Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H36hh. A frog betrays a person.

.11.-. (.48.) .51.

A frog or a toad is to blame for the fact that a person is mortal.

Yaka (Baja-Kaka), Pare, Yao, Soko, Nyanja, Tonga, Akposo, Igbo, Ekoi, Isoko & Urhobo, Mende, Limba, Bamum, Mangbetu, Nyangi, Pygmies Efe, Ari (Ubamer), Karajari, Gudinaf, angami (? Nagaland), Western and Eastern Toraja, East Timor, Hidatsa, Chiroki, (viyot), Tarahumara.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Yaka (Baja-Kaka) [a man sends a Chameleon to God to ask if people will die forever or if they sprinkle medicine in their eyes after a funeral and they will come to life; the Chameleon goes slowly, then They send the Toad, she gets there first; God is offended by her appearance, replies that death is final; when the Chameleon appears, he receives the same answer]: Tessmann 1937:9 (retelling in Abrahamsson 1951:8); couple [God sent Chameleon to tell people they would be reborn as a Month; after changing his mind, sent the Frog to say that people would die forever like a broken jug; when the Chameleon started speak, the Frog ended with a message]: Abrahamsson 1951:20; yao, nyanja, tonga [Chiuta sent Chameleon to say that the dead will be resurrected; the Lizard (or Frog) - what they will die for good; the lizard comes first]: Abrahamsson 1951:21, 22; soko [at first the earth is covered with water; the water is dry, plants have appeared; there is only the Month in the sky, only the Toad on earth; the Month said he wanted to create a man and a woman; the Toad replied that the Month belongs to heaven, so he must create people on earth, the Toad; The Month said that his people would be eternal, and the Toad's people would die and the Toad himself will die too; the Toad created a man and a woman; the Month sent its sparks to the Toad and he burned; cooled his anger in the pond that boiled; the people created by the Toad had no reason and should only lived for a month; the month gave them a longer life and more intelligence; washed, finished; gave the man the name Bateta and the woman Hanna; gave them an ax, fire, pottery, bananas, pointed animals and birds on which to hunt, he returned to heaven himself; H. gave birth to 242 children; the dog showed B. that the fruits of various cultivated plants lying under the tree were edible]: Stanley 1893:4-28 (retelling in Scheub 2000:24-25).

West Africa. Akposo [people sent a dog to tell Uwolowu they want a resurrection after death; the dog stopped at a brew, and the frog came to W. on its own initiative to say that humans want to die; people have been dying ever since, but if a frog dies and then thunder is heard, it respawns]: Abrahamsson 1951:7; Igbo [when death came, people sent a dog to Chuku to ask should the dead revive; The dog hesitated along the way; the Toad overheard, came to C., said that people did not want to be reborn after death; C. decided so; when the Dog came, refused to change solution]: Beier 1966:56; isoko and urhobo [Oghene made humans immortal, old people shed their skin like snakes, became young; the earth overflowed; the dog, being man's companion, wanted people to live forever, and W. expanded the world; the toad wanted the dead to die forever; decided that O. would agree with whoever would come to him first; the dog first overtook the toad, but decided to sleep; the toad came first, people became mortals]: Scheub 2000:198-199; Ekoi [heavenly god Obassi Osaw sent the Frog to tell people that death is final and Duck that the dead will be reborn; OO sent the frog on the right road and the Duck on the left; the Duck sat down to drink palm herd with people and forgot the errand, the Frog brought the news of death]: Talbot 1912:229 (retelling in Frazer 1919:58, in Abrahamsson 1951:9); mende [Ngewo sent the Dog to say that humans should not die and Toad should; The dog saw the woman cooking, stayed to wait to be fed; the Toad came First, humans are now mortal]: Parrinder 1967:54 (=Scheub 2000:174-175); bamum [Frog: Humans must respawn; Chameleon: die forever; who gets to the drum first, by By the way, it will be; the Chameleon put stones in the Frog's way, ran first; chameleons are being killed, and the frog that enters the house is considered to bring children]: Abrahamsson 1951:9; limba (Sierra Leone) [Kanu told the Snake to give people the elixir of immortality; but the Toad took it and spilled it along the way, so people are mortal]: Scheub 2000:103; kono [Man and Snake went to the river; there the Frog and Toad both wanted move Man to the other side; the Toad persuaded the man to sit on it, fell into the river, the man drowned; the Frog jumped safely with the Snake across the river; so the person dies, and the snake changes its skin and reviving]: Holas 1975:127.

