Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H4. Skin change as a condition for immortality, D1889.6. .11.-.13. .15.17.-.26. (.34.) .

Those who change their skin (bark, clothes) are immortal (forever young). (Cf. K56a5a motive: Peel off the skin to rejuvenate: To become a young beauty, an old or ugly woman asks for her skin to be peeled off).

Chagga, Rwanda, Fipa, Luya, Tabwa, Vemba, Bende, Gogo, Kongo, Kongo, Luba, Chagga, Nyamwezi, Isanzu, Kwaya, Bena-Marungu, Zulu, Eve, Kono, Kono, Diola (?) , isoko and urhobo, Lur, Oromo, Konso, Meen, Malgashi, Portuguese, Italians (?) , Babylonia, Phoenicians, Australia (unidentified group), Karajari, Querba, Abelam, Mountain Arapesh, Manam, Lakalay (New. Britain), Marind-Anim, Dougum Dani, Kiwai, Kukukuku, Kewa (Southern Mountains in Papua New Guinea), Dobu, Trobrians, Bining (Gazelle Peninsula, New Britain), Tolay, Batom Islands, Admiralty Islands (incl. Manus), Mono (Shortland Islands), Solomon Islands (Malaita, Guadalcanal, Florida, San Cristobal), Banks Islands, Espirito Santo (New Hebrides), Ambrym (New Hebrides), Pentecost (New Hebrides), Oba (New Hebrides) Hebrides), Malekula (New Hebrides), Efate (New Hebrides), Aneityum (Southern New Hebrides), Torres Strait Islands, Kanaka (Yande Island), Ontong Java, Nukumanu, Samoa, Hawaii, Tuamotu, Rai (Tulung), moklum, vancho, angami (?) , Burma Naga, Zhuang, Thai, Black Tai, Vieta, Varli, Dhanwar, Tamils, Nias, Mentawai, Dusun, Toraja, Mori, Loinang, Balantak, Banggai Islands, Fr. Babar, Timor, Kai Islands, Atayal Islands, Mangyan, Meo, Miao (including Chuan), Naxi, Yi, Chinese (Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Hubei, Sichuan), Ancient Greece, Greeks, (Altaians, Khakas, Buryats), Miyako Islands, Islands Okinawa, Amami Islands, (Japanese), Ainu, Baffin Land, West Greenland, Klamath, Embera, Kogi, Yupa, Shikuani, Sanema, Yanomami, Yanomam, Warrau, Dominica Caribbean, Tamanak, Lokono, Carinha, Kalinya, Aparai, kashuyana (arikena), sekoya, mayhuna, shuar, carijona, ufaina, letuama, barasana, makuna, tucano, chikuna, yagua, arua, maue, middle Amazon, katawishi, spike, juruna, tenetehara, urubu, huanca, ashaninka, machigenga, amahuaca, kashinahua, ghambet, kayabi, nambikwara, iranshe, trumai, kamayura, bakairi, karaja, kayapo, ayoreo, matako, nivacle.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Chagga: Abrahamsson 1951 [1) the mother sent the baby to get water, began to change her skin; the child who returned saw her come out of her old skin, the mother died in her old skin; 2) the parents sent the children were getting water with bast bags; the bags were leaking, but the third time the children entered the house before the parents finished changing their skin; the father asked if it should break like a pot or like a calebass, which can be repaired; the son chose the first, the father fell apart and died; 3) (Feldman 1963, No. 48; Baumann 1936:289; translated into Zhukov, Kotlyar 1976, No. 17:61); Ruwa told people to rejuvenate by changing their skin like snakes; warned that children and grandchildren should not see this; the old man decided to change his skin, sent his granddaughter to bring water with a leaky calebasa; she plugged the hole, quickly returned, saw the old man shed her skin; people became mortal, the girl was driven into the forest, her descendants are baboons and great apes]: 59 (about the same as Dundas, p.109-111 in Millroth 1965:202); Rwanda [1) Imana says that night not sleep but listen to his words; people overslept and did not answer the call, but the snake answered; I. said that in old age you should shed your skin and become young again; 2) the woman's child died; Imana asked why she cries; told me not to sleep; the woman fell asleep and the snake heard to change her skin and not die]: Abrahamsson 1951:37; fipa [Leza brought the first man and woman down from heaven to earth; asked if they wanted to they die; humans and animals slept, now they die; only the snake heard, changes skin and renews itself]: Janssens 1926:551 (quoted in Abrahamsson 1951:38); luya [The chameleon climbed into a beer mug, told the man to drink it; he refused because the chameleon is considered poisonous and disgusting; the Chameleon told people to be mortal; the Snake drank the contents, became immortal, changing its skin]: Abrahamsson 1951:18; luya (vugusu) [people did not die, or were resurrected on the fourth day when they got back from the grave; the Chameleon asked the person to share food with him, he drove him away; the Snake shared; the Chameleon ordered people get sick and die, and snakes live forever by changing their skin]: Wagner 1949:169-170 (=1955:43-44; =Abrahamsson 1951:18; =Parrinder 1967:56); tabwa [Leza decided to punish a person for violation established rules; offered a choice of baskets of death and life; people chose death, and the snake now changes their skin]: Abrahamsson 1951:44; bena-marungu [Leza offered a choice of bundles with life and death; people chose death and snakes life; now they shed their skin and renew themselves]: Janssens 1926:556; vemba [Kabezya brought the first humans down from heaven to earth; offered a choice of bundles with death and with life; humans have chosen death; so even animals are mortal; but the snake has chosen a bundle of life, sheds its skin and rejuvenates]: Janssens 1926:553 (quoted in Abrahamsson 1951:43); bende [people overslept and the snake heard God's call, gained the ability to shed its skin and rejuvenate]: Abrahamsson 1951:66; gogo [when man grew old, man was renewed; God allowed Hyena to eat carrion , but forbade touching a person in a state of renewal; Hyena broke the ban, people began to die]: Abrahamsson 1951:59; congo [Nzambi descended from heaven, created a woman, married her; their son fell ill and died; N. wrapped him in mats, went to heaven for the elixir of life, forbiding his wife to enter the room where the deceased was lying; she entered, the child was already breathing and changing his skin at that time; N. said that humans will now be mortal]: Abrahamsson 1951:60; luba: Abrahamsson 1951 [Kube created the world, put a man with two wives on earth; one grew old, went to the room to change her skin; the other I went there looking for a fan to smell the grain; the replacement skin immediately fell dead; since then, renewal has been impossible, K. retired from earthly affairs]: 61; Colle 1913 [snakes do not die, but only shed their skin; At first, God offered the woman and the snake a nut with death and a nut with immortality, offered to choose; the woman took death, the snake took immortality]: 507; Knappertt 1997 [the old woman told her not to disturb her while she was change her skin; the little girl forgot it, opened the door behind which the sacrament was taking place; (people have not rejuvenated since then)]: 325; luba-hemba: Colle 1913:519-522 [one of Kyomba's two wives fell into a trance; he placed her in a cabin in the woods, visited her with her son, told the other wife not to go there; the other sent her son to fetch water, giving him a vessel of holes, and entered the hut, where the first was almost young; both fell dead, humans became mortal (quoted in Janssens 1926:556-557; Abrahamsson 1951:61-62)], 522 [Kabezya-Mpungu brought down a man with two wives; one began to grow old; KM gave the remedy rejuvenate; if possible, people would not be old anymore; the woman took another wife's sieve, locked herself in the hut, took off pieces of old leather, putting them in a sieve; it remained to clean her head and neck; another the wife came for her sieve; as soon as she came in, the rejuvenated woman fell dead; since then people have been mortal]; nyamwezi [old people revived, changing their skin like snakes; one person, contrary to custom, took two wives; one died, the husband watered the grave; left; the head of the deceased rose from the grave, the other wife cut her off with a hoe, since then people have been mortal]: Abrahamsson 1951:63-64; isanzu [The sun has descended on the land, brought the jug, his wife Luna the basket; decided to find out who was wiser on earth; the woman chose the jug and the snake chose the basket; they had to throw the selected items on the ground; the jug broke, but the basket did not; so humans are mortal, and snakes change their skin and get younger]: Kohl-Larsen, S. 309 in Abrahamsson 1951:46, Millroth 1965:200, Beier 1966:64-65; quaya [the man sent a daughter-in-law to tell the Snake that when if he dies, he will remain dead, and if a person dies, he will be reborn; the daughter-in-law confused, said the opposite; her father-in-law asked her again, was angry, sent her again; this time she said correctly, but the Serpent refused to obey; so snakes change their skin and revive]: Huber 1967:796-797; Zulu [the snake sheds its skin every year and renews itself]: Abrahamsson 1951:66.

West Africa. Eve: Abrahamsson 1951 [grandson approached an old man who changed his skin; he told me to keep quiet; the boy said, the old man died, people became mortal]: 62; Baumann 1936 [causing rain heavenly people don't age, but they change their skin like snakes]: 213; Spieth, S. 52 in Briffault 1927 [The moon is covered with scales like a snake, sheds it every month; scales like this can be found]: 652; kono [Man and The snake came to the river; there the Frog and Toad both wanted to take Man to the other side; the Toad persuaded the man to sit on it, fell into the river, the man drowned; the Frog jumped safely with the Snake over the river; so a person dies and a snake changes skin and is reborn]: Holas 1975:127; kone (Sierra Leone) [God told the husband, wife and their child that in old age they would change their skin and rejuvenate; sent new skins with the Dog; the Dog was invited by other animals to eat rice and pumpkins; at this time the Snake stole the package, distributed the skin to snakes; Man and Dog came to God, but it was too late; the snakes were punished by kicking them out from settlements, people kill them]: Parrinder 1967:54 (=Scheub 2000:268-269); isoko and urhobo [Oghene made humans immortal, old people shed their skin like snakes, became young; land overflowed; the dog, being man's companion, wanted people to live forever, and W. expanded the world; the toad wanted the dead to die forever; decided that O. would agree with who was first to him will come; the dog first overtook the toad but decided to sleep; the toad came first, people became mortals]: Scheub 2000:198-199; diola (? ; in any case, Senegal; Jacklyn Ndiaye informant, recorded in France; a note to one of her texts states that "probably a diola"; in any case, diola is Christian, like informant) [God wants to know who on earth is willing to come to terms with the fact that there is death; a vulture dies; other vultures gather, cry; God decides that it is difficult for vultures to come to terms with death; man dies; others cry and then begin to dance and laugh; God has made death the lot of people; the vulture, when it gets old, sheds, losing its feathers, and after the other brings it to him some food on the beak, turns into a chick and starts a new life]: Reuss-Nliba, Reuss-Nliba 2018:30.

