Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H49. The killed dog sought to save the child, Th B524.1.4.1; B221.2.2; ATU 178A. .11.12.14.-.17.21.-.23.27.-.31.34.

A dog or other animal kills a creature that threatened a young child. The owner or other people mistake the savior for the aggressor and kill him.

Zigula, Mungaka, Tunisian Arabs, Spanish, Irish, British, Welsh, Friesians, Flemish, Germans, Iraqis, Tibetans, Thais, Khmu, Panchatantra, Hindi (?) , Oriya, Agaria, Tamils, Sinhales, Ancient Greece, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Hungarians, Czechs, Poles, Russian written tradition, (Russians), Ukrainians (Transcarpathia, Hutsulshchina), Kalmyks, Avars, Armenians, Kurds, Persians, Baluchis, Danes, Faroese, Finns, Karelians, Buryats, Khalkha (?) -Mongols, Inner Mongolian Mongols, Mongors, Tuvans.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Zigula [the merchant has a son; the teacher dreamed that the merchant is going to kill his son; advises the young man to remain silent when he goes to his father; he is silent; the father's wife complains to her husband that his son tried her seduce; the father sends a servant to kill the young man, the servant lets him go; told the merchant the story of how the couple began to work in the fields, leaving the baby in the shade; a snake crawled to him, but the dog killed her; wife saw the dog's bloody mouth, thought it killed the baby, the husband killed the dog; another servant spoke about a man riding a donkey through the desert; saw it dripping {off a cliff?} liquid, was about to drink; the donkey knocked over the bowl, the man killed the donkey in anger; then realized that it was pus flowing from the corpse of a snake; the young man spoke, talked about the teacher's dream and his stepmother's attempt seduce, father admitted he was wrong]: Arewa 1961, No. 3506:176-178.

West Africa. Mungaka [the teacher tells a story at school so that the children can draw the participants later; the husband and wife went to work in the field, leaving the baby under the protection of the dog; a lion broke in, the dog defeated him, killed and hid the carcass; took the child out of the crib and put it under another bed; the wife was the first to return; seeing the dog's bloody mouth and not seeing the baby in the crib, she screamed and told her husband shoot the dog; he did it; everything soon became clear; the dog was solemnly buried; the children drew a lion, a dog, etc.]: Meyer 1942, No. 5:155-158.

North Africa. Tunisian Arabs: El-Shamy 2004, No. 178A: 73.

Southern Europe. Spaniards [parents left the little boy at home and he went to the forest; the dog was with him; wolves attacked, the dog saved the boy by putting a tree in the hollow and guarding; brought him home in the morning; the father aimed a gun to kill the dog, but his mother stopped him; the boy told everything]: Camarena, Chevalier 1997, No. 178A: 322-323.

Western Europe. Irish, British, Welsh, Friesians, Flemish: Uther 2004 (1), No. 178A: 122; Germans [a snake crawls to the baby's cradle; knocking over the cradle, the hound kills a snake; a knight who comes in sees blood on the dog's face, kills the dog with a sword; when he understands what is going on, he buries the hound; the castle is then empty]: Johannes Rauli, 1520s, in Schmitt 2000 (1979): 14-15, 67.

Western Asia. Iraqi Arabs [(insertion story); husband and wife finally have a child; he is guarded by a dog; one day she saw a snake wrap around the cradle; she killed a snake; mother, seeing blood on the dog's face, decided that she bit to death the child, the father killed the dog; when they saw the snake's corpse, both bitterly repented]: Stevens 2006:259-260.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibet (written sources): Yeongdong 1989, No. 41 [the mistress left her newborn son at home; the domestic mongoose killed a poisonous snake crawling towards the child; the woman saw a bloody mongoose, killed him, bitterly repented]: 73-75; Yao 1986 [the hermit washed his clothes in the river, the deer drank water, gave birth to a beautiful girl, the hermit adopted her; the hunter chased the deer, saw the girl told the king; the hermit agreed to give the girl if the king converted to Buddhism; 2,500 concubines and the former wife wanted to lime a new one; she found out that the hermit had given the queen a protective necklace; Having crept into trust, the witch replaces the beads; smears the queen's face with blood, puts parts of the corpse under the pillow; the king wants to kill his wife, the parrot interferes; the same, when the witch cut off the elephant's trunk, she put the queen ; the parrot tells how a woman left the cat to watch the baby; the cat killed the snake, went out to the owner, her mouth was bleeding, the owner decided that the cat bit the child, killed her, then repented (p. 110-111); the third time the witch killed the king's younger brother, smeared the queen's mouth with blood; the king killed the parrot, ordered the queen to be thrown into the fetid sea of blood; three executed men took the queen there, only The elder decided to quit; she turned to Buddha, was tormented, went out, took the form of a nun; the former queen and witch came to repent to her, told her everything, the king overheard; the nun began again Queen, forgave her pursuers]: 100-114.

