Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

H53. The wolf is the lord of the dead .44.46.48.

The wolf takes part in the creation of the earth or is the brother of the creator and/or the victor of the demons of the lower world. He dies and/or is considered to be the first to die and/or becomes the master of the land of the dead.

Montagnier, Northern Ojibwa (Sandy Lake), West Ojibwa, (Eastern Ojibwa), Ottawa, Northern Solto, Western Forest Cree, Kickapoo (?) , sauk, potauatomi (?) , Steppe Cree, Sarsi, Omaha and Ponca, Skidi Pawnee, Yokutz.

The Midwest. Northern Ojibwa (Sandy Lake) [Oh-ma-ma-ma, Mother Earth, gives birth to Visakajak 'a, Wolf and other world spirits; V. knows that the water monster Mishipizhiv and his two sons Wolf will be killed; Kingfisher talks about the death of the Wolf, V. paints his throat red; hides on the beach, shoots monsters; the Frog goes to heal them; V. kills her, puts on her skin, hurts M.'s heart, runs away; the flood begins; V. ties ropes to the Beaver, the Otter, the Muskrat; the animals dive one by one, emerge dead; clay on the Muskrat's paws; V. revives animals, creates land; sends Wolverine to watch is it big; the third time Wolverine does not return, the earth is ready; V. puts clay on the turtle's back, makes blacks first, then whites, then Indians; animals get their habits; the raven climbs without queues, carrion eats for it; The dog wins the race, lives with a person for it; dogs are speechless not to be sent messages]: Ray, Stevens 1971:20-26; Western Ojibwa: Barnouw 1972, No. 1 (chippewa) [unnoticed, the old woman's daughter conceives from the Wind or the Sun; gives birth to triplets; does not put children immediately on the ground, so people do not walk for the first year of life; one brother - Flint; the elder Venebozho kills him (first murder); second brother Nekadzhivecik (The One Who Goes Beyond Sunset) gets tired of wandering around with V., makes the way for the dead; puts the Otter on it, An owl, two hills on the sides (these are fire-breathing snakes with their heads to each other), a log-snake across the river (see motif H24); strawberries eaten at the fork turn into toads or go to the left, disappear; going right come to N.]: 13-18; Josselin de Jong 1913, No. 9 [Wolves give Nenabojo the young Wolf as a nephew; N. does not tell him to jump over the stream; he jumps, finds himself in the river; Kingfisher says N. that it was eaten by water Snakes, advises what to do; N. turns into a stump; when the Snakes crawl ashore to warm up, injures the one that killed his nephew; The frog goes to heal the wounded; N. asks her, kills her , puts on her skin; kills the Snake, not heals him; runs away, taking the Wolf's skin; the water gushes after; N. escapes on a raft, revives the Wolf; Beaver, Otter, Loon do not reach the bottom, the Muskrat brings earth in its paws ; N. throws the earth into the water, it grows; sends the Wolf to see if it is big; the first time he returns; the second dies before he runs around the earth; it is big]: 12-16; (cf. Eastern Ojibwa : Laidlaw 1915, No. 7 (Southern Ontario)] [The hunter notices that his wife is embellished; the eldest son tells him that every time he goes hunting, his mother also leaves home; the hunter looks after his wife; Sees how she came to the tree, knocked, and a handsome man came out; when he returned home, the hunter taught the children (both boys) what to do; when his wife returned, her husband killed her, burned her body; said to the children: if the sunset is red, it means that her mother's lover killed her; when the children saw the red sunset, they ran; the mother (i.e. her spirit?) pursues; they threw a pebble (mountain), a thorn (thorny thickets), an awl (many awls pointing upwards); the mother overcame everything; by the river, the children asked a large snail to transport them to the other side; that stretched out and they crossed; when the stalker asked for the same thing, the snail clenched in the middle of the river and the woman drowned; the brothers settled by the lake; a man in the boat swam up; asked the younger one to shoot, the arrow fell into the boat; asked the elder to pick it up and sailed away with him; kept it in his house; once offered to roll down the mountain in a sleigh; the young man refused to sit in front, sat behind; the sleigh rides on stumps and stones, a young man picked up a stone and killed a man; came to where he left his younger brother; he turned into a wolf (or half a wolf); this is how wolves appeared]: 6-7; Radin 1914, No. 9 [Nonbozho paints Kingfisher feathers; for this, Kingfisher reports that water Pumas killed Brother N.; N. turns into a rotten stump; beats Pum who come out of the water to lie on the beach; the water pursues N.; he climbs a tree, makes a raft; The Otter, the Beaver emerge without bringing sand; the Muskrat brings earth in its paws and mouth; N. creates land; sends the Raven, he does not return; the Hawk, who reports that the Raven is biting corpses; for this now eats only stolen; N. sends Caribou; he says the land is not big enough; N. blows sand from