Sudan-East Africa. Lure [the old woman went home to change her skin, told her grandson not to call her; she had not yet removed her skin when her grandson screamed that the porridge was boiling; since then people have not changed their skin and have died]: Abrahamsson 1951:58; Oromo [God sent the Holawaka bird to tell people that when they are old, they will change their skin and be reborn; along the way, H. promised the Snake that ate the animal's corpse to tell the message if it will share food; the Snake agreed, though not immediately; H. said that snakes would shed their skin and get younger, and people would grow old and die forever; that's what happened]: Abrahamsson 1951:16 (=Baumann 1936: 276, =Frazer 1926:223); konso [God called the man and the Serpent to him, ordered him to race, the winner will gain immortality; the man ran faster, but saw an old woman smoking a pipe, asked allow him to smoke, snakes came back later; God gave immortality to snakes, they shed their skin and rejuvenate]: Jensen 1936, No. 5a: 498; Mehan [The Snake and the Turtle raced; the Snake easily overtook The turtle, but began to eat berries (Carissa edulis), as a result, the Turtle came first; so everyone is mortal; if the Snake won, everyone would shed their skin and rejuvenate]: Jensen 1959, No. 3:413-414; Malgashi (Bezanozano, Sakalava) [Ratanimasina ("sacred ground") made human figures out of clay, and Zanaharibe ("great god") revived them; Z. asked R. what he wanted people to be-how trees or like snakes; he replied that like trees (snakes are ugly); snakes change skin and get younger, and trees and people grow old and die]: Abrahamsson 1951:122.

(Wed. North Africa. The Arabs of Egypt [(the motive for "revival by changing skin" is stated]: El-Shamy 2004, No. 877:512).

Southern Europe. The Portuguese [donkey brought people eternal youth; stopped drinking by the river; snake: if you don't give me what you're carrying, I won't let them drink; the donkey gave it back, the snake changed its skin and rejuvenated, and people were to blame donkeys are getting old (and dying)]: Correia 2018, #43; Italians (?) : Krappe 1930:256 [the idea that snakes rejuvenate by shedding their old skin is recorded in Greater Greece], 261 (note 25) [Italian expression for "being older than a snake"].

Western Asia. Babylonia (the first 11 tablets of the Akkadian poem) [King Gilgamesh is cruel to his subjects; the gods create the wild man Enkidu to defeat G.; E. leaves animals and goes to people after he was seduced by the harlot Shamkhat; G. and E. fight and become friends, kill Humbaba cedar forest guards; the gods want to punish them for this, E. dies; G. wants to understand the mystery of death; goes through the gorge the range of mountains surrounding the world, persuading a scorpion man to let him pass; visits a garden where gems grow on trees; Siduri, who lives by the sea, shows him the way; Urshanabi transports him through the waters of death to the island where the immortal Ut-Napishti lives; he tells G. the story of the flood, helps to get a flower of eternal youth from the bottom of the sea; while G. was sleeping, the snake stole the flower, returning to its hole, threw it off skin; G. laments that he has obtained the ability to rejuvenate not for himself (and all people), but for snakes]: Deacons 196:7-82; Phoenicians [(Sanhunyaton in Philon Biblsky's paraphrase); this animal {dragons and snakes} it is very durable, and by nature, having lost old age, it not only grows younger, but also increases in size, and when it reaches a certain size, it finally destroys itself;... This animal does not die by ordinary death unless it is struck by some force]: Turaev 1999:80-81; Tsirkin 2000 [it was believed that snakes did not die, but change their skin and return to a new life; {Sanhunyaton lived in the 12th-11th centuries BC and was translated by Philo of Bibles (50-138 AD, Phoenician History in Greek), excerpts from Philo's text by Eusebius, 260-340 AD; this passage is briefly quoted and Frazer 1919:50}]: 75;.

Australia. An unidentified group [Locusts were the first to rise from the lower world to earth; after dying, they returned to the lower world for new skin and rose to earth again; the Snake said it had the right to do so only she; the Locust did not listen, she killed him; now the Locusts are small, the Snake changes its skin and lives forever, all humans are mortal]: Bates in Waterman 1987, No. 3040:86; murinbata [The crab changed its shell, showing how to revive; Raven said the process was too long, pecked out Crab's eyes, died himself]: Poignant 1967:136; karajari [Snake mother was sick and died every night; her sons buried her, were leaving; she was changing her skin and going to their new camp; one day the Frog came to the grave and said "calabord" (the sound made by a frog) while sitting and fiddling; this time Snake Mother did not revive; now people mortal]: Waterman 1987, no. 3045:86.