Burma - Indochina. Khmu: Lyndell et al. 1977ff (4): 94ff in Uther 2004 (1), No. 178A: 122; Thais [cobra killed child, mongoose killed cobra; father came back, saw dead child and bloody mongoose, killed mongoose; then discovered the corpse of a cobra]: Kornev 1963:171-172.

South Asia. Panchatantra, pp.315-506 (text publications and similar variants in Bødger 1957, No. 100-108:21-22; NW India [mother tied a mongoose, left the child; a cobra crawled out to him, bit him , disappeared into the hole; Mongoose ate a leash, ran to the forest for medicine; the mother thought that Mongoose bit the child, killed him; when she saw a spine in Mongoose's teeth, she gave it to the baby, he came to life]: Clouston at Elwin 1944:294-295; Oriya (dombo) [king, minister, scribe and messenger married at the same time and each had a son; sons grew up together and decided to leave to earn money and become rich; hired someone else king; they must guard his bedchamber; first of all, the prince; he sees the snake crawling towards the baby; killed the snake, but a drop of blood splashed the wound on his chest; the prince decided that the baby would start sucking and he was poisoned, wiped off a drop; at that time the king woke up, but did not understand what was going on; called a new guard, the minister's son; when he saw the snake killed, he understood everything and told the king a story; the river overflowed and those living near the shore asked the merchant to shelter them; among them was a heron; she brought fruit and said that it was amrita, who brings immortality; the heron does not want it only for himself, even if the merchant and his the wife will also taste it; the merchant laid the fruit for a while; at night the snake injected poison into it; the merchant's wife gave birth and he wanted to give a piece of fruit to the newborn as well; but still started with a rooster; he pecked and died immediately; the merchant twisted the heron's head; then it was the turn of the scribe's son; he tells how a peasant stopped under a tree and began to strangle him by a boa constrictor; the dog was afraid of the boa constrictor, but the owner sent her to bring a knife and cut the snake; when the owner left, the dog tore the deceased boa constrictor and returned with a bloody face; the owner decided that she picked up his cow and killed him; the messenger's son tells how the woman went to wash the river and left the cat to watch the baby; when she saw the snake, the cat killed it, and the child began to scream; the cat followed the owner; she saw blood on the cat's face and killed the cat; in the morning the king wanted to fire four guards, who called him ungrateful; only when he saw the snake did the king understand everything; he generously rewarded all four, married the prince to his daughter, the minister's son to the minister's daughter, the scribe's son to his daughter, the scribe's son to his daughter scribe, son of a messenger to a messenger's daughter]: Tauscher 1959, No. 42:93-95; agaria: Elwin 1944, No. 1 (Khuntia Chokh) [walking past the stone, the shepherd taps it 5 times every day with his staff; a stone in the reward promises to fulfill the shepherd's wish; he wants to understand the language of animals; the stone makes it a condition not to tell others about it, otherwise the shepherd will turn into stone; the shepherd hears buffalo talking: under Vessels with money are buried in a tree; the wife demands to tell us what her husband is so concerned about; checking his wife, he says that when he goes out of need, crows fly out of need and blood is shed; the wife talks about this Raja wife; she thinks that the shepherd's wife is her husband's mistress; the Raja summoned the shepherd, who showed him where the treasure was; the Raja demanded to tell everything; the shepherd asks him to come to his senses, tells two stories; 1) the snake bit the child; the mongoose killed the snake, ran into the forest for medicine; the owner thought that the mongoose killed the child, killed the mongoose, noticed a spine in his mouth, revived the child, bitterly regretted mongoose; 2) the man left his dog as collateral to the rich man; the dog helped find the stolen money; the rich man sent it with money and a note to the owner; he thought that the dog ran away, killed it; then read note; but the Raja is adamant, the shepherd told everything, is petrified; now the Raja's wife demands the same from him, otherwise she will commit suicide; the Raja is ready to do it, but hears the conversation between the goat and the goat; the goat tells the goat get grass for her on a steep slope; the goat refuses to do it-he doesn't want to fall off and kill for his wife, let him get it; the raja tells his wife she can kill herself if she wants to], 2 [ the parents married five sons, the daughter stayed with them; the sons found and brought home a dead ox; the parents gave the liver to their daughter, and the daughters-in-law wanted to eat the liver themselves; the brothers asked the sister to drink; she cut her hand, blood dripped into the water, the brothers liked the taste; the brothers took her sister to the forest to pick mangoes, killed her; her dog brought her head home; the father thought he killed his daughter, beat the dog to death ; the brothers brought home their sister's sliced meat; when they saw the head, they were frightened and ran away; the parents