. 7:46-49).

Western Amazon. Shuar: Pelizzaro 1990:169 [=1993:169; to make a man, Ayumpúm sent Hummingbird to bring clay, Cricket a tree, a Beetle (Sesenk) a stone; Hummingbird and Cricket brought, but the Beetle did not returned; A. created a man out of clay and wood, breathing life into him, but without a stone, man became mortal, dies at any age], 172-173 [the person fell ill; Ayumpúm ordered to call the shaman Stone and did not call the shaman Langust; Sesenk was sent for the Stone, who walked slowly, skirting obstacles; then Cricket was sent for the Lobster, who quickly got there and brought him; Langust told people to be sick in any age and even before birth; then the Stone came in, turned into a mysterious Namur stone; A. said that only shamans who knew how to find this stone would be able to heal a little; people trampled the beetle, lobster and cricket, giving them their current shape]; Rueda 1987, No. 5 [Etsa (The Sun) ordered the Sesenk to bring the stone, he lingered, so people are not made of stone and are mortal; Bat E. ordered to bring a bundle with a woman, a duck with gray hair; the first opened the bundle when he smelled a woman, the second out of curiosity; the first turned into a bat, the second into a duck whose feathers resemble gray hair], 6 [to make a man, Etsa (Sun) sent Cricket to bring the stone, but Sesenk volunteered to do so; she walked slowly, and Cricket quickly brought clay; E. made a man out of clay, so he is mortal; a man met a Beetle dragging a stone and crushed it with it]: 60, 61; Aguaruna [Cricket was sent to bring a tree that dies quickly, Sesen to bring the stone; the Beetle went a long time, Cricket brought wood, man is made of rotten wood and therefore mortal]: Chumap Lucía, García-Rendueles 1979, No. 247-251.