Melanesia. Momina: De Vries 1988:20 [in the future, the sky will fall, celestials will destroy earthly spirits, go to live in the last heaven, where they will live forever, changing their skin], 36 [the designation of celestials is translated as "skin-changing"; they don't have to get food, everything is done by themselves], 37-38 [biro's good spirit brought his sister from heaven to earth, married an earthly man, ordered him to build a house for ritual contempt; people sent two boys down the stairs to heaven to say that the house was ready; the spirits came down, began to dance; returning to heaven, biro warned his sister not to agree with her husband, otherwise people would not change skin and will die; the woman invited her husband to get together; the spirits came down again; when leaving, biro told his sister that worms would now devour the dead; the spirits never returned]; dugum dani [the snake said that after death and cremation, a person must come to life; this is called "my skin is your skin"; the little songbird objected that the dead should remain dead, and it, the bird, will be smeared as a sign mourning with clay; the first person Nakmatugi said he does not like snakes, so the bird won the argument; for other tribute groups, the bird and the snake race; the snake symbolizes immortality because it drops old skin]: Heider 1970:144; Western tributes [all living things have climbed to the surface from a hole in the ground in the Baliem Valley; the snake brought with it the mystery of immortality - the ability to drop every year skin; but the bird began to argue - if someone dies, you have to smear yourself with clay; the man accepted her advice, he dies ever since]: Hayward 1980:102-103 in Yost 1988:89; abelam [the snake died; the rat said her husband died, destroyed all its provisions; but the snake took off its skin and came to life; the rat also decided to die to come to life, but did not come to life, her corpse decomposed; the snake took another wife, her children; people followed suit rats]: Huber-Greub 1988, No. 8. 8:281; mountain arapes: Mead 1940, No. 4 [1) The snake peeled off the skin while the Rat was in the forest; the Rat smelled the skin, went into the water and died; if the Rat took off its skin and the Snake I smelled, people would live forever, and snakes would die; 2) The snake persuaded the Rat to jump first into the abyss, the Rat crashed, so people are mortal; if the Snake jumped first, it would not die and people would live forever; they would only have to change their skin], 27 [everyone went to the party, there was a girl who is about to start her period; Marsalai (forest spirit) came in the guise of a handsome man, brought the girl to the land of spirits; the girl's deceased grandmother is unhappy that her granddaughter has come here; the spirit takes her as a wife, she gives birth to snakes (all female snakes), breastfeeds; the spirits have removed snakeskins, dance in the form of people; when her husband and children Again in the guise of snakes, the woman cut off their heads, cooked their heads and bodies; together with her grandmother they set fire to the house; the skins of those who went to the party burned down, the spirits died; the girl came back, she was rubbed with nettles, she recovered]: 362, 371-373; kukukuku: Blackwood 1939 [people saw a rat fighting a snake; a rat bit the snake's skin, it changed its skin; a rat bit a snake, it died; the rat lay down on it, too died; if they hadn't died, people would not die; since then, the dead have been skinned (scraped off before smoking on fire)]: 215; Fischer 1968, No. 36 [the snake seems to have died; the rat believed it, too died, her corpse decayed; the snake changed its skin and came to life; people die like a rat before the snake came to life]: 394; daribi [like a dougum tribute, a snake and a bird]: Wagner 1967:40 in Heider 1970: 144; marind-anim: Wirtz, Neverman 1981, No. 10-12 [the snake gave birth to the boy Yavi; two girls kidnapped him; the snake crawled after her, but the old woman drove her away with burning smut; the snake began to swallow people; a pregnant woman was stuck in her throat; the snake's stomach was cut, the swallowed ones were removed, but only the fetus, the boy Bugau, from him comes the Bugau River genus; Dema Aramembe kidnapped Yavi; he grew up seduced his wife A.; A. called the sorcerers, they killed Yavi, they had time to bury him; A. brought grass juice to revive him, but it was too late; he poured it into the snake's mouth; she shed her skin, since then the snakes have not died; if if they gave the drug to Yavi, people would not die either, but shed their skin; a coconut palm grew out of Yavi's head], 18 [the snake gave birth to the boy Yavi, three girls found him, carried him away; the snake crawled along the trail, brought down the house, but the woman drove her away with burning smut; began to swallow people, she was killed; Yavi was kidnapped by the Aramembe fire demo {he plays the role of a trickster}; Yavi began to sleep with his wife; A. called sorcerers, Yavi died of witchcraft; And . repented, asked the sorcerers for a potion against the spell, but Yavi had already been buried; A. poured the potion on the ground, the snake licked it, since then the snakes do not die, but change their skin; Yavi's head grew the first coconut palm; its wicker bast braids have turned into roots, its head into the lower part of the trunk, its body into the trunk itself, its legs into leaf tails; coconuts have three recesses - Yavi's eyes and mouth]: 43-48 , 224-225; kiwai [Sído was the first to die; while still in human form, he tried to get out of his skin to change it like a snake; but children saw him, since then people have died; S. got to the land of the dead Adiri; its owner Adíri lived there with his daughter Dirívo; they did not have fire, if the ground, baked fish in the sun; S. married D.; all the agricultural products he had previously eaten entered into his penis, which became long; he scattered the seed around the garden, all the fruits grew; got fire rubbing against his tooth tree]: Landtman 1927:285-286; keva [Nemera meets two ugly snotty girls; hardly believes that the rich garden and the house belongs to them; meets two beauties at the dance, wants to take them both; they suddenly leave; N. asks little man Moylom follow the girls; he sees them take off their skin, become beautiful; throws their skin into the river; N. comes, lies down with both, between them; now the rainbow has red color on both edges (paint on girls' bodies), and the color in the middle is dark (N.); we could remove the skin and rejuvenate ourselves if those girls' skin were not thrown into the river]: LeRoy 1985, No. 65:198-200; manam [old woman rejuvenated in the river, came back, her granddaughter didn't recognize her, she cried; she came back, took her old body, said that from now on snakes and sea creatures would change bodies and people would die forever]: Franks 1979:110-111 in Yost 1988: 88; Dobu [Sinebomatu, wife of SV Wind took her granddaughter, went swimming; went downstream, took off her old skin, returned to her granddaughter; she did not recognize the young woman as her grandmother, cried; grandmother found discarded skin, put it on again, people are no longer getting younger; while the skin was lying around, snakes, lizards, crabs, lobsters ate it; now they shed their skin and renew themselves]: Fortune 1932:186; Trobrians [grandmother s granddaughter goes swimming; grandmother steps aside, takes off her skin, turns into a girl; granddaughter does not recognize her, drives her away; in anger, the grandmother promises that from now on the young will grow old and die; only those living under With earth, "lower creatures", i.e. snakes, crabs, iguanas and lizards, retained the ability to shed their skin and renew themselves; this is because humans used to live underground; if they lived upstairs, they would shed their skin The "upper creatures" - birds, flying foxes and insects - would be younger]: Malinowski 1926:81-83; 1948:104; Admiralty Islands [the old woman swam, changed her skin, became young; when her sons came back, one called her mother, the other called her wife; the old woman said people would now die, pulled on her old skin]: Meier 1908, No. 1:193; Bining (Gazelle Peninsula, New Britain): Bley 1914 [first there was a Sunman and a Moon woman; they gave birth to stones (they became men) and birds (became women); the Sun called those who want to live forever; stones and snakes came, people did not listen; if they came, would change their skin like snakes]: 198; Gazelle Peninsula: Meier 1909, No. 7 [To Kabinana asked the child to go get fire; he delegated it to the snake; the snake brought fire; TC said that the child will now die for good, and the snake will shed its skin and renew itself], 8 [To Karvuvu roasted the breadfruit; To Kabinana told him to share it with his mother; his mother changed her skin, To Karvuvu said that it was old for him I liked it better; found the old one and put it on it; That Cabinana said that now only snakes would change their skin, and people would grow old and die; he stepped on the snake's head, flattening it, for it was she who took the skin ( translated into Hambruch 1921, No. 16.2:51-52; translated into Permyakov 1970, No. 44:120-121)]: 37, 37-39; Isis 1998 [That Kabinana sent To Karvuva to the lower world to teach people how to shed their skin and make snakes mortals; he did the opposite; snakes shed their skin and don't die]: 30; tolay: Janssen et al. 2012, No. 4 [To Kabinana and To Purgo's mother died; shed her skin and came to life; told TP to light a fire to she could have warmed up; but he wrote into the fire and extinguished it; if he hadn't, people would not die and would be as numerous as pebbles on the shore], 1 [mother To Kabinana and To Karvuvu shed her skin and became a young girl; Then Karvuva did not recognize her and asked her to put her old skin on again, found it in the river and brought it to his mother; Then Cabinana was furious: now it was not humans, but snakes, who would shed their skin], 2 (Fr. Watom) [the saw fish told the brothers to bring fire, they refused; she said that lizards and snakes would now change their skin and people would die forever], 3 [the old woman took off her skin and asked the fire to warm up; Cabinana: You must die or people will multiply too much and there won't be enough food; he told the lizard to put out the fire], 5 [To Kabinana sent the child for fire; but he told the snake to bring fire; TC: now the snake will shed his skin and renew himself, and a person will die forever]: 12, 39, 39, 39-40, 40; lacalay [the grandmother took off her skin, the grandson was frightened not to recognize her young; to comfort him, she put it on again; more people don't get younger]: Valentine 1965:165; mono (Shortland Islands) [old woman threw her old skin into the river, became young; her grandson didn't recognize her, got scared; she put the skin back on; died, and now we're all dying]: Wheeler 1926, No. 62:12; San Cristobal (Solomon Islands) [Aguana created humans; the woman grew old, went to the stream to change her skin; when she saw a young mother, the daughter did not recognize her; the mother found waterborne skin, put on, since then people have not revived]: Fox 1924:81-82 (=Fox, Drew 1915:238); Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands) [at first, both humans and snakes changed their skin and became younger; woman left mother's child, went to the garden; when the child fell asleep, the grandmother went to the river to change her skin; the child woke up, did not recognize her grandmother; she came back, put on her skin, said that from now on only snakes would be rejuvenate by shedding skin]: Hogbin 1937:88 (quoted in Anell 1964:4); Florida (Solomon Islands) [like San Cristobal]: Fox, Drew 1915:238; Malaita (Saha Village) [the old woman changed her skin, but then put it back on, the skin caught on the reeds]: Codrington 1891:260; Banks Islands: Codrington 1881 [people changed their skin and grew younger like snakes and crabs; the old woman came back from the river young, child didn't recognize her; she came back, put on old leather, people have been mortal ever]: 274; 1891 [=1881; according to another version, this woman is Mate's wife, Death]: 265; Coombe 1911 (Mota) [people changed their skin like snakes and rejuvenated; the child did not recognize the young mother, she put on her old skin again, since then people have died forever; this woman became the guardian of the Panoi afterlife; watches if the nasal bridge is pierced; if no, a bamboo vessel breaks on the head of the person who came]: 85; Fox, Drew 1915:238 [Iroul returned from the river young, changing her skin; her daughter (this is the mother of the Qat hero) did not recognize her, I. put on her old skin again; now Snakes change skin]; Espírito Santo [Sari lived in a hut covered with leaves; when hunting pigeons, Venatu saw his arrow, was surprised at how skillfully it was made, and went to the side where did the arrow come from; watched S. take off his beautiful skin and put on his old one; V. became S.'s wife, although her mother wondered why her daughter needed such an ugly husband; S. gave her mother-in-law a small banana and a little the pig, wrapping it in a leaf and telling it not to turn it around on the way; but she put everything on the ground and went to relieve herself; when he returned, he saw a large bunch of bananas and a huge pig running away; S. himself with the wife did not care about anything: at S.'s request, the supreme god Taotae gave them food; S. took his wife and went to the party, wearing beautiful leather and telling his wife to take sticks; they had to fight off the women, so they liked young S.; women found and destroyed old skin; since then S. has not been able to change his skin and people have begun to die]: Guiart 1958:191; Both (New Hebrides): Codrington 1891:283 [woman argued with crab; said crabs are better than humans because they change their shells and rejuvenate; a woman reproached Tagar for doing people wrong], 283-284 [people changed their skin like crabs, shells; two grandchildren got into a fight, the grandmother told them they wanted to die; they found her skin shed, punched it with sticks; her grandmother put it on and died right away]; Suas 1912, No. 5 [old Temborogo Ruruhi swam in river, took off her skin, became younger; her little nephew did not recognize her, was frightened; she put on her old skin again; people have not been getting younger since then]: 44; Big Nambas [old people took off their skin and rejuvenated; one old woman looked after the child; she took off her skin by the river, became young; the child did not recognize her, he was scared; she put on her old skin again, since then people have aged and never revived]: Deacon 1934:581; islands Torres Strait, ibid., p.265; Pentecost, ibid., p. 286-287); Pentecost: Codrington 1891 [a man changed his skin, came to work with his two sons; once put on an old one skin, his sons killed him because he deceived them {not entirely clear}; if they hadn't killed them, people would change their skin and die]: 287; Tattevin 1931, No. 25 [the old man asked the sorcerer to change his skin and he again became young; the sorcerer poured coconut milk on him, his skin came off; the sorcerer threw it into the water and said that if he drowned, the man would not die; the skin caught on the prickly branch, stuck, broke; so people cannot change their skin]: 875-876; Malaita (Sa'a village) [people renewed themselves, shedding their skin like snakes and crabs; the old woman went swimming, took off her skin, her grandchildren did not recognize her at home; to calm them down, she came back, put on old leather, then people began to die]: Frazer 1939:242; Batom Islands (near New Britain) [That Konkonomiang told two young men to come with fire in their hands, promised to give immortality; they did not come; T. said that only people's souls would be immortal, and the lizard, monitor lizard and snake would shed their skin, live forever]: Isis 1998:30; Efate (New Hebrides) [beasts and birds discuss the fate of people; Man tangisi suggests that people rejuvenate by changing their skin like snakes, Pilake suggests that they die but multiply by giving birth to children; the former is so upset that its eyes blushed forever (she has red feathers under her eyes)]: Anell 1989:25; Frazer 1939 [more than Anell 1989]: 220-221; Tanna: Humphreys 1926 [woman gave birth late; left the baby on on the shore, went into the water, her old skin came off, she returned young; the child did not want to recognize her mother; she returned to the sea, became a stone at the bottom, he is now visible; the child is a stone on the shore; they throw at him stones and sticks, because it is his fault that people do not rejuvenate]: 97; Ray, p. 151 in Williamson 1933 (2) [the old woman left the child in a recess on the rock, removed her old skin, became young, began to swim; her child did not recognize it, did not let her take it, she had to wear old leather, so people die]: 147; Ambrym (New Hebrides) [the god of light Barkokol and the god of darkness Bugliam discuss the fate of a created person; The first wants aged people to be removed from their wrinkled skin like an eel and reborn like snakes; the second wants the dead to be buried in the ground; this is what happened]: Suas 1911:907 in Dixon 1916:118, in Fischer 1932:242; Aneityum (New Hebrides): Anell 1964 [the spirit of Ihungö Raing fished islands in the ocean, lived in a turtle shell; in his absence, his children started poking their shells with toys with spears, then burned it; so people are mortal]: 6; Gunn 1914 [while working in the garden, the old man took off his skin, became young; one day his two grandchildren found rolled skin and made holes; wearing it, the old man became shiver from the cold; said that now people would not live forever changing their skin but would die]: 218; Kanaka: Leenhardt 1932:447 (Yande Island) [Paimu Puréhévasi asked his wife Berangaat to change her skin and live forever; she said it was better to have children; the husband did not want to, went home to change his skin, did not tell his wife to follow; she came, the husband agreed to get together with her, she gave birth to children, and her husband did not change his skin] (trans. Permyakov 1970, No. 81:193), 448 [in order not to age, a person went to a puddle, changed his skin, as cancers do; another advised to put the skin back on, because it is not known whether he may become ill in the new one or old; this second one, in order to loosen the ground, only ran his horn slightly on the ground; the first said that he would be lazy, advised him to dig with an effort].

