Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H51. The Devil's Horse. (.10.) .

The horse is a predator or is associated with an opponent of God.

(Hottentots), Germans (Pomerania, Silesia, Mecklenburg, East Prussia), Limbu, Birkhor, Mundari, Santals, Kol, Haria, Korku, Oraons, Gondas, Serbs, Ancient Greece, Romanians, Hungarians, Gagauz people, Poles, Ukrainians (Podolia, Transcarpathia, Cherkasy, Chernigov), Belarusians (Pinsk, Brest), Russians (Tver, Kostroma, Vladimir, Bryansk), Abkhazians, Ossetians, Swans, Armenians (Lori), Zoroastrianism, Tajiks, Vakhans, Kalash, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, (Western Sami), Finns, Estonians, Seto, Veps, Lithuanians, Latvians, Komi.

(Wed. SW Africa. Hottentots [The Sun caught a horse but it could not carry the Sun; the ox carried the Sun on itself; the Sun cursed the Horse, which must now eat all the time and will not pass death]: Bleeck in Koropchevsky 1874:25-26).

(Wed. Southern Europe. {There are no figures for Spaniards, but the Quechuan-speaking Napos of eastern Ecuador have a clear European motive}. Napo [Snake, poisonous insects come to the mother of the deity; she turns them into a snake, insects; the Horse comes to eat leaves, drink water from the baby; the mother turns her into a horse, her meat inedible; Tapir comes, dried the baby's diapers with his breath; his mother blessed him, making his meat edible]: Mercier 1979:180-181; Italians (Puglia) [the ox warmed baby Jesus with his breathing, and the donkey cried and prevented him from sleeping; St. The Virgin gave him stupidity and the ox endowed him with patience and strength]: Kabakova 2006, No. 55:107).

Western Europe. Germans: Balzamo, Kaiser 2004, No. 50 (Pomerania) [the horse refused to transport Jesus across the river, saying it was eating now; I. told her to be hungry forever], 51 (Randow: at the Lower Oder on border with Poland) [the horse refused to transport Jesus across the river; he told her to be hungry forever; the bull agreed and is now chewing gum], 52 [the horse refused to transport Jesus across the river; he told her to be eternally hungry; the bull agreed and is now chewing gum; in the river, the bull stepped on cancer; Jesus comforted him by making the cancer have new clothes every year], 53 [the horse refused to transport Jesus across the river , because she had eyes on her legs; I. placed them on her head, and where they were, there were calluses]: 104, 104-105, 105, 106; Upper Silesia (published in German) [the horse refused the Savior a favor because he was not yet full; the Savior told him to be hungry forever]: Dähnhardt 1909:89; Pomerania: Dähnhardt 1909:89 [the horse grazing by the river, the Savior asked him to transport; the horse refused because he was not yet full; the Savior crossed himself, told the horse to eat only once a year], 89-90 [The Savior asked the horse to transport him across the river, he refused; the ox sent it; so the ox sent it; so the ox rests and chews gum, but the horse is not found in any way]; (cf. Germans (Rügen Island) [Jesus asked the horse to carry him across the river; at that time the horses' eyes were on their feet; horse: my eyes were wet; Jesus made the horses' eyes on their heads; but the place where the eyes used to be is still visible now; there is a horn growth]: Haas 1903, No. 165:150); the Germans (Rügen Island) [Jesus asked the horse to transport him across the river; she replied that it needed to first eat; and the ox heard and carried it; Jesus: Let the horse eat its fill only once a year, and let the ox eat only an hour to be full]: Haas 1903, No. 166:150-151; Germans (Mecklenburg) [Horse and Ox they grazed by the river; Christ asked the horse to transport it, he replied that he had not eaten yet; but the Ox did; Christ told the horse to eat half a day and still not eat enough, but let the bull have enough hour]: Bartsch 1879, No. 37.2:523 (=Dähnhardt 1909:90); Germans (East Prussia) [God urgently needed something from the horse and the horse said he should eat; God told him to eat forever and not be full]: Dähnhardt 1909:90.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Limbu [Niwa-Buma made the figure of the first man out of gold; before he could revive it, a monster in the form of a horse destroyed it out of envy for the perfection of creation; for this, the NB commanded horses walk not on two legs as before, but on four and be a pack animal; man and woman were made of ash and bird droppings]: Hermanns 1954:10-11.

