Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H4A. Interrupted update.

.11.-. (.38.52.) .

People no longer rejuvenate (usually they do not change their skin), because a person was disturbed at the time of renewal or did not recognize the old one in the renewed one. See H4 motif.

Chagga, Gogo, Congo, Luba, Subia, Dogon, Ewe, Lure, Lakalay, Manam, Dobu, Trobrians, Admiralty Islands, Gazelle Peninsula, Tolay Peninsula, Solomon Islands (Mono, Malaita, Guadalcanal, Addystone), Torres Strait Islands, New Hebrides (Oba, Pentecost, Malekula, Aneityum, Tanna), Yandé (New Caledonia), Palau, Toraja, Mori, Loilang, Tetum, Kay Islands, Fr. Babar (Southern Moluccas), (Japanese, Guatuso), Yanomami, Sekoya, Characterbet, Nambiquara.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Chagga [the child saw an old man or an old woman change her skin]; gogo [Hyena attacked a person who changed "his body"]; congo [mother went to see a deceased child who came to life and changed skin]; luba [1) the youngest wife entered the room where the eldest was changing her skin; 2) the old woman told her not to disturb her while she was changing her skin; the little girl forgot about it, opened the door behind which a sacrament was taking place; (people have not rejuvenated since then)]: 325; subia [the man's dog died, his wife did not want him to revive it; when her mother died, her husband first refused to revive it, but then he agreed; he left her in the hut, telling his wife not to open the door, and went for a new potion; the wife opened it, her mother died again, her husband did not revive her again, ordered her to be buried, saying that now all people will die]: Jacottet 1894, No. 3:672-673.

West Africa. Dogon [the dead old man waited for his soul, which went into the world of Yéban spirits (p. 55, 61-62: to become a snake, then a man again); but his son met him and spoke to him; out of shame that he was caught (in the process of renewal), the old man returned to the village because he could not go to Yéban afterwards; he died, this is his first death]: Griaule 1938:70; eve [grandson approached an old man who changed his skin ; he told me to keep quiet about it; the boy said, the old man died, people became mortal]: Abrahamsson 1951:62.

Sudan-East Africa. Lure [the old woman went home to change her skin, told her grandson not to call her; she had not yet removed her skin when her grandson screamed that the porridge was boiling; since then people have not changed their skin and have died].

Melanesia. The old woman removes her skin, gets younger. The child doesn't recognize her. The old woman has to wear old leather. Since then, aging has been irreversible and people have died. Manam; Lakalai; Dobu; Trobrians; Admiralty Islands; Gazelle Peninsula; Tolay [mother To Kabinana and To Karvuvu shed her skin and became a young girl ; Then Karvuva did not recognize her and asked her to put her old skin on again, found it in the river and brought it to his mother; Then Cabinana was furious: now it was not humans, but snakes that would shed their skin]: Janssen et al. 2012, No. 1:39; mono; Malaita (Solomon Islands); Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands): Anell 1964:3 [(Paravicini 1931:65); there was a spirit in the spring that made those who bathed in the spring young; old woman she swam, her little child did not recognize her, began to cry, her mother plunged again, asking her spirit to restore her former appearance; he returned her, but left the spring; after that people do not rejuvenate], 4 [(=Hogbin 1937:88); at first, both humans and snakes changed their skin and became younger; the woman left her mother's child, went to the garden; when the child fell asleep, the grandmother went to the river to change her skin; the child woke up and did not recognize her grandmother; she came back, put on discarded skin, said that from now on, only snakes would rejuvenate by shedding their skin]; Addystone Island (Solomon Islands) [people were immortal; one woman died, her two children took her to Mount Matendini; she returned as expected, but people did not recognize her because it had brightened and their mother was dark; she told them to kill the lizard, wrap it in leaves, take it to the same mountain; through For 4 days, they all came back to see, the lizard disappeared; when they came down, the mother said that now people would die, going forever into the spirit world, like a lizard and other animals; after that, the mother disappeared]: Hocart at Anell 1964:4-5; {Torres Strait Islands?} ; Both (New Hebrides): Codrington 1891 [people changed their skin like crabs and shells; two grandchildren got into a fight, grandma told them they wanted to die; they found the skin she had shed, punched it with sticks; her grandmother put it on, died immediately]: 283-284; Suas 1912, No. 5 [old Temborogo Ruruhi swam in the river, took off her skin, became younger; her little nephew did not recognize her, was frightened; she put on the old one again skin; people have not been getting younger since then]: 44; Pentecost [a man changed his skin, came to work with his two sons; once he put on old leather, his sons killed him because he lied to them {not entirely clear}; if they hadn't been killed, people would change their skin and die]: Codrington 1891:287; Big Nambas [old people took off their skin and rejuvenated; one old woman looked after the child; by the river she took off her skin, became young; the child did not recognize her, was scared; she put on her old skin again, since then people have aged and have not been reborn]: Deacon 1934:581; Tanna: Humphreys 1926 [woman gave birth late; left the baby on the shore, went into the water, her old skin came off, she came back young; the child did not want to recognize her mother; she returned to the sea, became a stone at the bottom, he is now visible; the child is a stone on the shore; they throw at him stones and sticks, because it is his fault that people do not rejuvenate]: 97; Ray, p. 151 in Williamson 1933 (2) [the old woman left the child in a recess on the rock, removed her old skin, became young, began to swim; her child didn't recognize it, didn't let her take it, she had to wear old leather, so people die]: 147; Aneytyum (New Hebrides): Anell 1964 [the spirit of Ihungö Raing fished islands in the ocean, lived in turtles shell; in his absence, his children poked the shell with toy spears, then burned it; so people are mortal]: 6; Gunn 1914 [while working in the garden, the old man took off his skin, became young; one day his two the grandchildren found their skin rolled up and got holes; wearing it, the old man began to tremble with the cold; said that now people would not live forever changing their skin, but would die]: 218; Yande Island (New Caledonia) [ Paimu Purehevasi invited his wife named Berangaat to change her skin and live forever; she said it was better to have children; the husband did not want to, went to the house to change his skin, did not tell his wife to follow; she came, the husband agreed get together with her, she gave birth to children, but her husband did not change his skin]: Leenhardt 1932:447 (translated to Permyakov 1970, No. 81:193).