Micronesia-Polynesia. Ontong Java [Ontong Java does not have snakes, but lizards are considered immortal, changing their skin regularly]: Anell 1989:29; Nukumanu [the Green Lizard and the Rat have decided to jump off with wood; The lizard jumped, stayed motionless but did not die; the rat jumped and crashed to death; so people die and lizards change their skin and rejuvenate]: Sarfert, Damm 1931:458; Samoa [the gods are going to decide man's fate; someone suggested that man shed his old skin like a mollusk and become young again; to become like a torch that goes out but lights up in the wind again; god Palsy suggested that mollusks shed their skin and renew themselves, but people should not; that people be like the fire from the pua tree, which, when extinguished, no longer ignites; at this time it began to rain, that's it ran into hiding and quickly accepted P.'s offer]: Brown 1910:365 (quoted in Anell 1989:22, Williamson 1933 (2): 146); Tuamotu: Beckwith 1970:234 [Ataraga sees Huahega bathe, takes her as a wife, their son Maui-Tikitiki catches the sun in a snare; recognized as father; kills Mahuika; fishes Tahiti and Little Tahiti; takes Hina away from the Tuna eel; T. sends a flood, M. stops the water by exposing his fall; kills T., the first coconut palm grows out of T.'s head; Peka takes Hina; M. flies to P. in the form of a golden pheasant; P.'s mother warns not to take the bird, but P. takes it; M. cuts him off head, returns with Hina; turns Hina Ri's lover into a dog; a friend goes for revenge, also turned into a dog; M. sees that his mother Huahega's hair has turned gray; decides to swap stomachs with the sea Rori's slug, then people would not die; at this time, the M. brothers scream, M. regurgitates their stomach, people remain mortal], 234-235 (Anaa) [Maui-tikitiki is the fifth son of Ataranga and Huahega (daughter of the owner fire Mahuike); seeks his father's recognition, competes with Mahuike and kills him, catches the Sun in a snare from the hair of his mother Huahega's head; with the help of his brothers, he fishes Havaiki's country from the sea; marries Tiki's daughters; she's Tuna's wife, Maui kills Tuna, a coconut tree grows out of his head; Peka-nui (The Great Bat) takes Hina; Maui turns into a snipe, kills Peka, returns his wife; falls ill; he is advised to climb into the shell of a Tupa crab to change his skin and continue to live like a crab; to do this, he must swallow Rori-tau's insides; at this point, the Maui brothers enter, he burps entrails; Hina Ri's lover and Ri's friend named Togio Maui turns into dogs; the Maui brothers go to the Sun; one dies from the heat, the other comes back; Maui goes to bury his brother's body in the sky; converges with two heavenly girls, Dawn-Maid and the Moon (Maid-of-the-Moon); sends the first home, marries the second]; Hawaii [Kepelino data; the man was like a crab: he lived in a peel until she it became hard and yellow, grew old; then it got younger again, and so many times]: Beckwith 1970:236.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Rai (tulung) [Lizard suggested Mini (ancestor man?) to die, he foolishly agreed; they built burial chambers; the Lizard suggested that M. die first, but he did not know how to do it; then the Lizard shed her old skin, told him to do what she did ; M. did and died, so death appeared]: Allen 2001:42-43; moklum [humans and animals did not die; Rang gave death to the Rooster, ordered it to be brought to people; the Rooster gave death to the Snake, she died; Boa is not I liked it, he passed death on people; since then people have been dying and snakes change their skin]: Elwin 1958a, No. 11:293 (=1958b: 325-326); vancho [people did not die, but only metamorphose like a caterpillar; There were so many of them that they began to take all the food from animals and birds; one man snatched the fish from the crane's beak; he cursed him, saying that he was about to die, and the man hit the crane on the head, which was bald; then a man snatched a piece of meat from the crow's beak; the crow complained that if humans remained immortal, all birds would die; then Tatchak Namlong announced that humans would die]: Elwin 1958a, No. 15:296- 297; Burma's Naga: Zapadova 1977 (line naun) [people lived until old age, and snakes changed their skin and were immortal; nat asked people if they wanted to live forever like snakes; the chief refused to listen to him, said that people will do without his advice; so people do not respawn by shedding their skin like snakes]: 237-238; angami {presumably: Nagaland, the group is not listed, so it may not be chin-naga, and the northern naga} [humans and animals changed their skin, rejuvenated; the Toad and the Lizard agreed that only two creatures that suddenly came to their mind would change their skin; the lizard said that a snake and a lizard, A toad is like a man and a toad; but the Toad hesitated and lost; now only snakes and lizards change their skin and rejuvenate]: Borgohain, Roy Chaudhury 1975, No. 1:18 (translated to Kudinova, Kudinov 1995:89).

Burma - Indochina. Zhuang (Guangxi) [Soroka confused the order of the heavenly deity: instead of "People shed their skin when they are old, and snakes die when they are old" reported "People die when they are old, and snakes, when they are old, they shed their skin"]: Yang 2013:460; thai (Vietnam) [people changed their skin like snakes now and lived a long time; but had no offspring and wanted to change everything; they began to destroy frogs and snakes, those cried out to Then, who opened seven roads to sunlight, closed ten roads of rain; everything burned down; Lang Ai Lang and Nhi survived; continued to kill snakes, etc., T. sent a flood, all died; then a few more cycles; the new Linigi ancestors sent by T. inhabited the earth; put 8 brass poles to support the sky]: Dang Nghiem Van 1993:324-326; Laos's black thai [people changed their skin like snakes, and multiplied in this way (the skin turned into a new person); there were too many people, the heavenly god Thén sent rain, a flood; a girl Kap saved in one pumpkin, and a boy Ké in the other; persuaded T. not to kill them because they would grow rice; after the flood, the spirit (same T.?) said that in old age people would renew themselves and snakes would die (a play on words in Thai); the snake threatened to bite him, he said the opposite; Cap and Ke gave birth to humans]: Bourlet 1907:921-922; Viets [Ngoc hoang (The Jade Emperor) wanted dying people to shed their skin and come to life, but snakes did not; he sent a messenger from heaven to carry out this plan, but he told the snakes about it; the snakes made him do it agree to say the opposite; snakes are now shedding their skin and getting younger; the guilty messenger has been worn to the ground, turned into a dung beetle]: Landes 1886, No. 83:205-206; (=Knorozova 2000:28; =Fraser 1985: 47; =Frazer 1913:69-70; Coyaud 2011, No. 17:73).

South Asia. Varley [Mahadeva and Ganga Gauri created the world; M. called the gods, no one came, then he flooded the earth with a flood for 12 years; then asked Naranadeva and Brahmadeva {then Barham is the same?} bring land from the world of Gunderideva (ghunderi is a fly that collects clay and makes it a nest on the corner of the house; they brought clay, painted on it, made cakes, they began to grow, they made heaven and land; only Bhimabali was able to lift the sky off the ground; the earth was unstable; to secure it, Mahadeva ordered Naran and Barham to bring stones from the world of patheri (a species of small rat, always at her hole many stones); hills and mountains were made of stones; to create vegetation, M. sent N. and B. to the world of squirrels and ants for seeds; they brought them, but not enough; he sent them to King Lakhapati to bring more; M. and The Gauri dug a hole to get water at the foot of the date palm tree, got drunk; G.: let no one do that; M. created dense forests, G. created trees in savannas; two children were saved in the tree during the flood; M.: who are you ? - Brother and sister; the gods separated them, brought them together - the same thing; so 7 times, but then did not recognize each other and said that husband and wife; people from them; gods created animals; animals and plants multiplied, the earth became it was impossible to bear such a burden; she turned to her brother King Pandu ("white" in Sanskrit and Marathi), but he picked it up and threw it; M. and G. returned, the land complained to them, they called the gods; M. punished Panda by making him master of the lower world; a bull in this world told the cow: Our world will now be the realm of death; Jum Joshi (god of death) sent messengers to P., but P. put them in prison; himself disappeared; JJ sent him poisoned berries and he died; after that, people began to die and the earth felt better ; before that, people were like snakes - they changed their skin and renewed themselves]: Dalmia 1988:25-30; dhanwar [the messenger of Death used to take away not souls, but people's skin; once he fell in love with the daughter of a snake; at the request of her uncle, he asked the Master of the Dead to take away the skins of snakes and move on, and people would died; this is what happened]: Elwin 1949, No. 8:417; Tamils (Thiruvarur) [the earth rests on the immortal snake Ananta-Ādišeşa, which has no beginning or end; when he grows old, he is every time is reborn; through this ritual, snakes overcome death, crawl out of their old skin]: Shulman 1978:124.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Nias: Chatelin 1881 [while creating the earth, the divine character stretched it and shaped it, after which he fasted for many days; then he received nine plates of different types of food; he began to eat a ripe banana, not crayfish, so humans are prone to decay like a banana; the snake has eaten discarded crayfish and is immortal]: 114 in Dixon 1916:182; Sundermann 1884 [Lamonia came down to earth, should have been a month to fast; could not, returned to heaven; Si uto gaé also could not, and chose bananas from all types of food; if he ate crayfish, people would change their skin like crayfish and renew themselves]: 451 in Fischer 1932: 223; mentawai: Kruyt 1923:148-149 in Fischer 1932 [a spirit from heaven warned people to eat yams with prawns first and then bananas with chicken; then they will change their skin and renew themselves, like shrimp, creeping shoots like yams; people did the opposite, so they are mortal like a banana whose old trunk dies off when it bears fruit]: 225; Schefold 1988 [Pageta Sabbau shaman suggested people could choose bananas with fish or yams with shrimp; they chose the former; PS said that now people would die forever like bananas and fish; choosing the latter, they would change their skin and become younger like shrimp and new shoots were planted like yam tubers cut into pieces]: 73-75; dusun (north Borneo): Evans 1913:426 [Kenharingan offered everyone rice flour; asked who would change the skin; the snake only did The sight of eating replied that she was; the rest of their mouths were full of flour, they kept silent; since then snakes don't die unless killed by humans], 478 [=Evans 1922:175-176; in the middle of the water there was a rock, she opened her mouth, out of it a man and a woman came out (these are the main dusun deities, Kedharingan and Munsumundok); they began to think about how to go by water; they finally went and came to Bisagit's house (smallpox spirit), they had land, they asked he gave them land; K. created a dusun, M. created the sky, both created the sun, the moon, the Pleiades ("seven stars"), Hyades ("top"); they had a daughter, people were starving, then K. and M. killed their daughter, and a coconut grew out of her head ( eyes and mouth can be seen on the nut), sugar cane from the ulna, bananas from the fingers, rice from the blood; all animals from parts of the body; K. asked who could change the skin, would be immortal; dusun would not heard, the snake heard and now dies only if a person kills it; the dusun missed the ability to revive; K. began to bathe people in a basket in the river, one person fell out, swam away, come from him coastal inhabitants; K. held a religious ceremony in the house; one person was in the forest at that time, when he returned, could not enter, monkeys descended from him]; Williams 1961 [sculpting the earth and man The creator asked the man, the snake and the lizard, which of them would shed their skin in old age; the lizard and the snake immediately answered, but the man kept silent, for his mouth was full of rice flour; now people are mortal]: 69; Western Toraja [1) people changed their skin and got younger; the mother and children went to the water to change their skin; the children did not recognize her, they were scared, she put on the same skin, said that now people will die; 2) Alatala (the name is Islamized) asks people if they want to change their skin and be reborn, or be (short-lived) like a banana; they choose the latter]: Kruyt 1938, No. 8:434, 436-437; Eastern Toraja [ The creator proclaims that anyone who wants to change their skin and live forever must come to him; the evil spirit woman Lise began to crush corn so loudly that people did not hear these words; snakes, crickets and other insects heard, came and have been renewed ever since]: Adriani, Kruyt 1951, No. 7:12; mori [it was time for the old woman to change her skin; her daughter began to cry as if her mother had died; the old woman became repeat, Live like a rock; daughter, Live like a banana, children will replace; she has the last word]: Kruyt 1924 in Fischer 1932:213; loinang [people changed their skin and got younger; the old woman went to the water to change her skin; a man named Liko-likounon saw her by chance, got scared, asked her what she was doing; the woman was also scared, since then her skin can't be changed]: Kruyt 1930:479 in Fischer 1932:214; balantac [the first man and woman were lowered from the sky on rattan in a box or vessel onto a mountain towering in the middle of the waters; the man climbed back the rattan, received everything he needed for life people; when he returned, he cut off the rattan; people did not die, but changed their skin, there were many of them, they kidnapped wives, God sent a flood; the ark with the survivors surfaced to the sky; Pilogot mola offered them shrimp, they refused; agreed to eat bananas; so people no longer change their skin like shrimp but die]: Kruyt 1932:331-334 in Fischer 1932:214-215; Banggay Islands [the person is twice old and younger, changing his skin; the third time it turned out that all his relatives had already died; that's when he died]: Kruyt 1932:141 in Fischer 1932:215; Fr. Babar (west of Tanimbar) [people didn't die changing their skin like snakes; when the old woman changed her skin, her old husband kicked her out; she took off her new skin (wearing the old one?) , people have been mortal ever since]: Riedel, p. 362 in Briffault 1927:644; Kai Islands [old people bathed, shedding their old skin and becoming young; when old Miminggung returned home as a young girl, her her grandson did not recognize her, continued to cry; she went back to the river in anger, put on her old skin; M. said that the locusts would shed their skin and renew themselves, and people would die, died on their own; first they died in very old age, but prematurely after the advent of witchcraft]: Anell 1964:2; Tetum: Vroklage 1952:129 [people renewed themselves like snakes; the old woman became young, but her children did not recognize her, did not they wanted to let them into the house; then she took on her former form in anger; told the children to cook the cobs in the pot; he cooked by himself, but the child broke the pot; the old woman cut off the ivy that connected heaven and earth and sky rose; it happened in Fatumea Talama], 130 [Lassiolat; the old woman climbed ivy into heaven for fire; when God saw her, she made her young; she went down, but her son did not recognize her, cut off ivy in anger; God moved the sky off the ground, people began to die forever]; East Timor [Frog, People will die like me; Snake, People will be immortal like me, will shed their skin; decided that The wish of the first to get to the opposite bank of the stream will come true; the Frog jumped, was the first; if the Snake were the first, people would not die]: Anonimo 1955a: 38.