South Asia. Birkhor [at first there is water everywhere, there is a lotus on the water, the great Sing-bonga spirit came to the surface at the core of the stem, told the Turtle to bring clay from the bottom; turtle: where will I leave the house? S.: take it with you (this is its shell); the water washed away the clay from the turtle's shell; The crab also could not bring it; the leech took it out by swallowing clay; S. squeezed out the clay from it, threw it in four directions, creating land; the land was moist and uneven, S. began to level it, but mountains remained in some places; threw seeds, forests appeared; then S. created a winged horse, and then sculpted the human figure and left it to dry; the horse came and trampled on it, fearing that the man would harness it; then S. made a dog and a new human figure; when the horse came again at night to trample on the man, the dog barked away; the figure dried up and S. her revived, but the joints did not bend; S. took his life and made a new man with bent joints]: Roy 1925:398-402; mundari: Osada 2010 [text A, author's entry: on the Ganges, at sea, we will create land field; for this purpose they sent Mother Turtle and Mother Crab; the Turtle put the ground on its shell, took the Crab with ticks, but when they rose, the water washed away the earth; they sent Mother Worm, Mother Leech, they drank the earth , spewed it out, urinating, earth appeared; stone and wood were created to decorate the earth; sculpted a human figure out of clay, left it to dry in the sun; for beauty they made a winged horse; a winged horse came from the east, came from the west, they trampled on the figure; made a male dog named Chaura, a female dog Baura, put them on guard; they drove away the winged horse that came from the east, drove away the one that came from the West; text B, the author's record, is almost identical]; Roy, ii, 201 in Elwin 1949 [Singbonga made the figures of a man and a woman; while they were not yet alive, the horse trampled on them so that people would later did not force her to work; S. sculpted new figures and created a spider to protect them; the spider protected them with a web, S. breathed life into them]: 19; Roy 1916:201-214 in Osada 2010 [the earth is covered with water, there are no stars in the sky; The old man ("Old One") created aquatic animals; told Crab to bring earth from under the water; he dived to the bottom, but while he was rising, the ground was washed away from his claws; the same with the Turtle (the ground was washed away from the surface of the shell ; the Earthworm swallows the earth, pops up, regurgitates into the palm of the Old Man; he makes the earth big, creates land and everything on it; sculpts the figure of a man out of clay; before he can put his soul into it, Horse came, trampled on the figure; the Old Man tried again, and this time the Tiger drove the Horse away, preventing it from approaching the figure; the Old Man cursed the Horse, people would put iron in its mouth, sit on horseback, hit it cereal; Rewarded the Tiger by making him strong, everyone will be afraid of him]; van Exem 1982:24-29 in Osada 2010 [{apparently Mundari, because it coincides with the previous text}; first one water, Haram first created aquatic creatures; told Crab to bring the earth from the bottom; he took the earth into its claws, but while he was rising, the water washed it away; H. sent the Turtle, which put the earth on its shell, the water washed it away; sent the Worm; he swallowed land, disgorged into H.'s hand; he enlarged it, created land, animals and plants on it; sculpted a human figure out of clay; before he had time to revive it, the Horse broke it; H. tried again this time The Tiger drove the Horse away without letting it get close to the figure; H. cursed the Horse, people would put iron in its mouth, sit on horseback, hit the rump; he rewarded him by making him strong, everyone would be afraid of him]; stake [Singbonga first created a child; a horse came and trampled on the figure; then S. created a dog to drive away the horse; also created a girl {except the boy}; S. called on all the living, but everyone lingered and the tiger came first, so it was so powerful; people became vicious, only dancing and drinking; then S. sent a flood of water and fire; brother and sister were saved inside the tree; since then the wood of this tree has been black, as if charred; all people come from this couple; they chose different occupations, so castes appeared; in order not to cause the flood anymore, S. created the Lurbing snake (Lur is the name of a rare snake species, bing -" snake" in Mundari); it exhales its soul from the clouds and is a rainbow, then the rain ends; Lurbing is the ubiquitous name for the rainbow in the Munda languages; Urauh Kohls's brother and sister escaped from the flood in a hole crab]: Jellinghaus 1871:332-333; Santals: Abbi 2015 [at first only darkness; voice from darkness: is anyone there? another, one of the voices was female; then another; Thakur Jiv (TJ), Thakuraiin Gogo, Saru, Baru, Jiva and Jangar were created, they were all waiting for the light to come out; Thakuraiin Gogo (TG) created Siny Chando and then it was light; but now everyone is waiting for it to be dark; TG created Yinda Chando and darkness is back, darkness and light alternate; Siny means "day" and Yinda means "light"; in TJ's hands, the rest they saw a clay vessel; it blew on it, the clay blurred in the water and the universe drowned; this ocean was Jalaapuri; TG came to the Kolelavka place (in the shape of a boat) to swim; she sculpted mud washed away from her body a human figure and left {two figures?