understood who the murderers were; they carried the heads of their daughter and dog to the sadhu on Mount Elephants; he woke up, frightened, told heads to become who they were, leave; the girl and the dog came to life, stayed on the mountain, got married; the dog lived on the mountain, got married; fight; the girl and the dog would live their heads home; the father decided that the dog was dripping into water, the brothers liked the brothers who came; they went to another village, and the sister and husband, the dog, began to live with their parents]: 296-299, 375-376; Tamils: Blackburn 1996 [a total of 18 oral versions in South Asia on 10 languages; spouses keep a mongoose in the house, love it like their child (hereinafter, the mongoose probably kills a snake ready to bite a baby, etc.); the scene is depicted on an 8th century AD relief in the temple of Mallikardjuna ( Pattadakal, Karnataka)]: 495-500; Kingscote 1890, No. 13 [(continued, starting at M198; Alakapuri was ruled by the just king Alakesa; one of the four ministers heard crying in the temple of Kali; she cried herself goddess - the king is in danger; rice will be brought in the morning, he is poisoned with snake venom, only the first handful is dangerous; King Vijayanagara will send a basket with arrows in it; the king will ask him to open it and die; to him in A snake will enter the bedroom; if the king avoids these dangers, he will live to be 120 years old; the minister put the royal outfit on his servant; he went to the basket under the guise of a king, arrows pierced him, the king escaped; when He was going to eat rice, the minister asked for the first handful, the king was offended; the minister climbed into the bedroom, killed the snake, a drop of blood dripped on the queen's chest, he wiped it off with his little finger and cut it off; the queen woke up asked the king to execute the minister; three other ministers ask the king to consider the decision and give examples of haste; 1) the hunter owes the merchant, paid off the dog; she bit to death the lover of the merchant's wife, showed him the place where his wife had buried the body; the merchant kicked his wife out, sent the dog back to the hunter as a token of gratitude; the hunter met her along the way, thought she had run away and strangled her; when he found out what was going on, bitterly repented; 2) the brahmana had a long-awaited son; a snake crawled to the baby, the homemade mongoose killed her; when she saw blood on her face, the brahmana's wife decided that he had killed her baby, killed the mongoose ; understood the mistake; told her husband everything, committed suicide; the husband killed the child and also committed suicide; 3) the wife left the blind brahmana for her lover; the brahmana was saved by a husband and wife from the low caste, the husband ordered the wife should be a guide; but when they began to think about how to arrange the life of the blind man, he began to shout that a man from the lower caste wanted to take his wife away from him; the Raja ordered his husband to be hanged and his wife burned; brahman He deeply repented, the Raja found out about this, the execution of the spouses was canceled, the brahmana was burned; 4) the brahmana's pet parrot asked him to let go, brought mango seed, whose fruits rejuvenate; the brahmana took the seed to the king; a tree grew; the king gave fruit to an old servant, who died; his wife immolated himself; the brahmana's eye was pulled out; the brahmana and his wife killed a parrot and went to repent; an old woman decided commit suicide, ate the fruit, became young; it turns out that snake venom fell on a mango eaten by the servant; the king returned the brahmana, who became young, saw the light; but you can't return the parrot; {two more stories; king admits that he was in a hurry}]: 140-186; Sinhalese [(literary source; plug-in story); the widow has a small child and a hand mongoose; one day she came in and saw that the mongoose's face was covered in blood; hit him with a poker and killed him; then saw a snake torn to pieces that would otherwise bite a child; a woman died of grief, and then her child]: Parker 1914b: 27-28.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece [fearing a plot against his young son, the man hid the boy in a vessel; the dragon wrapped around the vessel drove away the attacking wolf; when he saw the dragon enter the father pierced both the dragon and the son with a dart; he learned from the shepherds that the dragon was protecting the child; burned him and his son at the same funeral fire; the city of Ophiteria got its name after this incident]: Pausanias 1994, vol. V, ch. 33:470-471; Bulgarians: Daskalova-Perkovska 1994, No. 178a [father sees his child and a dog with a bloody face above him; kills a dog, then sees that the child is sleeping, and a snake killed by a dog nearby; a man puts a monument on a dog's grave], 178c [a shepherd sees a dog and dead sheep; thinks they were killed by a dog, kills it; then sees a wolf killed by a dog; commits suicide]: 74; Hungarians [ the dog saved the child when a snake crawled to the cradle; when he saw blood on the dog's face, the father (servant) decided that the dog ate the child and killed it; seeing the child unharmed, the father arranges a lavish funeral for the dog] : Kovács 1987, No. 178A: 281-282; Macedonians: Uther 2004 (1), No. 178A: 122

