Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H36aa. False news: wrong instructions. (.

The messenger must tell people what they should do if they want to avoid death but distorts instructions and people become mortal. The Mesoamerican versions are not about people at all, but about a specific character.

Gazelle Peninsula, Northern and Eastern Khanty, Northern Selkups, Kets, Ainu, Veracruz Nahuatl, Mountain Counties, Chol.

Melanesia. Penn Gazelle [That Kabinana sent To Karvuva to the lower world to teach people how to shed their skin and make snakes mortal; he gave people death, and the serpent taught immortality; now they shed their skin and not dying]: Isis 1998:30.

Western Siberia. The Northern Khanty [the dog and the bear lived in the sky, Noomi lowered them to the ground; told the dog that it was going to eat with the man; she did not hear, N. said that it would eat the same thing that man, but not with him]: Gondatti 1888:55 in Moshinskaya, Lukina 1982:47; Eastern Khanty (b. Vasyugan) [the man is dead, the dog asks Torum how to revive him; he tells him to put a stone on his feet, rotten on his head; the dog went to obey the order, the devil advised him to do the opposite; the man got up, the stone pierced his head, he died altogether; T. told the dog to wear a fur coat and eat human garbage; before that, the dog was a friend to man]: Lukina 1990, No. 14:75; the northern Selkups : Pelikh 1998:38-39 [the heavenly god Pari-num invited the earth Tomem to become his wife; he did not come for her until the fall, when Tomem became the evil Tagam; they have a son, Kang; his father sent him to earth to find out why do people cry; he said that the first person died; Pari-num ordered to tell them to put a stone in their feet, a rotten head, a man would rest on a stone, break a rotten thing, stand up; Kahn said on the contrary; the man broke his head against a stone, died again; Pari-num turned Kan into a dog; the dog smelled an ogre bear; he gave it warm hair to let it through], 39 [the first man died; Pari-num sent Kahn to the ground to order the corpse to be hung on a tree, not to bury it; Kahn said on the contrary, the man did not come to life]; Tuchkova 2004:142 (Western 1941 on Baikha) [the dog lived in heaven; God sent her to earth to say people that when a person dies, he should be put on a platform; the dog told the dead to be buried in the ground, and told God that he told them to be put on a platform; God threw the dog on the ground, told him to eat bones], 143 [the dog had wings; a sick man asked her to fly to God to ask how to be treated; the dog confused God's advice, ordered to put under her feet not a stone, but a rotten tree, a stone put it under his head; the man rested his feet on the rotten, it crumbled, he fell, broke his head against a stone; since then people began to die; God deprived the dog of its wings, covered it with hair, ordered him to pick up the abandoned ones crumbs man]; chum salmon: Alekseenko 2001, No. 50 (Surgutikha, Lake. Nalimye, 1960) [when the war ended, few people were left; everyone kept dying; below, "on the stone side," Hosedam lived, killing the people; Big Shaman Dog told people, "Do as I tell them to do. First cut me an iron ring and a hammer with an iron handle, make iron arrows"; people forged for several days, but badly; D. already knew about it; people made a ring, one half of which was copper, the other iron; the hammer handle was also half iron and half copper; D. had to take them after all; he came to H., put an iron ring around her neck, wanted to hit her with a hammer; a hammer flew, the copper melted; D. wanted to hit again, but the ring broke; I had to go back; told people, "I couldn't free you. From now on you will die and disappear. She will draw you towards her, since my request was fulfilled badly"; decided: "Well, I will not live here on earth anymore, I will go upstairs"; told people to make an iron refusal and an iron aldon; people He was deceived again - copper was added to the stalk, but more than half of the iron was left; D. took what they did and said: "Whoever wants to escape from the Hosedam, follow me upstairs. Do not take thin things with you, only clean clothes"; he began to rise with the people to heaven, thunder rattled there; they rose, but did not have enough strength; those behind could not walk as if someone had tied them; it turned out that D.'s wife took her dirty pants with her; D. cut off the rope of her sledges, his wife fell down; moved on, people were tired; thunders and clouds came to meet them; D. cut them with a refusal and a sword, led people on; they shouted that they would starve to death; when they saw the forest, they tried to cut firewood without success - the trees were half iron, half wood; they cut down the wooden half of the forest, moved on; D. continued to fight against the clouds; the last cloud was the strongest, the saber on it - because of people's deception - broke; all people stayed there; those people who stayed on earth died and cried (after all, they did not die before); You heard, sent his son to find out; he came back, said that people were dying because they were crying; E. sent him back to earth, ordered: "Let the people put the dead in the storage shed, let the dead lie there for seven days, then they will come to life"; the son came to people, said: "The father ordered: dig the earth for seven fathoms, put the man down there"; E. found out that the son had deceived people, asked him if he had given people a message; he replied that he had told him; E. went to earth, saw that people were dying and his son deceived him; he was angry: "Well, let it always be like this now!" ; he lowered his son down: "Where you fall, you will be a dog, you will live with handouts from a person, eat his feces"; D. lowered his son with a loon, but people did not understand, killed; everyone who ate loon died; old people warned: why are you driving, this is D. son!] : 113-115; Anuchin 1914 [When a man, an old man, died for the first time, people thought he was sleeping, but when they could not wake him up, they got scared and began to cry; Es sent them a dog (which people had not seen it before) and ordered to tell people not to be afraid, and the old man would be wrapped in herbs and hung from a tree - then he would live again in seven days. The dog deceived people by telling them to bury the old man in the ground. People have been dying ever since. As punishment, Es ordered the dog to live on earth and eat human bowel movements]: 11-12; Porotova 1982 [God heard crying from the ground, sent his son to find out what was going on; he returned and said that for the first time a man died; God ordered him to be put in a storage shed, he would live on the seventh day; God's son said to be buried in the ground; God turned him into a dog for this, ordered him to live in front of people]: 59-60.

Japan. Ainu: Etter 1949 [The creator sends a Sparrow to the god of Heaven to ask how to make people; Out of wood (willow); later God changes his mind, sends an Otter to say it's made of stone; The otter loses time catches fish; wooden men are mortal; the god of heaven punishes the Otter by stepping on its face]: 22-23; Chiri 1973:196 in Mashiko 2002 [Kotan-kar-kamuy sent a sparrow to the god of heaven to ask what to make people out of; that replied that it was made of wood; after changing his mind, he sent an otter to say that it was made of stone; but it stopped fishing and was late; therefore, people are mortal, but they grow and multiply; the god of heaven stepped on the otter in anger the head has become flat; because people are made of willow, they bend like willows in old age]: 4; (cf. Batchelor 1927 [God sent Skylark with a message to earth, told him to return before evening; he forgot, started playing; explains to God that he made the world too beautiful; God tells him to stay on earth and fly no higher than 100 m]: 317-318).

Mesoamerica Nahuatl Veracruza [after learning of her husband's resurrection, a woman should laugh; a lizard deliberately says she should cry; her husband dies again]: Gonz√°lez Cruz 1984:225; mountain camps [like Nahuatl, but the sight of an animal reporting a false message is not entirely clear]: Elson 1947:213-214; chol [the moon had four evil sons; a fifth (this is the Sun) was born, died, put in a coffin; one of He was able to restore his sons from their bones; sent another to tell them to Mother Moon to laugh when she came; he met the Devil, he told them to tell them that their mother should cry; the mother came and cried, The son's bones fell apart, God died forever]: Whittaker, Warkentin 1965, No. 7:46-49.