} ; the horse came to drink, trampled on the figure; TG sculpted a new one, but it turned out to be less perfect; asked TJ to revive it; the figure came to life, but in the form of a pair of Hans-Haansil (XX) birds; that's why that TG was doing it in a hurry; XX asked TJ to give them shelter and food; he created a tree in the middle of the water and the birds began to live on it; foam produced by the horse floating on the water, and hair that fell into the water TG gave birth to Saaraanpuri; TG and TJ came to live there; but some of the foam and hair remained in Jaalaapuri and moss appeared there, a plant and grass grew on it, XX made a nest in the grass; from two eggs laid Two figures hatched - the same ones that TG sculpted and trampled on the horse; when they saw that the figures did not look like them, the parent birds flew away; TJ created a cow and she began to feed everyone with milk; created people named Pilchu HaAram and Pilchu BuraHii; TJ created Marang Buru and he began to hiccup whoever could bring earth from the bottom; (9 creatures are named, but only in santali); Radho BoVar reached the bottom, collected clay in his mouth and I put it on my back, but the water washed everything away; the same with the others; only Kacchim Kuwari and Raaymaat Len om brought (from the bottom) the land and the land was created; TJ created the bull and sent it to the ground; with his help Marang Buru leveled the ground; the first two people were brought to earth and they began to live there]; Campbell, 15 ff in Elwin 1949 [(this myth, without reference to the source, also mentions Bodding 1929:155, note 13); first there is water everywhere; Thakar Jiu's servants suggest creating humans; he tells them to summon Malin Budhi, who lives in an underwater cave; she created two human figures, either from some divine foam or clay ; left them to dry; Singh Sadom (Horse Day) trampled on them; TJ did it again at the request; TJ said that there is bird life above the lintel, and MB should revive the figures with human lives to be taken from under skate beam; but MB couldn't reach it, took birdlife, the figures flew to heaven, became birds Has and Hasin; asked TJ to create a place for them to sit; he created earth on her tree is karam; the female laid two eggs in a nest under the tree, but Raghop Buar ate them twice; TJ sent Jaher-era to guard them, and the eggs hatched a man and woman named Pilchu Haram and Pilchu Budhi ]: 19-20; Shrestha 2019 [first water, Thakur and his servant Jahereda above it; Malinburi lived under water; T. ordered her to make two human figures; she sculpted them out of clay, brought it to the bottom of the sea, laid them to dry in the sun; Shinsadom's horse flew in, broke the figures with flapping its wings; M. made new figures, asked T. to revive them; T. sent her for souls, but M. brought not human, but bird souls; T. breathed life into them and they flew to heaven; these were the first swans, Hans and Hansini; they had no place to sit, there was water everywhere; they asked T. to give them a place to live; Solehako fish, Katcom cancer and a worm lived in the water Landen; S. and K. could not lift the ground; L. threw bits of land to the surface, but they sank back to the bottom; T. called Kachik the turtle, told it to lie motionless on the water; L. threw it away land on the turtle shell, an island was formed; T. grew a Kadam tree and Syrom grass there; Hansa and Hansini built a nest of grass; Hansiner laid two eggs, the beast Raghopabu ate them; T. sent his servant J. guard eggs; a boy and a girl hatched from them; the children grew up, T. created a cow and two calves for them; taught the young man to make a plow and plow the land, he started farming; Maranburu (the big mountain) was guardian of a young man and a girl; taught them how to make an intoxicating drink; they got drunk and got together; M. told them not to worry, let them be husband and wife; they have 7 sons and 7 daughters; they quarreled and began to live in different localities; the father took his sons with him and the mother of his daughters; girls and boys met, began to live in pairs; their parents also reconciled and came to live with them; 7 clans went from 7 brothers and sisters]: 567 -570; haria [God sculpted human figures and left them to dry; two winged horses named Geese Tsar and Winged King flew in and smashed them; then God made four dogs named Caõra, Bhaõra , Lili and Bhuli, sculpted two new figures, told the dogs to guard; the dogs drove the horses away, the figures were dry, God blew their souls into them; he cut off the horses's wings, told them to walk under the saddle, and the dogs would run free]: Pinnow 1965, No. 26:142-143 (quoted in Kapp 1977:13-14); crust: Fuchs 1988 [Bhagawan decided to make a man but did not have clay; he was told that the Raven knew about clay; that the Earthworm and The ant made clay out of stone; the Ant refused to give or sell clay, agreed to lend; after sculpting the man, B. left the figure to dry in the sun; man's enemy Horse came to trample it; B. bent the horse's head, hit the ground; sprinkled two figures with water, revived them; clothed them]: 386; Howey 1923 [Mahadeo (~Shiva), at the request of Rawan (Ravana), decided to populate the uninhabited mountains Vindhyan and Satpura; for this purpose made figures of a man and a woman out of clay; Indra sent two ferocious horses, they came out of the ground, trampled on the figures; M. for two days made new attempts to create people, but with the same result; then M. created a dog, it drove away the horses; a couple of people sculpted became the ancestors of the crust]: 214; (cf. Hinduism [according to Hindu legends, the horse was created with wings and could fly so that neither humans nor gods could keep up with it; Indra needed horses for chariots and asked for an ascetic Salihotra to help; he deprived horses of the ability to fly; since horses could no longer fly for medicinal herbs, he asked S. to write a book on horse healing; S.'s name came to mean in Sanskrit "veterinary" as well as "horse"]: Phillott 1911 in Howey 1923:214); Oraons: Koonathan 1999 [on Old Mother's advice, Dharmes created Kingfisher, who dived into the ocean, brought the seed of earth from the lower world ; D. made the earth out of this; Sit advised to make human figures out of clay, but D.'s horse trampled on them, fearing that a person would harness it; S. advised to make dogs drive away the horse; soon people inhabited the earth]: 144 in Osada 2010; Rosner 1982 [Dharmes (=Mahadeo) made the figures of a man and a woman out of clay, left it to dry in the sun; a horse flew from the sky, trampled on the figures; M. tried again and put one of his dogs, Khauri, as a watchman; M. breathed life into the figures, they came to life]: 156 in Osada 2010; gondas [Sambhu Mahadeva sculpted human figures out of clay, left them to dry for the night; Indra's horses they smashed the figures; SM created a dog to guard and put other guards with swords, covered the figures with cloth; at night, the dog barked, the guards cut off the horses' wings; SM poured nectar on the figures, but they did not come to life; Guru advised me to go to Sirma Guru; he brought his daughter, took veins for people, her figures came to life; at first they were as small as rats, Parvati did not approve; then SM made men 16 feet tall, women - 12 feet; P. disapproved again; then did the current ones]: Kapp 1977:44-45.