Taiwan - Philippines. Atayal [was a god who was covered with crap; he asked the atayal to wash it, promising that then they would shed their skin like myrtle, they would not grow old and die; people refused; God said now even children will die]: Norbeck 1950, No. 19:31; saisha: Wang 2016:1606 [there was a tree that shed its bark, and one saisha ran up and hugged him, being able to shed his skin] 1607 [people shed their skin and grow up a little bit every time they don't die], 1609 [people change their skin once a year], 1611 [people can't bear the pain of changing their skin and prefer to die instead test it]; mangian [Mahal Makanaako held a tree in his hands, it gave shade; a worm fell from the tree into his hand, his bowel movements became earth; other worms appeared in the ground, and it became more; MM created brothers Malvay and Dalidali, ordered the land to be sculpted; M. worked diligently, valleys appeared; D. was in a hurry - mountains; a grain of rice was enough to feed everyone; a machete cleared the field himself; people skinned and younger; men gave birth to children from calf legs; the first were born to M.; Doug's woman ("earth") felt sorry for men, told her brother that women would give birth; stepped over his leg, the baby was in her stomach; the sky was low, preventing her from breaking rice; D. hit it with the upper end of the pestle, it rose; Wild Chicken gave people eggs; D. ran impatiently to see if he was in the basket litter, Wild Chicken refused to give more eggs; D. watched one rice fill the pot; the rice felt ashamed to be looked at, now rice needed a lot]: Eugenio 1994, No. 25:73-74 (translated in Rybkin 1975, No. 1:27-28).

China - Korea. Meo (NW Thailand) [when a person reaches 120 (ideal age), they change their skin and get up again after 13 days (Lemoine 1997:148)]: Symonds 2004:17; Chuan Miao [ people did not die, but changed their skin; the old woman told her daughter-in-law to warm the waters, but she only heated the water a little in the sun; the old woman lay down in her and her body fell apart; at night she appeared to her daughter-in-law in a dream and said that now all people will die]: Graham 1954:223; Miao (Yunnan, Wu. Xuanwei) [people are made of clay; when they shed their old skin, they become young again and live forever; one woman, changing her skin, lost a lot of blood and was in severe pain. At this time, Heavenly Grandfather came down to earth, and she begged him, saying that he would rather die than shed her skin; the heavenly grandfather promised the woman to fulfill her desire not to change her skin again and said that people will now grow old, get sick and die but will not change their skin; however, they will have to give birth to sons and daughters in order to reproduce; since then people no longer change their skin; snakes begin to shed skin instead of people, and people die instead of snakes]: Wang 2016:1607, 1609-1610, 1755; naxi (Yunnan, wu. Lijiang): Wang 2016:1605-1607 [W2896.0.2: The deity Luhese secretly tells settled people the secret art of changing their skin; WC2896.0.3: People were jealous of snakes that could change old skin for new ones and learned this by imitating them; W2896.1: Because Luhese taught people the secret art of changing their skin, old people shed their skin and become young again; thus, people get the secret of finding immortality and eternal youth], 1609 [people change their skin every 30 years], 1612-1613 [the day people changed their skin, they rolled painfully on the ground and grabbed stones so hard that they were covered in blood] 1755 [man passes on the secret art of changing skin to his snake brother, humanity loses it and then begins to die generation after generation]; pumi (Yunnan, wu. Lanping): Wang 2016:1607 [people used to live forever and didn't age because they changed their skin], 1609 [people shed their skin every three years]; yi: Wang 2016:1607 (Yunnan, wu. Mile) [people grow old and shed their skin while sunbathing and getting younger], 1729-1730 [an old man named Syly sees a dragon shed its skin, sheds its clothes and becomes young], 1735 [a person loses the ability to rejuvenate after a snake steals his skin, so people hate snakes]; Chinese (Guangdong, Fujian) [people used to renew themselves like snakes when they reached the age of 60 by changing skin; a woman or man chooses to die rather than suffer from a skin change]: Eberhard 1937, No. 71:115-116; Chinese (Guangdong, Wu. Deqing) [People used to be friends with snakes and also knew how to shed their skin. An old woman once told a snake that she was in great pain and would not shed her skin and would rather live to gray hair and die. People have been getting old and dying ever since]: Wang 2016:1756; Chinese (Fujian, Wu. Ninghua) [After Pangu separated heaven from earth, the Jade Lord (NV) sent humans and animals into the world. Humans ruled over all living creatures, and each of the animals had their own duties: tigers guarded mountains, bulls and horses did hard work, and rats ate up waste. Fearing that if each creature was left to its own devices, riots would break out, NV made sure that all animals would control others: hares ate grass, leopards and wolves ate hares, the tiger was afraid of little ones birds and so on. They became dependent on each other, and the world was at peace. NV loved people who were so useful and hated evil and poisonous snakes. Therefore, he ruled that snakes, after living their lives, will die, and humans will live forever, and when they grow old, shed their skin and become young again. After a while, NV decided to find out how people live and sent Taishan Lao-Jun (=Lao Tzu) to the world, giving him special powers and a Golden Spell. When he went down to the ground, he found that there was a mess: the mountains were empty, the rivers were dry, none of the animals were doing their duty, the rats were eating up to the size of elephants and chasing cats, and fetid piles of dead snakes are everywhere. Lao-jun asked the old bull how it happened. The bull said it was NV's own fault. The snakes died, and the rats bred, and people began to behave inappropriately, and there are too many of them - there are not enough fields, no grain, no clothes for everyone. Then Lao-jun, using the Golden Spell, made people die and snakes shed their skin. But those who were virtuous could live longer and become immortal celestials, and snakes that harm people can be slaughtered to death with bamboo sticks, so snakes are afraid bamboo. Peace has returned to the world]: Zhou Yang et al. 1998c, No. 6:10-11; Chinese (Fujian, Wu. Ninghua) [people used to shed their skin when they reached a certain age]: Wang 2016:1605-1606; Chinese (Jiangxi, Wu. Nancheng): Wang 2016:1608 [people shed their skin with the great anguish they endure when they dive into a vat of catalp oil], 1609 [people shed their skin every 60 years], 1610 [one old grandmother every day she prayed to heaven, bodysuits and deities not to change their skin, and the deities fulfilled her wish], 1611 [starters who must shed their skin refuse to endure such pain, and since then people do not change skin]; Chinese (Zhejiang, Anji, Chun'an, Suichang counties) [people started to die because they passed on their ability to change skin to a snake (or dragon)]: Yang 2013:460; Chinese ( Zhejiang, wu. Yuhan) [Soroka confused the order of the heavenly deity: instead of "People shed their skin when they are old, and snakes die when they are old", she reported "People die when old, and snakes, when old, shed their skin "]: Yang 2013:460; the Chinese (Hubei) [the deity responsible for the serpent and the deity responsible for humans have agreed on their lifespan: snakes will only live for 10 years, and humans, when they reach 60 years old, will shed their skin and become young again; as a result, there were too many dead snakes, the stench of their decaying bodies intoxicated people, and enmity arose between them; then the deities decided to convey the ability to shed skin from humans to snakes, as humans had friends who could bury them; snakes began to shed their skin every year]: Wang 2016:1608-1610; Chinese (Sichuan): Zhou Yang et al. 1998b, No. 25 (y. Zhongjiang) [In ancient times, humans and animals communicated in the same language, helped each other, and even made close friends. People were most closely associated with dragons. Dragons helped people protect fields and homes, and people shared food with them. Then people and dragons began to live together and thus became relatives. At that time, dragons lived for a hundred years, and humans were immortal. People changed their skin every year. At this time, they lost consciousness and experienced severe pain, and this process lasted from 49 to 81 days. So people were jealous of dragons and thought that not having to change their skin was worth giving up immortality for it, and that it was better to live happily ever after 100 years. Dragons, on the other hand, envied people's immortality. Then they conspired and decided that dragons would change their skin and live forever, and people would enjoy happiness for a hundred years. The Jade Lord heard about this, became very angry and ordered Father Thunder and Mother Lightning to destroy both dragons and humans. When other spirits heard this, they prayed to His Eminence for mercy, and he had mercy, and decided to make dragons become snakes and live in the seas, and people would stop understanding the language of animals and suffer from diseases and misfortunes. A strong wind blew, thunder sounded, lightning flashed, the mountains collapsed, the ground cracked, and the dragons were driven into the sea. Since then, humans and dragons have lived separately, humans have lived no more than a hundred years, suffer, get sick and miserable all their lives. Dragons have become snakes, they change their skin every year, but they live for a thousand years. People, mindful of their friendship with dragons, often use the word "dragon" (moon) as a name for children, but dragons also remember people and often help them catch mice and insects], 25a (y. Baxian) [People did not die before, but when they were more than forty years old, they suddenly developed a fever, so they fell into a stupor for 49 days. When they woke up, they changed their skin, and then they looked like 17-18 years old again. At that time, snakes did not shed their skin, but lived, like today's people, for a number of years, and then died. People suffered a lot when changing their skin. One day, a man was particularly tormented and shouted that it was better to die, and people around him prayed for his suffering to end as soon as possible. This is how heavenly spirits learned how painful it is for people to change their skin and asked the Jade Lord for help. He asked who, if not a person, would shed his skin, and the perfume said it could be a snake. That's what they decided. Since then, the snake has changed its skin and people have died]: 46, 46-47; tuja (Hunan, w. Yongshun, and Sichuan, wu. Qianjiang) [humans started dying because they passed on their ability to change skin to a snake or dragon]: Young 2013:460.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece: Turaev 1999 [(commentary to Philo Biblsky's story about the immortality of snakes); probably referring to the same thing as Horapollo (Hierogl. I, 2): "Every year, by delaying old age, it {the snake} removes its skin, just as the world changes its annual time"]: 115; Elian, 9, 16 [When a snake loses its old age {old skin} (and she does this in early spring), at the same time it gets rid of the veil in front of her eyes and from dull vision, as if from the "old age" of the eyes, and it sharpens her eyesight by shaking her eyes against dill, and so on It is cured of this disease. The snake is also hard to see after hiding in a deep and dark hole all winter. But even then, the warmth of dill clears the animal's vision, weakened by the cold, and makes it even sharper]; Greeks: Dähnhardt 1910 (Kalavryta, northern Peloponnese) [one officer Alexander the Great told his sister that he had extracted the water of immortality, persuade her to drink this water and wash herself with it; after washing, she splashed the water outside, it fell on the chicken and {untranslated word; probably wild onions - see Megas}; since then, chicken sheds and rejuvenates every year, and wild onions are green even when pulled out of the ground]: 263; Megas 1970, No. 75 [after learning about the water of immortality, Alexander on Bucephalus slips between crushing rocks, killing dragons, collecting immortal water into the vessel, comes back to sleep; his sister, seeing a vessel of water, poured it on wild onions, so they never wither; A. turned his sister into a siren with a fish tail so that she suffers forever; but she loves her brother; asks the sailors if A. is alive; if you say that he is dead, a storm will raise from grief, the ship will sink; we must answer that he is alive and reigns]: 200-202.