Sudan-East Africa. Manja [when Fi ("death") first saw the man, he was frightened; dug a hole, invited the Frog and the Toad to jump over; the Frog wanted to be the first, but the Toad insisted that she be the first to fall into the hole, F. He buried it, said that now people would die too; if the Frog jumped and jumped over the hole, people would not die]: Abrahamsson 1951:8-9; Gbaya [The Frog (Rana longirostris) carried the moon on his back , and the Toad (Bufo regularis) is human; they have come to Death Valley; the Frog jumped over it, and the Toad tried to jump after it and fell down; so the Moon is reborn and people die forever]: Tessmann 1937: 8-9; mangbet [God dug the grave, invited the Frog and the Toad to jump over, putting him on their backs; they argued who to jump, the Frog gave in; the Toad fell into the grave; therefore people are mortal and are buried; if the Frog jumped, we wouldn't go to the grave]: Abrahamsson 1951:15; pygmies efe: Schebesta [when people got old, God went down to rejuvenate them; asked the Frog to turn the old woman's body upside down; but the Toad volunteered; you had to jump over the grave, the Toad fell into it, people began to die forever] in Abrahamsson 1951:15; Schebesta, S. 25 [Muri-Muri gave the Toad a vessel of death, told him not to break it; she gave it to the Frog at her request; The frog went to jump with him, smashed him, death broke into the world] in Abrahamsson 1952:15, 43, Millroth 1965:201-222; ari (ubamer) [The frog wanted to marry a girl, that He rejected him with contempt; then he threw a yellow fruit and a lump of earth into the water; the fruit surfaced, and the earth drowned; the Frog asked God to make people like a lump of earth mortal and frogs immortal as fruit; frogs are immortal; if a frog is killed and thrown into the water, it will respawn]: Jensen 1959:183; nyangi [God sent the Dog to say that the dead will be reborn in two days; the Frog overheard; until The dog was drinking palm oil, the Frog rode, said death was final; the Dog that came later was not listened to]: Abrahamsson 1951:9.

Australia. Karajari [Snake mother was sick and died every night; her sons buried her, left; she changed her skin and went to their new camp; one day the Frog came to the grave and said "calabord" (sound, released by a frog), sitting and fiddling; this time Mother Snake did not revive; humans are now mortal]: Waterman 1987, No. 3045:86.

Melanesia. Goodinaf Island [The Frog and the Shrimp reached the ravine, the Shrimp invited the Frog to jump first, she refused, the Shrimp jumped; the Frog jumped, caught its foot on the bush, fell into the stream, began to sink; the Shrimp told her that because of her refusal to jump first, everyone would now be mortal; went, announcing that the Frog was to blame for death]: Janness, Ballantyne 1928, No. 2:51 (= Anell 1989:24).

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Angami {presumably: Nagaland, the group is not listed, so there may be northern naga instead of chin naga} [humans and animals changed their skin, rejuvenated; Toad and Lizard agreed that only two creatures that suddenly come to their mind would change their skin; the Lizard said that the snake and the lizard, the Toad were human and toad; but the Toad hesitated and lost; now only snakes and lizards change skin and rejuvenate]: Borgohain, Roy Chaudhury 1975, No. 1:18 (translated to Kudinova, Kudinov 1995:89).

Malaysia-Indonesia. Western Torajas [The toad asks the Creator to reduce the number of people, otherwise they will trample toads; Creator, Let people die like the moon for a month and then be reborn (Ik zal de menschen als de maan een maand laten doodgaan en dan weer doen herleven); Toad, Let them die forever; the Toad has the last word]: Kruyt 1938, No. 8:434-435; Eastern Torajas [people became Too much, the Toad asked the Lord of Heaven to make them mortal so that they would not trample all the toads; he complied with the request]: Adriani, Kruyt 1951, No. 7:12; Western Torajas [Oriolus galbula): Live like a rock; Toad: Live like a banana; i.e. old people must die, children should come to their place]: Kruyt 1938, No. 8:435-437; East Timor [Frog, People will die like me ; Snake, People would be immortal like me, would shed their skin; they decided that the wish of the first to get to the opposite side of the stream would come true; The frog jumped, was the first; if the Snake were the first, humans wouldn't die]: Anonimo 1955a:38.

Plains. Hidatsa [A lonely man walks on sandy ground to the water; the plant tells him that it is his mother, the bison cake is his father; PTS meets a second person, they argue who is older; Let's lie down, whoever gets up first is younger; PTS leaves a rod for themselves (as in p. 7-9); sand everywhere; on the lake, female and male Dives bring land from the bottom, they create animals; Frog grandmother offers create death; they hit her on the back with a stone; the Frog's child died first; she and people ask for a change of mind, the creators refuse; PTS made the ground flat, the First Creator made rocks, hills; PTS did northern, PS is the southern half of the Earth]: Beckwith 1938:13-15 (the Frog episode at p.14).

Southeast USA. Chirokee [people want the dead to come back in seven days; Frog: They'll trample us, let them die forever]: Kilpatrick, Kilpatrick 1966, No. 4:389.

(Wed. California. Villot: Kroeber 1906a, No. 10 [Frog's son is dead; Cricket: let; when his child dies, he wants to change his sentence, Frog disagrees]: 96, 99; Reichard 1925, No. 24 [as in Kroeber]: 183-185).

NW Mexico. Tarahumara [horned toads ask God to send diseases to prevent humans from breeding and stepping on them]: Bennett, Zingg 1935:325