The Balkans. Serbs: Vukicevic 1915 [God created the sheep, the Devil the goat; the Ox God, the Horse Devil, the Dog God, the Wolf Devil, and so on all living creatures; the Virgin hid the baby Jesus from Judas in the hay; ox, sheep they covered it, and the horse ate almost all the hay, almost opening the child to Judas; the Mother of God cursed the horse, telling them to be full only once a year on the eve of St. George]: 109-111; Petrovi 2004 [the black horse is associated with the world of the dead]: 183-184; Ancient Greece: Apol.II,5, 8 [Eurystheus appointed Hercules to lead the Thracian mares as the eighth feat Diomede, son of Ares and Cyren, who reigned over the warlike bistons; his mares ate human meat; G. defeated the guarding stalls and drove the mares to the sea; ordered them to be guarded by his Beloved Abder, the son of Hermes, but the mares tore him apart; G. fought the Bistons and killed D., brought the horses to Eurysthea; he let them go, they came to Mount Olympus, where they were torn to pieces by the wild beasts; according to Pausanias (III,18,7; V,10.2), this myth is associated with images on the throne in Amiklach; (Gigin, Fab. 30: the names of horses Podarg, Lampon, Xanthos, Dinos; Fab. 250: G. threw horses to pieces D.)]: 36, 149 (note); Gunda 1979:398 [Nikander, 741-742 {200 BC, Colophon}: wasps came out of the horse's cut corpse, and bees from the corpse of a bull (Rinderkadaver)], 399 [Ovid, Metamorphoses: Aristeus began to lament that his bees had died; Proteus told him to bury the bull's carcass, bees came out of it; hornets flew out of the buried corpse of a warhorse, and scorpions crawled out of the crab; Plutarch (Plut., Cleon., 60, 39): bees arise from the rotting of a bull's corpse, hornets come out of a horse, drones beetles; Servius (commentator Virgil, 390 AD): bees emerge from the corpse of a bull, horses - drones, a horse - hornets, a donkey - wasps]; Hungarians [ Jesus wanted to cross the river, asked the horse; she replied that she had no time to eat; the donkey agreed and moved it; Jesus told the horse to eat forever and not be full, and the donkey was the most unpretentious to eat]: Sklarek 1901, No. 46:283-284; Bulgarians [Karakonjuls, Karakonchovtsy are centaurs; if a strand of hair from this creature's tail stays in the water for 40 days, it turns into a snake; Todorov Day is associated with them ("horse Easter" ); St. Todor on Todorova Week is a terrible rider in a white cloak, a reincarnated dead man, a vercolac; appears from the grave, tramples on a person he meets in the way]: Stoynev 2006:163; Gagauz people [running away from the pursuers, Christ climbed into the hole, a pig lay on top, the pursuers saw it, left; among the sheep; they regurgitated gum, the pursuers were afraid of the sound, left; hid in the straw in the ox's manger; horses; horses eat a lot, ate straw, discovered Christ, his enemies took him; Christ cursed horses, saying that they would eat but would not be satisfied]: Moshkov 2004:204-205, 261 [Satan sits in the horse, therefore that at Christmas the Savior, all the livestock tried to cover them with straw, only one horse pulled off straw and hay].