(Wed. Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Khakas [in autumn, a person changes his code; it is filmed as a snake crawler and is invisible to humans; the skin removed is only visible to a snake, just as a snake crawler is visible only to humans; no one realizes its skin change]: Butanayev 2003:79; Altaians [when a snake sheds, its skin remains intact; a person has the same, only invisible skin]: Butanayev 2003:79; Buryats [man sheds like a snake, but does not notice it; if the snake finds lost skin, it rejoices and takes it for itself]: Khangalov 1960, No. 51:57).

Japan. Miyako Islands [on the night of the sitsy festival, a person poured rejuvenating water before the snake, rejuvenated; the following year he gave in to a snake, drenched after it; the snake rejuvenated, man has not since rejuvenates; people get younger, shedding their skin like snakes; var.: man has washed only his hands and feet, so his nails grow back]: Nevsky 1978:91; 1996:271; Okinawa ["Tsukan", No. 488; 4 entries; God hates the snake, wanted to kill it and prepared one tub of live water and the other with the dead water, told the animals to pour in any of them. The intelligent snake was the first to come and pour live water, while the other animals arrived late and drenched themselves dead. So now the snake changes its skin, lives forever, and other animals die early; 2) "Tsukan", No. 487; 13 records; The Moon and the Sun sent a lark to deliver living water to people, but the lark threw water along the way and began to peck at strawberries. Meanwhile, the snake drenched in live water, began to change its skin and live forever. They poured the leftovers of water that the Skylark brought to people onto their nails, which began to grow back. The lark reported this to the Moon and the Sun, they tied him with a rope, made his body smaller and his legs thinner]: Naono Fukasawa 2015; Ainu [a huge snake of beautiful color devours people He swallows buildings; becoming a woman, he tries to seduce a hunter; he refuses, she does not swallow it, but tells him to live for a thousand years; every hundred years he sheds his skin, hair, teeth, turning into a child; only after aging for the tenth time does the hunter finally die; one person killed this snake; wasps and burning ants appeared from the corpse]: Batchelor 1927, № 3d: 30-31 (=1927:146); islands Amami [1) A bird (or priest Kobodaishi) poured live water on a snake (and dead water on a person); the snake began to change skin and a person to die; 2) Journey and Tradition magazine 6-5, 1933, article by Shomu Nobori; In ancient times, humans were immortal because every year on January 1, the Chinchin bird (probably a mountain wagtail), God's messenger, brought the water of youth; people washed their faces with it and rejuvenated themselves; One day a bird was resting in a tree, and a crow attacked it and wanted to eat it; the bird flew away and at that moment spilled water on the tree. People have been dying ever since, and this tree is rejuvenating every year (shedding its bark)]: Naono Fukasawa 2015; (cf. Japanese (Tohoku, Iwate Prefecture) [even a person changes skin once a year; it is said that whoever sees a person shed their skin on June 1 will die]: Yoko Naono Fukasawa, personal 2015).

The Arctic. Baffin's Land [people migrate, leave mother and daughter alone; they collect insects to eat; so feel sorry for them, they ask the ermine to tear the old woman's skin; under the old woman is a new one, the old woman gets young; both women refuse to return to people, take insects as husbands; a year later, women return to people, tell their story]: Boas 1901b, No. 43:226; Western Greenland (Saqqaq) [people leave an exhausted old woman, leaving her only insects to eat; she feels sorry for them, prefers to die than eat them; a fox comes as if biting her skin, old falls down, a new one under her, the old woman becomes young; it was grateful insects that taught the fox to do this; the woman went to the insects, married the Fly]: Millman 2004:184.

The coast is the Plateau. Klamath [The snake wants people like her to shed their skin and get younger; The mole wants them to die; the beetle has the same opinion, for otherwise people will crush bugs]: Gatschet 1890:103-104 (Quail. Judson 1997:38-39).

(Wed. Honduras-Panama. Guatuso [old Nhácará Curíja wields fire; when she falls asleep, the Toad swallows the coals; the old woman steps on her stomach, the coals are regurgitated; the third time one coal remains in the toad; NC swam in the river, became young; did not want people to get so young either; and they would burn fire and boiling water]: Constela Umaña 1993, No. 4:132-136).

The Northern Andes. Embera: Isacsson 1993 [(Vasco 1985:127); one of the human souls goes through a stream of steam and rejuvenates; this is the Awandor heavenly river, from awa-awanu, "snake skin change"]: 71; Wassen 1933:107 [ a magical wife takes a man to the underworld, he bathes there to change his skin], 110 [recorded by Nordenskiöld in 1927; the devil wanted half of the people Karagabi made; decided to compete, devil made bitter reeds out of a stick, and K. made sweet; so the devil did not get people; K. made men in San Juan and women at the mouth of the Rio Baudo; made immortal people out of wood, but they went to the lower world, they there are no anus, they feed on the smell of food; after cutting his hand, K. does not want to use wood anymore, sculpts people from clay, they are mortal; if they were not from clay, they would change their skin like snakes and crustaceans] ; kogi [when god gets old, he changes clothes and becomes young again]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985 (2), No. 5:37-38; yupa [the first person who died brought a calebas of living water from another world; became call his wife to wash his dead body; the wife did not hear, but the snake, the cricket, the cancer came and came; now they change their skin and are immortal; when he saw that there were no people, that man said that no more will return]: Villamañan 1982, No. 1:19.

Llanos. Sicuani: Wilbert, Simoneau 1992, No. 35 [Matsuludani (Mt.) sees a naked woman, sleeps in a hammock, ejaculates, a woman collects his sperm in a vessel, where the boy Maduedani appears (Md.); runs for father; he kills him, rubs him in powder, Md. immediately resurrects him; Mts. brings him home; Md. sucks pineapples without cutting them; kills deer with a gun (another son Mts does not have firearms); Mts. . makes a woman out of wax, she melts under the sun; from clay - dissolves in water; Hd. stomps on the ground, people come out of the hole; white - along with pets, mosquito nets and other property; Hmm teaches what to do with cattle products, Indians don't listen to it; makes a lake for people to swim in it, change their skin and become younger; snakes, crocodiles, spiders, grasshoppers climb into the water; people are afraid of them, they refuse to even pour themselves from the calebasa; they remain mortal; Md. rises to heaven], 36 [Furnáminali tells people to jump into the lake where the snake Tzavalivali lives, the grandmother of all wild creatures; people are afraid; now only snakes and spiders change skin; F. tells us how to process cattle products, Indians don't listen; they're afraid to take a worm cigar; creoles take it, it becomes a cigar, they smoke]: 166-170, 172-173.