the horn into the water again; tells the Ducks to dance with their eyes closed; see motif M53]: 19-21; Radin, Reagan 1928, No. 2 ( southeast Ontario) [Manabozo injures a Minito Leo, an old frog goes to treat him; without recognizing M., says that Minito is going to catch M.; M. kills her, wears her skin, when he comes to the minito, he drives the arrow deeper into the body of the wounded, killing him; the water rushes after M., he climbs a tree, makes a raft; tells Beaver, Otter, Muskrat to dive; they float up one by one without feelings; between the fingers of the Muskrat M. finds grains of earth, makes land; sends the Ferret to find out if it is big; the first time the Ferret returns, the second time does not return, which means the land is great], 3 [for now Vissekejak hunts, his younger brother M. disappears; V. gives the Crane a white stripe around his neck; he tells how the Minito Sea Lions killed M., hung his skin in his doorway; V. turns into a stump on the shore, where the minito go out to warm up, shoots into the shadow of a black minito, injuring him; the water rushes after V., he makes a boat; then (2); Fox instead of a Ferret; then episode with the Healer Frog; V. runs away, carrying M.'s skin and the body of the killed minito; hides in a groundhog's hole], 4 [M. injures the Leo, blood floods the ground; M. makes a raft (as in 2); sends the Raven, The Falcon, the Eagle find out if the land is great; the Raven returns in seven days, the Falcon in a year, the Eagle does not return; so the land is great], 5 [M. lives with his grandmother; the Sea Lion lives on an island surrounded by resin; M . covers the boat with fat, floats on resin; during battle, Blue Jay advises M. to shoot at the enemy's little finger, M. kills the Sea Lion; takes the young Wolf as his comrades, warns not to jump through streams; The wolf chases the moose, jumps across the stream, it turns into a turbulent stream, carries it away; then in (3), the Wolf instead of M., the Kingfisher instead of the Crane, the minito - the Snakes; the water rises, but falls; the episode with the Frog and the Minito Killing; Beaver, Otter, Loon, Muskrat dive; Raven, Dove are sent to find out if the land is big; the Raven returns four days later, the Dove does not return; now M. lives in the east]: 62, 63-67, 67-70, 70-76); (cf. Jones 1917, No. 61-63 [Nyanabushu (N.) asks his grandmother if there were any other people besides them; she replies that they are all missing, including his older brother Nyanapatam, from whose placenta N. himself appeared; N. sharpens an ax to make arrows, the whetstone repeats, Your father, your mother; N. sails in a boat, asks the Great Sturgeon to swallow it; cuts his heart from the inside, he cannot regurgitate; Sturgeon people bury him at the bottom of the sea; N. causes a storm, Sturgeon nails to the shore; N. asks the Seagulls to open the hole; for this makes them beautiful, white; makes sturgeon from Sturgeon; returns to her grandmother; she tells how various animals came to her, saying that her grandson died or imitated the voice of her grandson; says that N.'s parents were killed by a beating leg (B.); N. sails to a distant island, hears uniform blows; B. constantly cuts the calf of his leg; he and N. shoot arrows at each other; the bird tells B. to aim at a bundle of hair on his head; before death, he reports that the contents of the wooden the bucket must anoint the trees in the grove, collecting bark from such a place before; N. smears the trees, they turn into his parents and other people; returning to his grandmother, N. goes around them with his older brother islands, tells him to cross the river and become the master of the dead]: 467-501); Ottawa: Chamberlain 1891 [the girl lives with her grandmother; gives birth to two sons; the youngest is flint, kills her by going out through God; the elder Na-nav-bo-ju and his dog (this is a wolf) chases him, breaking off pieces (the origin of flints); where he kills, a rock appears; the "god of the depths" kills the Wolf out of jealousy, water monsters they gather for a holiday; N. pretends to be a stump, they pull it, they cannot move it, they believe that it is a stump; he kills the "god of the depths"; the flood begins; the Beaver dives, pops up dead; Muskrat too, but on his paws earth; N. sends the Raven to fly, the earth dries up]: 204-205; Charencey 1884 [The Great Hare sends the Beaver to dive; he sinks; the Otter dives to the bottom, brings land; the Hare creates land] in Danhardt 1907:82; northern solto [The wolf jumps across the river, three Pumas drag him into the water; his uncle Visekajak hits one arrow; the Toad goes to heal her; he puts on the Toad's skin, drives the arrow deeper, Puma dies; other Pumas cause a flood; Visekajak with animals flees on a raft; animals dive to get the ground from the bottom; see motif B3A]: Skinner 1911:173-175; Steppe Cree [see M49 motif; Vesakaicak kills Pum who have come out of the water; the wounded rush into the water; the Toad goes to treat them; he kills the Toad, puts on its skin, finishes off the wounded; the remaining