Central Europe. Poles (many records) [because the horse did not want to transport Christ across the river (or even take him), he is always hungry no matter how much he ate]: Krzyżanowski 1963, No. 2503:180-181; oriental Ukrainians: Berezovsky 1979, No. 311 (Kursk) [on a narrow bridge, the horse tells the donkey to give way; the donkey refuses; they blame each other; donkey: you are disgusting to God, ate the hay that the baby uses Jesus was sheltered from the robbers; and the Mother of God was riding me to Egypt; in the end, both fell into the river]: 336:85; Shevchenko 1926 (Cherkasy, Zolotonosha County) [different ones are plugged under the roof into the new stable sacred things, potions, "what did not start", the exception is stables where the devil waits, so it is not suitable to give the sacred there, "bo konyak zvirina is unclean"; instead, they hang a dead owl there or forty, so that the brownie does not confuse and braid the tails and manes of horses - "bo vin will shield the first" I'm up to forty that th zgada, because forty are driven by that th zib"]: 92-93; Western Ukrainians: Belova 2004a, No. 374 (Podolia, Transcarpathia) [God drew a line into a horse so that he would not prevent Adam from plowing the land; the horse cannot stand the proximity of sacred objects; the soul of a Jew has moved into the horse; horse meat cannot be eaten], 375 [The horse was Devil's creation, had horns but had no teeth; the cow had teeth; they changed, the Cow got horns, the Horse got teeth]: 176; Bulashev 1909 [the devil could turn into any animal; when he turned into horse, the Lord "blessed" him so much that he remained a horse forever; the horse eats and cannot eat enough]: 401; Glad 1929 (p. Starosill, Oster County, Chernihiv) [when Jesus Christ was resurrected and hid, he hid in a nursery. The chickens raked it, and horses dug their faces to the bottom, picked it up, and oxen and cows took hay from the top and sprinkled it over the manger where Jesus Christ lay, and thus covered it. Jesus Christ cursed chickens knee-deep for this (so people did not eat chicken legs for a long time), and Christians did not bless horses to eat at all and soaked them with smelly sweat, and blessed oxen and cows Christians have]: 12; Svidnitsky 1861 (Podolskaya) [When they were looking for Christ to destroy, he ran away and hid for the first time in a manger between oxen. Jews are looking for it, and oxen eat their hay and cover the hidden person with their faces, as if they are choosing which stem. Christ was saved this time and blessed the oxen to eat little and be full. I had to hide for the second time. Since the Jews already knew he was between oxen, he took it and hid between horses. But horses are voracious cattle, and as they began to eat, they also ate what Christ covered himself with. This is where the Jews both saw and took Christ. For this, God cursed horses to eat for the whole century, and everyone who was hungry would stand]: 51-52; Chubinsky 1872 (Volyn; Southern Russia in general) [the horse is a transformed devil; the devil could turn into anyone, but God is so his blessed that he remained a horse; when the Savior was in the manger, oxen covered him and the horse pulled off straw]: 49; Belarusians: Bulgakovsky 1890 (Pinsk) [The ox is considered the "Holy Bone" because when the Mother of God hid the Christ Child from the Jews, the ox threw hay on Christ to keep him warm, and the horse threw away hay and ate; therefore, ox meat can be eaten, and the horse is considered filth]: 189; Boganeva 2010:67 [the horse gnawed at Jesus' sides, for this he must always eat; and the cow will get caught and lie], 68 [the horse pushed straw away from the baby Jesus, and the sheep and the cow covered it]; Grynblat, Gurski 1983, No. 37 [man harrowed, hell sat on the harrow, it was wrong; then God told the line to become a horse, horses have appeared since then], 38 [the holy virgin asked the horse to carry it across the river, he refused; the ox moved; she ordered the ox to eat and then go to rest; and the horse eats everything and not eat enough]: 53; Russians (Tver, Vladimir, Orenburg, Lithuania) [the horse is punished with hunger and a difficult life, but its meat is not edible or intended for foreigners/gentiles for eating (raking up) this, which covered the baby Jesus Ildi in whom Christ hid before being crucified]: Belova 2017:146; Russians (Vladimirskaya, 1899) [when the Jews were looking for Christ, he hid in the horse's nursery, and she threw him away; H.: Ride you a peasant for this, and eat you a Tatar; next time H. hid with a cow; she answered the Jews: So I'm chewing it; H. cow: You'll always be full for this; if you don't have grass under your foot, the food will always be with you]: Belova 2017:142-143; Russians (Kostromskaya) [horse raked the hay in the manger where Christ lay, hidden from the persecutors, and threw it out of the nursery; then Christ said: "You have to ride your age and die in a yoke"]: Zimin 1920:83; Russians (Bryansk region ., Brasov n, d. Chayanka, 1988) [an old woman passer-by said before the war that a horse was hell; the informant does not believe it - a horse is the best animal]: Glebov 2012, No. 139:130; Poles [little Jesus wanted to cross the river, asked the horse, who replied that he would not, because he had not yet eaten; the ox sent it; I. punished the horse - he would always be hungry, and the ox would not be thirsty and hungry]: Dä hnhardt 1909:88; Czechs [the horse is always hungry because he refused to transport Mary and Jesus across the river]: Dähnhardt 1909:88; Poznan (published in German) [horse and cow were grazing by the river; the horse refused to transport Jesus because it was not yet full; the cow transported it; Jesus punished the horse, which has not been able to get enough since]: Dähnhardt 1909:89.