Central Europe. Czechs: Uther 2004 (1), No. 178A: 122; Russians (1 source, apparently without specifying the place of recording) [Loyal dog: gnaws at a snake crawling to the baby's cradle and kills him; The father who comes, seeing blood flowing from the dog's wound, thinks that the dog has eaten the child and kills him; first ed. Petersburg, 1786]: SUS 1979, No. 178A: 83; Ukrainians (Transcarpathia, Hutsulshchina) [Loyal dog: undeservedly punished]: SUS 1979, No. 178:83; Russian written tradition [Bulgarian- Russian version of the Greek Stephanite and Ikhnilat, which is a rework of Kalila and Dimna (Synodal List of 1478): the poor man had a vessel of honey and oil next to his bed; at night he I began to think: "I will sell butter and honey for money and buy ten goats, and they will have the same number of kids in five months, and in five years I will have four hundred oxen, with them I will buy a hundred oxen and with their help I will sow the fields, I will be immensely enriched with the fruits of that crop and other fruits, I will build gable golden-domed houses, buy many slaves, take a wife who will give birth to me a child, and I will give him the name Pankalos, that is, Good, I will raise him properly. But if I see that he is negligent, I will beat him like this with this stick"; taking a stick nearby, the man hit the vessel and smashed it; his wife told him to sit with his little son; when she left, her husband the ruler called to him; a snake crawled up to the remaining child; weasel noticed her, jumped and pierced her teeth into her; the husband returned, saw that the weasel was covered with blood from the snake, and thought that she had eaten baby; he immediately hit the caress on the head and killed; when he entered the house, he found the baby whole and the snake torn to pieces; repenting, he cried bitterly]: Likhachev et al. 2003:266-269; Poles [snake is going to bite an unattended child; a dog kills a snake; seeing blood on its face, the owner killed the dog]: Krzyżanowski 1962, No. 520:169.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kalmyks: Basayev 2004, No. 163 [after reaching the age of four to five months, the children in the family disappear; the father goes to his Fate, she replies that the first child should be an animal; the father catches a ferret, he becomes him instead of a son; his own son is born, is at a fateful age; one day a ferret with a bloody face runs out to meet the mistress; she thinks that he killed the boy and tears off his head; finds a murdered boa constrictor next to his son playing (he killed children); tries in vain to put the ferret's head to the body]: 265-266; Basangova 2017, No. 73 [children in the family died; the clergyman advised have a cat; one day a cat and a boy were at home; a mother came up and saw a cat with a bloody face jump out of the house; she thought that the cat killed her child and hacked her; in the house she saw how son plays with a snake tail, and there is a dead snake nearby; grieved for the cat]: 139; Avars [mother went to visit, father on business, leaving the dog to protect his young son; the snake tried to bite him, dog She tore it apart; seeing the dog covered in blood, his father killed it; bitterly repented]: Saidov, Dalgat 1965:18-19; Armenians (Gyumri district) [(false story); the vizier calls the king, queen and all household members; after the feast leads to the yard to show the monkey; the baby is left alone in the cradle; the snake wants to sting the child, the king's dog kills the snake; the king sees blood on the dog's face, kills him; is upset to see a dead snake and a living child]: Khachatryants 1933:136 (=Ganalanyan 1965:110); Kurds: Jalil 1989, No. 25 [(insertion story); the couple successively dies six newborn sons; they stay overnight with the cradle of the seventh, the story); the couple successively dies six newborn sons; they stay overnight at the cradle of the seventh, fall down, see a cat on the child's chest; the father kills a cat, then they see a snake in her teeth, her father regrets what he did]: 254-255; (cf. Turks ["surprisingly, Turkey doesn't have this story"]: Eberhard, Boratav 1953:55).