Pumas cause a flood; animals dive to get from bottom of the earth; see motif B3A]: Ahenakew 1929 [see motive K27, motif L5; two brothers flee from their mother chasing their head; Waimesosiv takes an elder named Vesakaiczak into his boat, leaves the youngest; he turns into a Wolf; his brother finds him; tells him not to go to the shore; he comes; the Kingfisher tells Vesakaicak that the Water Pumas killed the Wolf; Vesakaicak is beautiful paints it; turns into a log on the shore, kills Pum who have come out of the water; the wounded rush into the water; the Toad goes to heal them; he kills the Toad, puts on its skin, finishes off the wounded; the remaining Pumas are summoned flood; animals dive to get the ground from the bottom]: 320-327; Bloomfield 1930, No. 1 [Visakechak's younger brother turns into a wolf; Water Pumas and Snakes eat the Wolf; V. injures the Pisces Chief; the Frog goes to him heal; V. learns from her about her normal behavior, kills her, takes her form; shoves an arrow deeper into the Chief's body, he dies; the flood begins]: 16-20; Skinner 1916, No. 1 (1) [see motive F73; Visakecjak meets Volkov, makes the wolf cub his nephew; tells him not to approach the lake; he comes up, disappears; the Sun tells V. that he was dragged away by underwater Lynxes; V. turns into a stump, then into a tree on the shore, the Lynx lies in wait; the Sun tells him to shoot in the shadow of the White Lynx; the wounded Lynx hides in the lake; the old toad goes to heal her; V. kills her, wears her skin, comes to heal Lynx; instead this kills her, runs away, taking her nephew's skin, revives him; later the flood begins; V. asks Fish on a raft, then Beaver to get the land; they can't; the muskrat brings the earth from the bottom, pops up dead; In . it revives, blows to the ground, it grows up; the Deer and other animals run around; the Wolf is sent fourth; goes so far north that it becomes too old to return; the earth is big; nephew V. sends to the Sun]: 341-346; Western Forest Cree [husband notices that his wife wears beaded shell clothes, and when he returns, she is wearing simple clothes; he watches and sees her comes to the tree, knocks on the bark, calls the "husband", a snake crawls out to it; at home, the hunter sends his wife to fetch the prey, puts on her dress and jewelry, calls the snake with the same signal, cuts off her head, cooks meat ; gives two sons amulets that can be used to create obstacles in the path of the pursuer; the wife returns without finding the prey left; the husband says he cooks her lover's meat, cuts her off head, rises into the sky, turns into a star; children hide in the underworld; the wife's head asks objects where the children have taken refuge; a knife, a cape, a pot, a bison skin are silent, a pebble from under the skin shows where the children have run; the eldest carries the youngest, throws the first pebble (fire, the head is burned, but passes), then a thorny bush (a monstrous snake paves the way under the thorns), rocks ( a monstrous beaver gnaws); the fourth amulet falls in front of him, a turbulent river appears, another snake carries the boys to the opposite bank; when it carries its head, it throws it into the water; the eldest son tells her to become a sturgeon; {the end of the text is either connected to the main part of the recording missionary, or the informant himself forgot everything when trying to add Christian mythology}; the older brother is Wesakitchak; he was taken away by a giant; his younger brother was left alone, turned into a half-wolf, killed by a monstrous sturgeon - his ex-mother; V. married the giant's daughter; he and his daughter could not destroy him; Kisemanitou sent a flood because people went bad, saved V.; created a new pair of people out of clay]: Vandersteene 1969:44-48; kickapoo [Kitsihiat is Visaki's father; V.'s younger brother is Pepaske; the brothers turned into acorns, let the wind carry themselves; underground horned cougars caught P. in the net, beat him to death; P. placed his spirit in the west, where he now reigns over the world of the dead; the earth - grandmother, raised by V. (and P.)]: Latorre, Latorre 1976:263, 267; potauatomi [Chibiabos - Visyaki's brother - killed by underground gods, resurrected, placed west to rule the world of the dead]: Skinner 1924: 48; sauk, fox [Visakya and Kshyapatya are sons of the supreme deity; Snakes kill K.; the spirit of the killed man comes to his brother; he does not let him in, tells him to go west; the dead they will go to him; the bird tells V. that two killer manners are underground; V. paints her feathers under her eyes red; injures the Snakes with arrows; the Toad goes to treat them; V. persuades the Toad return; he comes under the guise of a Toad Healer, finishes off the wounded; other Snakes first cause a world fire, then a flood; V. escapes in a boat or on top of a pine tree; sends the Pigeon to bring a branch, tells Muskrat dive, get the earth from the bottom; both complete tasks, but fall or float dead; V. revives them; puts a branch of clay on the water, creates earth]: Jones 1901:226-235.