Micronesia-Polynesia. Palau [the old woman has two sons and a daughter; the sons wanted her mother to live forever, went to the spirit of Tangrégoi, who gave a dracaena branch, ordered them to be lowered into the pool where their mother was swimming; she became young; daughter did not recognize her, mother swam again, became old again]: Anell 1964:6.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Toraja [people changed their skin like shrimps and snakes, and got younger; grandmother and grandson went to the water to change their skin; when the child saw a young woman, he did not recognize her as a grandmother; she wore old skin; after that people lost their ability to rejuvenate]: Adriani, Kruyt 1951:83 (paraphrase in Frazer 1919:70; similar version in Kruyt 1938, No. 8:434, 436-437); mori [it's time for the old woman change her skin; her daughter began to cry as if her mother was dead; the old woman began to repeat, Live like a stone; daughter, Live like a banana, the children will replace her; she has the last word]: Kruyt 1924 in Fischer 1932:213; loinang [people changed skin and got younger; an old woman went to water to change her skin; a man named Liko-likounon saw her by accident, got scared, asked what she was doing; a woman too I was scared, since then the skin can't be changed]: Kruyt 1930:479 in Fischer 1932:214; Fr. Babar (Southern Moluccas) [people didn't die changing their skin like snakes; when the old woman changed her skin, her old husband kicked her out; she took off her new skin (wearing the old one?) , people have been mortal ever since]: Riedel, p. 362 in Briffault 1927:644; Kai Islands [old people bathed, shedding their old skin and becoming young; when old Miminggung returned home as a young girl, her her grandson did not recognize her, continued to cry; she went back to the river in anger, put on her old skin; M. said that the locusts would shed their skin and renew themselves, and people would die, died on their own; first they died in very old age, but prematurely after the advent of witchcraft]: Anell 1964:2; Tetum: Vroklage 1952:129 [people renewed themselves like snakes; the old woman became young, but her children did not recognize her, did not they wanted to let them into the house; then she took on her former form in anger; told the children to cook the cobs in the pot; he cooked by himself, but the child broke the pot; the old woman cut off the ivy that connected heaven and earth and sky rose; it happened in Fatumea Talama], 130 [Lassiolat; the old woman climbed ivy into heaven for fire; when God saw her, she made her young; she went down, but her son did not recognize her, cut off ivy in anger; God moved the sky away from the ground, people began to die forever].

(Wed. Japan. The Japanese (Tohoku, Iwate Prefecture) [even a person changes skin once a year; it is said that whoever sees a person shed their skin on June 1 will die]: Naono Fukasawa 2015).

(Wed. Honduras - Panama. Guatuso [old Nhácará Curíja wields fire; when she falls asleep, the Toad swallows the coals; the old woman steps on her stomach, the coals are regurgitated; the third time one coal remains in the toad; NC swam in the river, became young; did not want people to get so young either; and they would burn fire and boiling water]: Constela Umaña 1993, No. 4:132-136).

Southern Venezuela. Yanomami; Yanomami [in old age, people changed their skin in the river like snakes; this ability was given to them by the lunar deity Poré/Perimbó, who lives as a snake (red jiboya) in a lake of blood ( only Becher believes that the Yanomami moon is dual in nature, male and female; in other sources, the Month is male); the woman Petamí has just changed her skin in the river; her son Karumá at the sight a younger mother was excited and raped her; P/P put the skin that his mother had shed on his body, K. turned into an old woman himself; after that, P/P deprived all people of immortality; but their souls after cremations with smoke rise to the moon and later return to earth]: Becher 1974:29 in Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 37:88-89.

Western Amazon. The nephew marries a younger old woman without getting to know her. Finds her old skin, she puts it back on. Sekoya.

Montagna - Jurua. Characterbet [before sunrise, after the command, you had to change your skin until sunrise; the sun had not yet appeared, the black hawk commanded, Change skin; but the motley hawk I sang before black had time to change their skin; since then, people change their skin and die]: Calífano 1980:126-127.

Southern Amazon. Nambikwara [the young man dreams of his mother being young again because she is no longer able to cook; his mother thought the same thing; goes to the stream, bathes, takes off her skin like snakes do and lizards, getting young; hiding her skin on a tree; telling her grandchildren not to touch it; they shoot at the skin with bows; the woman cries, puts on old skin, has aged and died; so people are now dying]: Pereira 1983, No. 25:41-42 (=1974:1-2).