Iran - Central Asia. Persians [Sinbad-name, S. 37-38; a snake is going to bite a sleeping child, a cat kills it, the owner sees blood on the cat's face, kills a cat, then sees a dead snake and bitterly repents]: Eberhard, Boratav 1953:55; Baluchis [wolf and dog]: Dames 1902:266

Baltoscandia. Danes, Faroese, Finns: Uther 2004 (1), No. 178a: 122; Karelians (People) [(Finnish publication 1934)]: Kecskeméti, Paunonen 1974, No. 178a: 221

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Unga Buryats [one Buryat's children died; he caught and raised an owl chick; in the evenings, he threw firewood into the fire with his nose, fanned the flame with his wings; one day the Buryat wife came in and saw that owl in blood; thought he ate the child, killed him with a log; it turned out that the owl ate the spirit of hell, which had previously killed children; the hostess cried, the children stopped dying]: Khangalov 1960, No. 37:39-40; Mongols (written and folklore sources) [cf. Tibet; some Mongolian texts include a mouse or dog rather than a mongoose, and a wild cat instead of a snake]: Yongdong 1989, No. 41:73-75; Inner Mongolian Mongols (Khorchins, Khoshun Khorchin east middle wing) [husband and wife had a small child and a white cat; they taught the cat to rock the baby in the cradle; husband and wife left home; the cat returned from the yard and saw a white mouse bit off the child's ear, grabbed and strangled the mouse; then she went to the child and licked the blood that was oozing from the bitten ear; at that time the owner of the house returned; she thought that the cat had bitten off the child's ear, licking blood, angrily threw it on the ground and killed it; then she noticed that there was a dead white mouse nearby with a piece of bitten ear in its mouth; only then did I understand who had attacked child, and was very sad that she killed the cat in vain]: Todayeva 1981:90; Mongors [the wolf saw a baby in the yard; the baby's father went out, leaving the monkey to guard; the wolf rushed at the baby, the monkey began to protect him desperately; the old neighbor took the baby; the father came back, saw that the child was gone, and the monkey was covered in blood killed her; a neighbor came in with the child in his arms; the father was desperate for what he had done]: Stuart, Limusishiden 1994:148-152; the Tuvans (Khemchik) [Khan was surrounded by wise men, he did not smoke or drink; but his wife died leaving her son; the khan remarried and now he was surrounded by drunks and smokers; one day, the khan was lying drunk, and his eight-year-old son was playing next to him; saw his new wife turn into a three-headed snake and crawled to the khan; the boy grabbed his sword and cut the snake in half; she became a woman again and began to shout that the boy had almost killed his father; the khan sent a close associate to take the boy to the counselor to behead him; but the counselor told the story he asked to tell the khan; the hunter hunted gazelles, stopped in the steppe under a tree; when he saw something dripping from the tree, he filled the bowl and wanted to drink, but a parrot flew up and turned the bowl over; the hunter grabbed the bow to kill a parrot, but then he saw a three-headed snake in the branches emitting poison; he mistook it for water; but the khan sent his son and his adviser to a sage living in the south; let him decapitate them; the chief sage too told a story; husband and wife have a baby and a dog; the dog saw a mangys-shulbus rise out of the ground to kill the child; the dog killed him; when they saw blood on her face, they killed the dog, and then realized what's the matter; now the khan sent his son and both wise men to the one who lives in the north; he told how the kitten scratched the puppy's face so that he would immediately rush after him and escape from the leopard; now khan sent them all to the one who lives in the east; he came to the khan and asked: how far are truth and lie; Khan: four fingers away (ear to eye); the sage dragged the hanshu to the temple, where she again became a shulbusikha; tore off her breasts, threw her into the fire; Khan ordered her to be burned; began to lead a decent life again]: Taube 1978, No. 51:259-263.