Northeast. Montagnier [see motif M53; Mesh companions Wolf; he says he dreamed that he could not chase the Caribbean by swimming across the lake; M. insists that the Wolf sail; Wolf disappears; The bird {apparently a kingfisher} says that during the day, lake stones raise the Wolf to the island and pull him back at night; M. rewards the Bird with fish; hides in the hollow of a tree on the island; when stones they fall asleep, hit them with a spear, run away with the Wolf; the Frog goes to heal the wounded stones; M. asks her what she is doing, killing them, pulling her skin; whistles, pouring cold water on the stones, the stones are not recover and die; M. meets women, they reply that they sew bags for the bodies of the stones killed by M.; he kills themselves, gives them to their daughters; they find mothers inside their bodies; see motif L33, racing with Boulder]: Savard 1979, No. 7:28-30.

Plains. Sarsi [the man has a wife and two sons; he combs his wife, paints her face, but every time she goes for brushwood and comes back, her hair is tangled, the paint is blurred, the clothes are dirty; he watches, sees her approach a rotten tree, knocks, says that she has come, snakes crawl out, wrap around her body; the husband tells his sons about this, tells them to run, goes to the tree, calls the snakes in the same way with a signal, kills with a stick, throws her bodies into the ravine, one escaped, but lost her tail; the wife finds only one snake, comes back, her husband cuts off her head, she falls into a tipi, her body outside, her husband runs away to in the opposite direction than the sons; they ran to the river, asked the water monster to transport them; he invited them to eat its parasites; they were frogs; the brothers snapped the seeds from which they had necklaces, the monster is happy, lay down like a bridge, the brothers crossed to the other side; the mother's head chased, saw through the frog, spat in disgust, the monster invited her to cross the river, threw her head into the water drowned; the brothers saw the raft, put a board from there, offered to take food, the elder stepped, threw him on the fruit, sailed; he shouted to the youngest not to go anywhere, wait for him; he returned, but the brother turned into wolf; they hunt together; the wolf rushed after the deer into the river, something dragged him under the water; the old man brought his older brother to the river, where there are fish on the shore; they started shooting at them, injuring the leader; the shaman frog goes, saying that she was called to treat the wounded fish chief; the old man killed him, dressed like him, went down to the fish, found the wolf's skin, revived it, he returned to the shore; the old man told everyone to close their eyes until he was heal the leader, killed everyone, returned to shore; other fish caused a flood; the old man on the raft tells the animals to dive; only the Muskrat dived, surfaced dead; the old man took grains of earth from under his claws and teeth, revived the Muskrat; this is how she dived four times; the old man invited the animals to run around a lump of earth, only the Wolf and the Otter agreed; the earth grew, they came back old, the Old Man rejuvenated them; so three times, after the fourth they did not return, the land is great]: Dzana-gu 1921, No. 4:6-8; assiniboine [two orphan brothers sit by the old man's shore in a boat; the youngest plays, throwing up the hooves of a deer, one falls into boat, the old man pretends to hand the hoof to the elder, drags him into the boat, takes him away; the youngest shouts to him that his (younger brother) legs will become wolf; the old man leaves the older brother under by boat, tells his eldest daughter to take him as her husband; she refuses; the old man says that the young man has become ugly because he cried; the youngest daughter takes him by her husband; every day the young man kills helper spirits father-in-law; when the last one is killed, the father-in-law dies in his sleep; the young man goes looking for his brother, finds a trail, one wolf leg; he is told that his younger brother has become a wolf, he cannot be caught up; the elder turns into a dead moose, animals come to eat the carcass; the youngest wolf feels deceived; the elder grabs it; the brothers live together but are dissatisfied with each other; the elder tells the youngest to drive the moose, he jumps after him into the lake; the Bald Eagle says that he watches