Southern Venezuela. Sanema: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 189 [(Wilbert 196:232-233); the jaguar ate a pregnant woman, the Toad asked to leave the uterus, Omao and Soao were born; the Jaguar wanted to kill them, they jumped on tree; he climbed after them, they jumped, he fell and killed; O. was looking for a solid tree to make people; S. hurried, made it out of soft, now they are dying; for this O. threw him on the wasp nest; out of hard O. made snakes; they do not die, but renew themselves by changing their skin; O. caught fish, put them in the basket, told S. not to touch; began to try to catch butterflies to make women out of them; when he almost caught them, heard a scream; it was S. who tried to copulate with the woman in the basket; she ran away; O. went to heaven in anger], 190 [(Colchester 1981:37-38; quail in Wilbert 1963:232-233); Omao was about to do people made of hard wood that sheds bark so that after swimming in the river they would shed their skin and become younger; the serpent was going to be made of soft wood; his stupid brother Soave brings him soft wood to make people; now they are mortal; O. went to heaven in anger; O. decided to make anacondas die as soon as they give birth to young, and people shed their old skin and become young; this it would be possible if humans were made of hard wood]: 372-374, 375-376; Yanomami [in old age, people changed skin in the river like snakes; this ability was given to them by the lunar deity Poré/ Perimbó, living as a snake (red jiboya) in a lake of blood (only Becher believes that the Yanomami moon is dual, masculine and feminine; in other sources, the Month is male); woman Petamí had just changed her skin in the river; her son Karumá was excited at the sight of his younger mother and raped her; P/P put the skin his mother had shed on his body, K. himself turned into an old woman; after that, P/P deprived all people of immortality; but their souls, after cremation with smoke, rise to the moon and later return to earth]: Becher 1974:29 in Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 37:88-89; yanomam [Omamë wanted to tie Tëbërësikë's daughter's hammock to a hardwood pole that changes bark; Yoasi hurried up, put up a softwood pole, cleaned it of it soft bark; therefore, people do not change their skin, do not get younger, but die]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 191:376-377.

Guiana. Varrau [snakes obey God's order to mourn the first person who dies; they, not humans, change their skin and do not die]: Wilbert 1970, No. 145:308-309; Dominica's Caribbean [belief in the immortality of beings like crabs and snakes that shed their shells or skin]: Taylor 1951:274; tamanak [before retiring to heaven, Amaliwaca screams in a changed voice, Change your skin; in response an old woman gasped maliciously, he shouted again, Be mortal]: Schomburgk 1848:320 in Goeje 1943, No. d29:117; in Roth 1915, No. 64:150-151; in Frazer 1913:71; curl [Kururumanni (Kororromanna) comes down to earth to see how the people he created live; they are trying to kill him; so he takes immortality away from humans and gives it to creatures that change skin - snakes, lizards, beetles]: Schomburgk, 1847- 1848 (2) :319 (paraphrase in Roth 1915, No. 64:150; in Frazer 1913:70); Guyanese Carinha: Brett 1880 [humans could renew themselves by changing their skin like snakes]: 107-108; Gillin 1936 [snakes are immortal because they change skin and get young again; so do crabs]: 187; kalinya [mother goddess (=snake) changes skin and does not get old]: Goeje 1943, № b1, d29:26, 117; aparai [people used to change their skin like spiders; the deceased returned five days later with new skin; one evil spirit rammed the fresh grave, the deceased did not return, death became final]: Rauschert 1967, No. 5:180; Kashuyan (Arikena) [Purá wanted people not to die, told them to dive into a hot liquid vessel (orinóimo) so that they would change their skin; people did not dare, and the snake, kakerlak and the spider would bathe and change their skin]: Kruse 1955, No. 15:409.

Western Amazon. If not otherwise: snakes, lizards, trees, but not humans answer the call and change their skin. Sekoya [before going to heaven, Ñañe Month tells people not to sleep; they sleep, do not hear the call, so they do not change their skin and are mortal; answered lizards, snakes, trees that change skin or bark; an old woman also heard; went and changed her skin, came back young, married her nephew; he notices that she makes a fire like his grandmother; finds old skin ("body"), tries to hug, but there's nothing there; he's getting sick; grandma went, put on her old skin, came back; both died]: Cipolletti 1988, No. 9:73-75; mayhuna [when a gray-haired old woman came to the river to clean the fish she had gave Ñukečik( "great caiman", "father of corn", "earthquake maker"), he touched her, her old skin came off, the old woman became young; her daughter came to her, her house is full of fish; & #209;. tells a woman's daughter not to sleep before dawn; calls her, but she sleeps, and snakes, lizards, and trees respond; since then they change their skin or bark and rejuvenate, but people don't]: Bellier 1991b, No. 12:232- 233; shuar: Pelizzaro 1990 (=1993): 53 [crickets convinced the ogre that when burned he would change his skin and rejuvenate; the cannibal burned down], 170-171 [to prevent people from dying, Ayampúm told the Snake, the Lizard and Cancer take the drug; the Snake and Cancer went to their wives, and the Lizard was ill from the drug and he did not respond to A.'s call; for this A. deprived them of their human appearance, took their ears (did not listen to him); ordered them to change their skin so that everyone knew that because of them, people had lost their immortality; A. wanted the drug to bring immortality, so it was only suitable for lesser evils].

NW Amazon. Karijona [Kuwai hears laughter from a fragrant tree; carves a woman, makes her vagina with a monkey's tail; arranged a party, climbed a palm tree for fruit, Vultures made him witchcraft fall off the tree, die temporarily; his wife fell in love with the Vulture Chief; Vultures began to cut K.'s corpse with knives, but the knives bounced; when their leader came, K. grabbed him, plucked him, and the last feather could pull out only with his teeth, felt pain, and since then there has been a toothache; Vulture wanted people to die from it, but K. did not agree; K. called everyone, determined behaviors; for example, who Will give birth to many cubs at once? Dogs, so they have a lot of puppies; when they get old, whether they will die or change their skin; wild guayava answered, since then it has changed its bark; the people guarding Vulture fell asleep, his feathers grew, he flew away; when K. was not at home, the Vultures returned, took the woman away; K. met a waterfowl (Snake), she was collecting grass for the Vultures party; said that a new chichu was preparing a woman, K. identified her as his wife; the bird gave K. wings, he flew to heaven; in the guise of an old man he began to dance at the festival; in the morning the Vultures went fishing (i.e. worms in corpses); K. identified his wife by how she cooked, she hit-how he cut wood; on the way home, K. smeared his wife with honey to repel the smell of vultures; her children remained in heaven from Vulture; his wife went to Drake, K. brought her back again; her next lover is the owner of the waters Kanakanañi; calling him, a woman spanks an inverted calebas on the water; two sons of a waterbird tell K. about this; he summons the monster with the same signal ; water parts, maloka (house) and fruit trees appear; Kuwai sends two gadflies to bite Kanakananyi into his testicles; he does not react to yellow bites, dies from black ones; Kuwait cuts off his penis, sprinkles with pepper and salt, gives her wife instead of a palm larva, as if inadvertently breaks all the water vessels; the woman runs to the river to drink, Kuwai kills her with a club, she turns into a river dolphin; everything dolphins are her children; the burning smut in her hand became a stingray, the Kuwai club became an electric eel]: Schindler 1979, No. 3:56-69 (about changing skin to p. 61); Vaupes District (ethnicity not specified) [deity offers a narcotic drink of immortality; snakes, spiders drink and change skin; people refuse to drink]: Brüzzi 1994:71; ufaina [Tufana told everyone not to sleep in Maloka that night, because in the middle of the night He will have to answer; but everyone fell asleep; in the middle of the night T. called, but only the youngest answered; T. said he was younger, but answered like an older one, turned him into a cricket; so the cricket changes his skin; everyone who changes skin answered - snakes, spiders, Kurupira (forest spirit); if people answered, they would change their skin and rejuvenate themselves; T. told us to talk about the deceased that he was resting; in a week we should cook hot water, dig up from the grave; a week later one came out of the grave, but he smelled bad; the cricket said this, the dead man was ashamed, he returned to the grave; T.: people will die because of the cricket finally, the cricket will remain a cricket]: Hildebrand 1975, № XXIX: 360-361; letuama [like ufain]: Palma 1984:167-168; macuna [yurupari instruments (Je) were at Rômikmu ( Shaman woman) and other women; four Ayawa brothers stole them, hid them by the river bank; a woman hid one yurupari in her vagina since the women were menstruating; R. began to look for one of A., noticed rotten leaves (they remained when he dived into the water), guessed that the brothers stole yurupari; A. suggested that people live forever; R. to grow up, grow old, die; snakes said that will not die, but replace their skin; grasshoppers (grillos) - that they don't need females to reproduce their own kind]: Århem et al. 2004:449; yukuna [land was born, humans were born from a big egg; some of the eggs are intact, people will come out of them at the end of the world; Tupana told people to say: I'm like the sun, like water and like stone; but only snakes said, so they change their skin and don't die]: Hammen 1992:11; Barasana [Romi-Kumu ("Shaman Woman") changes her skin after bathing every morning; gave a calebas filled with her menstrual blood (this is the Pleiades, blood is wax at the same time, this calebas also has hers vagina) to people, but they refused to drink; she puts it between her legs, snakes and insects drink from it and change their skin]: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, No. 1B, 1C: 185 [women live longer than men because they constantly renew blood; menstruation is like a change in skin from the inside], 264, 265 (=1982:196-197); tucano [God fills a vessel, tells it to eat; snakes, spiders, all animals eat, change skin, are immortal; people are afraid]: Fulop 1954:113-114, 125; chikuna: Nimuendaju 1952:135 [Dioi and Epi got people out of the water, they were immortal; they now live far east with D. or where they were created; girl during the first period, while in the ritual hut, did not respond to D.'s call, who, accompanied by other immortals, offered to follow him; answered the call of the spirit dya (old age); he went in to her, took off his skin, put it on the girl, and put her skin on himself, left; the mother found a wrinkled old woman in the hut], 135-136 [the girl was waiting for initiation; asked the immortals who came in to make her immortal as well; Among those invited to the party were Mëtarë (identified as a turtle in lingua geral) and his fiancée; she did not like him because he ate only tree mushrooms; she and her lover Falcon painted each other on the street; the tapir's skin with the guests sitting on it began to rise to the sky; the brother threw a rope to M.'s bride, it broke off, the girl turned into a night bird, calling her brother plaintively; M. broke vessels with the drink prepared, it contained a lot of worms; ants and everyone who changes skin drank it; those who rose on their skin can be seen as a halo around the moon or like the Pleiades]; yagua: Chaumeil 1983 [God brought fire, invited people to enter it to become immortal; people were frightened, only one old woman came in; she passed from world to world after the destruction of the previous one; snakes and trees also entered, dropping, they became immortal]: 90; Powlison 1993, No. 13 [The sun tells people to go through fire and become immortal; but only snakes, trees, and other creatures that periodically have passed are being updated; some old woman has passed]: 47.