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Abkhazians: Bartsyts 2005 (the author is an ethnographer, knows from his mother) [when the world was being created, the devil sent horses to smash him, otherwise they say will torment them all his life; the man managed to snatch a handful of clay from his stomach and throw them into horses, these clods became dogs, drove the horses away]; Gabnia 2002 (recorded by folklorist V. Kogonia 11.07.1991) [God created man from clay; Damn warned horses: "If a person comes to life, you will not live. Kill him!" The horses rushed at the man. Dogs, seeing this, rushed to horses to save a person; therefore, a man and a dog are considered close]: 56; Ossetians [in old age, Aslan decides to test his sons; the eldest, middle return from distant, dangerous places, but A. says that he got there in a day; younger Kaurbek pulls out a horse and heroic weapons from under the mound; meets his father's brother, who fought with the army of Donbettyr's daughter; K. Wounds her, kills a horse, makes belts out of his skin, goes down to sea; an old woman teaches her to change blood vessels with living and dead water; K. wins daughter D., gives it to her uncle, revives the horse with living water; takes out his sword, stuck in his grandfather's skull; he teaches him to hit the khan with it, not to strike a second blow; K. kills Khan, takes her daughter; in Khan's country eternal night; K. comes to the sea, across him a whale bridge; K. moves along to him to the house of the Sun; his mother hides K., asks the Sun Son questions so that K. overhears the answers; the Sun does not illuminate the khan's possessions because he tried to kidnap his daughter; the whale lies on a bridge because it swallowed ships ; K. goes back, answers the whale, who releases ships, is released; K. takes the daughter of the Sun, the light spreads in the khan's possessions; the Sun sends fire-breathing cannibal mares to the kidnapper of the daughter with steel jaws, K.'s horse destroys them; the daughter of the Sun insidiously tells K. to milk the remaining mares, swim in boiling milk; the horse advises K. not to rush into boiling water, but to walk along the crossbar, on which hangs a cauldron; the daughter of the Sun believes, swims herself, comes out unharmed, the darkness above the earth dissipates; Zaliag Kalm in the sea (!) does not give water to drink, demands a boy and a girl a month; K. kills him, blood turns the sea yellow, now the sea is called "Yellow"; older brothers kill sleeping K. and his horse; daughter The sun sends Donbettyr's daughter to revive K. with live water; K. forgives his brothers, gives one Donbettyr's daughter, another a khan's daughter, washes his father with living water, he is getting younger; K. decides to marry Khadija; with difficulty defeats the warrior; the hawk says that this is H., she will lose her heroic power if she is kissed; K. kisses, brings H. to the wife of her fathers; the older, middle return from distant, dangerous places, but A.]: Byazirov 1971, No. 15:156-173; Svans [like Abkhazians; archaeologist Alexey Vladimirovich Turkin visited Svaneti in 2004-2005 and heard this story from an old man; translated by Ruslan Shamprioni]; Armenians (Lori, West 1941) [The world was made up of water and darkness. God walked on it and cared for it. He separated light from darkness, then water from land, created plants, then animals. God had twelve ranks of angels, three ranks did not obey, he cursed them, they turned into demons (letters. - "Satan"). God told angels to bring land to create man from four sides of the world, let man take care of plants and animals. If demons ask you to open your hands, do not open them. The angels did not open their hands to the demons, they brought the earth, God stretched it, made a man, put it in the sun to dry. The demons told the horses that people would sit on them every day and torture them. The horses trampled on the figure. God sent angels to land again. This time, the demons made them open their hands and spit inside. God mashed the ground, squeezed Satanic saliva onto his navel, then tied it up, cut off the umbilical cord (there is still room), saliva, and told it to become a dog, to drive away enemies from man. The dog did not let the horses in, the man was dry, God blew into his mouth, gave him his soul, called him Adam, put him in paradise]: Zhamkochyan 2012, No. 8:138-140 {translated by Lilit Simonyan}.

Iran - Central Asia. Zoroastrianism: Chunakova 2004:110 [Ahriman, who has the body of a log lizard (frog), was turned into a horse and served Tahmurup for 30 years in this capacity], 216 [Tahmurup ("brave fox") defeated Ahriman and held him as a horse for 30 years in power]; (cf. Khorezm Uzbeks [compared to other pets, the role of horses in rituals and performances is insignificant]: Snesarev 1969:323); Tajiks [in Samarkand and Ura-Tyube (with their districts) if a person sees a horse in a dream, he will then fall ill; in Tutka, a "underhorse devil" harms people sleeping next to a horse; can cause blindness, deafness and turn their faces to one side; in Samarkand, children do not they allow you to go to horses because the horse itself is a dev; the most common belief is that every horse has its own dev, "a dev sticks to the horse"; if the owner finds his horse's mane confused, then it was played by a dev; in Kulyab, the idea of a horse as descended from a deva and that it has wings that are usually invisible to humans, so that she can never tire of covering distances that she cannot defeat no other animal"; the same belief in Darvaz and Karategin]: Sukhareva 1975:39-40; Vakhans [heard from mother: God made man beautiful; seeing the perfect beauty of still inanimate a man lying in uniform, the horse kicked him out of envy, damaging his human appearance; this explains the physical imperfection of a person; there are ugly people, even relatively beautiful people there is bound to be some physical disability; as punishment, God obliged the horse to serve and carry man all his life]: Bogsho Lashkarbekov, personal communication, 2005; kalashi [when God created the first people, hell began to encourage horses to trample Adam and his comrades; however, human bodies became more and more beautiful; God wanted to inspire them; the devil persuaded souls to give up entering the dark depths of the human body; God was forced to promise to free souls as soon as they wanted to]: Yettmar 1986:359.