Central Amazon. Maue [all animals dream of marrying the beautiful Onhiamuaçabé; the snake left a pleasant smell on the trail, O. stopped, the Snake touched her leg unnoticed, O. gave birth to a boy; The wife's brothers drove them away; the boy secretly came to pick the fruits of the Brazilian nut that grew near the brothers' house; they killed him; his mother planted his eyes, and the left grew a false guarana (Paullinia cupana), from the right is real; joined the parts of her son's body, rubbed them with leaves, buried them; a wild cat, a coatá monkey, wild pigs and other animals come out of his grave; then the first maue came out - resurrected boy; his mother put his clay teeth in, so his teeth deteriorate; she started washing the boy, but her brothers came and told him not to wash; so people don't change their skin like snakes]: Pereira 1954:120-126; 1980 (2): 729-733; The Middle Amazon [a woman gets pregnant by a demon, gives birth to a snake; he is always with her; one day he climbs a tree, she runs away; he goes up to heaven where she is now visible (Milky Way?) ; people sleep, don't hear his call; reptiles and trees hear, they now change their skin and don't die]: Barbosa Rodrigues 1890:234-235; katawishi (Lake Teffe) [Yuwaruna black jaguar wife tried seduce her husband's brothers; they killed her on the shore, the boy from the womb rushed into the river; one of her husband's three unmarried sisters saw a boy combing his moths by the water; could not catch it; the father asked daughters bury him in the sand, leaving his hands free; grabbed him, the boy cried; does not listen to soothing songs; stops when the Owl sings, When you grow up, you will avenge the mother killed by jaguars; grandfather He hides from his grandson where his uncles are; the grandson pulls out his grandfather's gray hair, makes a rope, she reaches for his grandfather, he finds out that his uncle is not far away; sets fire to his uncle's house, cuts off his sleeping grandfather's head, cooks; when the dead man's daughters open the pot, the boy kills them with a club; some uncles did not burn; the boy made a bridge over the river, said that it was necessary to escape from the flood on the mountain on the other side; the uncles went the boy brought down the bridge, they drowned; the boy said he would rise to the sky, he was the Rainbow; whoever does not want to die must answer; at midnight people slept, answered a lizard, a snake, a spider, a cockroach, a scorpion, a crab, A tree that sheds its bark every year; people don't shed their skin and die]: Tastevin 1925:188-190.

Eastern Amazon. Spiking [people greet the Death boat, not God; snakes, trees, rocks don't welcome death; they change their skin and become young]: Nimuendaju 1922:385; juruna [God regularly changes skin after bathing and becomes young]: Villas Boas, Villas Boas 1973:249; tenetehara [a girl meets a snake, takes it as a lover; gives birth to an adult son; he comes out of her womb, makes arrows in the forest, returns to the womb for the night; the girl's brother finds out about this, advises her to hide while her son is away; he rises to heaven, breaks his bow and arrows there, they turn into stars; this Only a spider sees; since then, only spiders change their skin and don't die, and humans and animals have lost this ability]: Wagley, Galvão 1949, No. 24:149; urubu: Huxley 1956 [first man makes humans mortals because he does not pay attention to the call of a tree that periodically sheds its bark and is therefore immortal]: 92-93 (quoted in Weiss 1975:486-487); Ribeiro 2002:421 [Maïra did not want humans died, made them like snakes that shed their skin and were getting younger; told them not to sleep, announced that people would be like the Mirá-kourousá tree, which sheds its bark and does not age; but people slept and did not these trees, snakes and spiders answered and answered; since then, people have been dying and going to heaven to see Maira's son], 499 [our ancestors die because they overslept; snakes did not sleep and answered (Maira), so they change their skin and do not are dying; prawns and crabs also responded].

Central Andes. Huanca [the country of Huanca was a black lake; the inhabitants of its shores harvested poor crops; Viracocha asks the god Tulumaña (Rainbow) to help them; T. produces a snake from his chest Amalu, who has bat wings; he defeats water monsters, but requires people to eat more and more; rejuvenates every year, shedding his skin like a snake; V. asks T. to destroy A.; T. produces the second A. with darker scales; they fight each other, but both are reborn; V. creates Thunder (Aulith, Spanish. Rayo) and Wind (Vaiva); A. hide in the depths of the lake; Thunder destroys rocks, Wind drives water out of the lake; A. try to fly to the sky, Wind and Thunder kill them, they turn into rocks; theirs Sons sometimes climb clouds, produce hail; Thunder and Wind drive them back]: Villanes Cairo 1978:52-54.

Montagna - Jurua. Ashaninka (river campas) [Aviveri consistently asks hard wood, stone, and wood that sheds bark, but gets no answer; then he makes people out of clay; so they are mortal ]: Weiss 1975:407-408; machigenga [spirits bathe in the sky river, get young again]: Baer 1984 [good spirits bathe in the heavenly river (Milky Way), change skin and rejuvenate]: 154, 228; Pereira MS [two sisters marry two spirits; other men kill rivals with arrows; spirits rise to heaven to renew their bodies; wives follow them, forget relatives on earth], 23 April 1996; Pio Aza 1923 [change skin]: 396; amahuaca [not humans, but snakes, insects and trees hear God's order to change their skin]: Cordova-Rios, Lamb 1971:122-123; cachinahua [it rained, thunderstorm has begun the sky fell, changed places with the earth, everyone died; a woman was killed by lightning in the sky, she was thrown to the ground; the Crab opened her womb, found the boy Mana and the girl alive; they grew up, got married, gave birth son and daughter; at first it was light all the time, M. let out the night; his father asked him to kill; ate the toad brought by his son; said that he would go up to the sky, shout to change his skin, must be answered; The next day, the father's soul rose, the son did not hear well, others did not hear, but heard snakes, lizards, trees; now they change their skin and people are dying]: d'Abreu in Koch-Grünberg 1921, No. 84:229-232; in Metraux 1948a: 29-30; characterbet [after the destruction of the ancient world, all humans and animals escaped on the Wanamei tree; before sunrise, after the command, it was necessary to change their skin in silence before sunrise; the sun had not yet appeared when the black hawk (gavilán) commanded to change skin; but the colorful hawk sang before the black hawk had time to change skin; so people do not change skin and die]: Calífano 1980:126-127.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Arua [the creator of Ngurá doesn't die; when he gets old, he sheds her skin like calango {shrimp?} or a snake, becomes like a child]: Leonel Queiroz et al. 1988:20.

Southern Amazon. Kayabi: Grünberg 1970 [humans refuse, and reptiles, insects, spiders bathe in a vessel of boiling immortality water, change their skin]: 163; Pereira 1995, No. 76 [Janerup invited everyone to swim in a vessel of boiling water (which was actually cold); only a snake, a lizard, a scorpion, a cricket, a beetle, and other molting insects dared; they change skin and are immortal], 105 [the old woman bathes, changes skin, rejuvenates; men fall in love with it]: 116, 128; nambikwara [the young man dreams of his mother being young again because she is no longer able to cook; the mother thought about the same thing; goes to in a stream, bathes, takes off her skin, as snakes and lizards do, becomes young; hides her skin in a tree; tells her grandchildren not to touch it; they shoot in the skin with bows; the woman cries, puts on an old one skin, aged and dead; that's why people are now dying]: Pereira 1983, No. 25:41-42 (=1974:1-2); Iranian woman [girl gets pregnant from her lover visiting her at night; smears his face with genipus juice; in the morning recognizes the youngest of his two brothers; he marries her; they come to the house of two old women; they swim, get younger; the brother turns into a Month, says that he will also rejuvenate by swimming in a certain lake and shedding old skin]: Pereira 1985, No. 13:83-84; trumay [Vani Vani wanted people to rejuvenate; told them to jump into boiling water; they did not dare, and lizards, insects, have jumped and ever since molt; the people of the Sun and the Month were bees; they also jumped into boiling water and almost died; at the festival, one person copulated with the wives of the Sun and the Month; immediately the fire went out, the water cooled down (i.e. more Is it impossible to rejuvenate?)] : Monod Becquelin 1975, No. 9:65-66; Kamayura [Kwat (The Sun) boiled water in a vessel, told people to jump into boiling water, said that only old skin would peel off; but they did not dare; the snake jumped, went out without old skin rejuvenated; same - cockroach, grasshopper, spider; Sun and Month said that since humans didn't jump, it would be impossible]: Münzel 1973:148-149; bakairi [deity rises to heaven , creates a lake there, bathes every day, changing skin and rejuvenating]: Abreu 1938:225 in Blixen 1994:20.

Eastern Brazil. Karazha [see motif D7; Ioloni catches the vulture, the master of the sun, to make the days longer; I.'s wife tells him to ask the celestials about the secret of immortality; when he flies away, the owner of the sun screams answer; some animals (snakes?) can hear it , trees now shedding old bark; people don't hear, remain mortal]: Aytai 1979:10-11; kayapo (shikrin) [Vidal 1977; Vuairoro changes the skin of those who come to him, making old people young; one man seduced his wife B; he waxed his anus, turned him into a frog; no one else dared to come to V., people were no longer younger]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1984a, No. 176:514-515.

Chaco. Ayoreo: Wilbert, Simoneau 1989b, No. 69 [The month revives every month; the Sorioco tree sheds its bark and gets younger; but people decide to become like a tapir that is thick and lose immortality], 72 [The month revives every month, the Toko tree (rubber) sheds its bark and gets younger, but people choose tapir as an example, so they are mortal; the Katade tree (produces many shoots) advises them to be like it and have lots of children; people followed his advice]: 118-119, 121-122; matako [Metraux 1939:22; Tawkxwax trickster could walk underwater; once tired and died; but threw it away old skin, skull and bones, changes skin, took a new body and dived again; like a snake, he can shed his skin and continue to live]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1982a, No. 122:231; nivacle [ugly man changes skin and becomes handsome after God washes it with boiling water]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1987b, No. 238:560.