Baltoscandia. The Danes [the horse created the devil but could not revive it; God did it, but since the horse was originally created for evil, God told it to be a slave to man and experience more hardships than others animals]: Kristensen, Jyske Folkeminder, 237, 326 in Dähnhardt 1907:341; Norwegians [Damn decided to create a monster to run the land and destroy people; tried to revive it, but to no avail; God revived the beast by telling him to become a horse and serve man; the devil spat on the horse, so there are horny growths on his feet]: Storaker 1871 in Dähnhardt 1907:342; (cf. Norwegians [Maria asked the cow to transport her across the river; she replied that she was eating now; Maria told her to continue eating and not be full; the sheep replied that she was weak - always be weak; the horse and The reindeer volunteered to transport; Maria ordered the deer to always be able to find moss and the horse to be strong]: Dähnhardt 1909:94); Swedes: Dähnhardt 1909:93-94 (Smaland) [Jesus and St. Peter asked the horse to transport them across the river; she said that she had no time to eat; Jesus told her to eat everything and stay hungry; the ox moved them, now chewing gum], 94 (Smaland) [I. asked for a sheep take him across the river; she said she had no time to eat; Jesus told her to eat everything and stay hungry; same with the lodge; the ox moved, now chews gum]; Balzamo 2011, No. 43 [damn the horse, first put her eyes on her knees; then decided that she would hurt them while running, placed them on her head; where her eyes were before, there were calluses on the horse's legs], 48 [=Dähnhardt 1909:94]: 78, 85; Estonian Swedes (Haapsalu) [sheep and pig refused to transport Christ across the river because one leg was weak and the other had short legs; Jesus told them to stay that way; the horse refused because they were short. if you don't finish eating - let everything eat and not be full; tyk moved - let her spend the least time eating]: Dähnhardt 1909:93; (cf. Western Sami (Norrboten, Sweden) [God looked at the land, not could overcome a large swamp; ordered the wolf to transport it, but he replied that he was not created by God and did not have to serve him; the deer replied that he was hungry and had no time to transport God; the bear himself offered his services and carried God through the swamp; for this he rewarded him, allowing him to enjoy a peaceful sleep in winter; God condemned the deer to eternal work and left man to his mercy; God cursed the wolf and declared free]: Hogguer 1841:74-75 (retelling Kharuzin 1990:199); Finns: Dähnhardt 1907 [hell asked God to allow him to create someone; made a horse but could not revive (give breath); God gave it]: 155; Pogodin 1895 [Damn tried to create something, took a threshing machine and created a horse, but could not give it breath; God gave it a soul, so the horse began to serve people, but first hers created by the Devil]: 446; the Sami (Finnish, 1748) [horses don't die themselves, only Swedes can kill them; this is because the horse was not created by God but by Perkel]: Dähnhardt 1907:155; Estonians [1) horse and the sheep refused to transport the Lord across the river, but the ox moved; therefore, the horse and the sheep must eat at all times, and the ox will eat and then chew gum; (same in Järv 2016:60-61); 2) Jesus asked for a sheep to transport her across the river, she replied that her legs were too thin; the horse refused because she was not yet full; the ox moved; Jesus ordered the sheep to remain thin and the horse not could be full; 3) (=Jakobson 1954:197-199) the horse refused to take the old man (Metsaisa) across the river because it did not finish eating, but moved the ox; the old man ordered that they should no longer ride in the wild and he was fast if you are full; and the horse eats, it will be hungry]: Dähnhardt 1909:91; Seto [Jesus and Mary wanted to cross the river; asked the church; the church replied that they could not, they will come soon rich parishioners, the choir would sing; Jesus replied that only gadflies would buzz, the birds of the forest would sing; the horse also refused, it had so many different works; Jesus did not forgive her: when the horse died, it would lying at the edge of the forest or swamp, the vorons and vorons would peck at her; the ox replied that his horns were mossy, his neck was tired; Jesus gilded his neck, silvered his horns; after death, people would eat ox meat, children will sing at the table, songs will make you happy]: Dähnhardt 1909:92 (=Eisen 1926:193); Veps [a horse dreams of bad things; created by the devil, but God breathed soul into it; a horse (like a bear, a hare, dog) an unclean animal, its meat is not allowed for food]: Vinokurova 2006:274; Lithuanians: Velus 1981 [the horse comes from a jerk (devil) or from a snake, thinks about how to kill a person, the vyalnyas rides on horseback, the jerk takes the form of a horse, items from the property of the tulnyas turn out to be parts of the horse's body (gun - leg, thigh, gun belt - intestines, snuffbox - hoof, tube - tibia bone, violin - skull, plates - hooves, treat - horse manure]: 263-264; Dähnhardt 1909 [the horse refused to transport the Lord across the river, for which flies bite the horse in the pasture; and the bull moved quietly grazes]: 91; Latvians: Pogodin 1895 [God asked the Horse to transport him across the river; he replied that he would rather eat his fill during this time; the Ox transported God; God ordered that he rest after eating, and the Horse a fly tormented him in the pasture, and when he got enough, he would be hired]: 439; Pollan 2005, No. 111 [Maria went to Elizabeth, a cow by the river, asked for a transfer, she told her to graze, but there would be no udder grow up, the cow will get tired; until now, the cow, after eating, lies down and then starts eating again; horse: I have a foal in my stomach; Maria: you will carry a foal for a whole year; hare: no time, I'm not yet I chose for myself what to build a house from; M.: you will never build a house; in winter a hare: if I live to see summer, I will build a house; the flounder mocked, stayed with a crooked mouth; the bear moved to the other side; M.: you will be all winter sleep]: 222-223.

Volga - Perm. Komi: Limerov 2005, No. 70 [The Virgin went to give birth to the horse, he did not let her in, she told him to suffer from hard work for a century; the cows were allowed in, the Mother of God gave them an easy job to feed people milk], 73 [Christ hid from the Jews in a pile of hay, the horse began to scatter hay, H. cursed her, let crows eat its meat; the cow began to shelter H., who told her to live with man, man to eat beef], 74 [Christ hid from the Jews in straw, the horse scattered it, H. cursed it, making its meat filthy, it is eaten by Tatars and crows; the pig began to cover it, who made her meat the best of all; You can't even take the deceased to the grave on a horse (they carry them on a pole or people pull the sleigh themselves)]: 68-70, 74, 75-76; Sharapov 1996 [Christ, hiding from the Jews, hid in a pile of hay; a horse came and began to eat hay, thereby revealing Christ; Lord horses: You will be filthy, filthy from now on, only crows will eat your filthy meat; meanwhile, a pig came to the shock and began to cover Christ with hay; Lord pig: Hitherto you were unclean, blessed from now on, your meat will be the best food for people]: 317; (cf. Mordovians [dreaming of a horse causes illness, and falling off a horse is for recovery]: Devatkina 2004:113).

Turkestan. Kazakhs [Bulat-Pai had horses that ate people; people avoided him, he took a hundred horses, migrated, leaving nine sons at home; horses flew away like birds, he kept one by the tail; his 70-year-old wife became pregnant, ate this mare's tostyuk (brisket), gave birth to a son Yer-Tyustyuk; people ask why he is not looking for his nine brothers and nine thousand horses; he clamps parents' thighs, makes them tell the truth; comes to nine brothers, takes an eight-legged horse; the youngest, then the rest of the brothers recognize E.; the brothers return to their father, now he is rich again; they put him on a sixth horse, tell him to find ten brides-sisters; the old woman indicates where to look; B. and nine sons take the brides home; the youngest is Kenjackay; the old woman warns not to stay at Bai-Terek tree; B. stops, sees a lung on the water, hits with a stick, it turns into an old woman (campir), grabs B. by the beard, lets go for promising to give E.; K. asks E where his goldmoney is; he thinks that he is left by the Bai-Terek tree; K. talks about an old woman, gives a chain mail, a horse she took from home; E. grabs the grandmother, the old woman chases him, he falls into the ground with the horse, there are 80 old women they promise to let him go if he brings the khan's golden braid; on the way, E. takes as his companions a mountain raising a mountain, drinking a lake, finding out fate; the khan tries to burn them in an iron house, drinks the fire; in another house, a knowledgeable person says that an iron mountain will be thrown at them, he can catch it; the khan tells them to get the cauldron out of the well; they take it out, he gives his daughter; E. cuts off his head, brings him to the old women, they let him go ; the young birds of the Alyp-Kara-Gush bird are crying in the Bai-Terek tree; the dragon (Azhdagar) is approaching, E. kills him with a sword; the cubs say that the mother will arrive with a storm; she swallowed and belched E.; raises him in the upper world, he gives her water and feeds her, finally cuts off the meat from her thighs; on the ground she regurgitates meat, puts it back, gives her a pen; the man in whose house E. stayed dug a hole, E. fell through there; burned the feather, the bird carried him upstairs; E. returns, his wife is the first to recognize him, everyone is happy]: Potanin 1972, No. 1:104-116.