dogfish play with wolf skin; that they go ashore to bask in the sun; older brother kills and injures many dogfish; shaman toad goes to treat them; older brother asks him about his normal behavior, kills him, stretches his skin, comes to dogfish; pretends to heal and kills them all]: Lowie 1909a, No. 5:145-147; Omaha, Ponca { identification with a wolf is possible, given the options of neighboring groups} Dorsey 1888b: 204-205 [Haxige warned his younger brother not to hunt on the ice of the river; he chased otters and ended up in a water den monsters, he was dismembered, his skin was hung in the doorway; H. went to look for his brother, cried, the current rivers arose from his tears; becoming a leaf, he got close to two Ducks discussing the murder of his brother, grabbed them by throat, tore the evil one, spared the good; tried to penetrate the lair of monsters in the form of an eagle, leaf, black-headed kite, each time exposed; in the form of a grass snake he got close; becoming human, shot both monsters, ran away; sees, hunting, that someone has crossed his trail; so four days, this is Ictinike in the form of Vulture, is going to heal the monsters; H. asked him to tell me how he will become shamanize, killed, took his rattle, etc.; when he came in, he recognized his brother's skin, whispered to her, the servants suspect something, others claim that he was a real shaman; H. kills monsters (Vulture ordered to quickly put in wounds and take out the hot iron sticks, apparently H. plunged them deeply), cuts them into pieces, cooks; the grass snake looked in, H. filled her mouth with monster meat; ran away, taking her brother's skin, in boiling the spring turned into a stone at the bottom; taking the meat out of the snake's mouth, the monsters rushed in pursuit, could not pull the stone out of the bottom, returned; X. revives his brother four times in the steam room, but he becomes again in spirit; H. says it means that people will die; the old beaver makes a boat, warns of the flood, because water monsters want revenge; if they cannot drown H., they will let snakes into the ground; H. says , who is not afraid, kills Bobrikha; once again trying to revive his brother, turns him into a wolf, himself into a deer], 205-206 [two water monsters killed Haxige's younger brother, hung skin in the doorway; invited everyone animals for the holiday, giving everyone the meat of the victim; looking for a brother, H. got close to two Ducks in the form of a leaf; one says that she was given only a little finger, so she will tell H. everything; tells him about the shaman- Vulture healing monsters; H. rewards this Duck by giving (hitting her on the head) a tuft, making white feathers near his eyes; H.'s tears formed rivers; H. asked Vulture to sing his shamanic song, killed him, took his rattle, an iron rod, a bag; two of the four servants, carrying H. in buffalo skin, disgrace deception; as in pp. 204-205; Bobrich, without recognizing H., explains that the gods (i.e. water monsters) took her to help them fight X.; they would send a flood and she would gnaw through the bottom of his boat; then they would send darkness and snakes; H. says who he is, breaks her skull; on the fourth day in the steam room, she is convinced that her brother is not revive; tells him to become a young deer, becomes a wolf himself]; 1890 [=1888b]: 238-253; throw off Pawnee [Wolf Star (Sirius) envied the Bright Star (Evening Venus Woman), decided that he too will be able to put something valuable on the ground; sent the Wolf after Lightning, to whom the Bright Star gave a bag of stars; he took them out from time to time, they formed a village; the Wolf stole the bag, opened it, thinking that food was inside killed him; this is how death appeared on earth; people carved his skin, brought him for themselves, so they skinned him (Pawnee's "wolf" unit); Sirius is Wolf Star; also Fooled Wolf, Stupid Wolf, Stupid Coyote, Coyote Star]: Dorsey 1904b: 17-18 (translated to Miller 1997:226).

California. Wobonuch (Centrall Hills): Gayton, Newman 1940, No. 40 [The wolf warns his younger brother Coyote not to touch a leather bag full of soil and water; the bag hung on the wall, his Coyote he made a hole with a stick, the water flooded the world, the Coyote drowned; the Wolf made a raft, a net, caught tobacco falling from above, chewed, revived the Coyote, ordered the Duck to be brought, and the Duck to dive; she emerged, saying that she had reached the bottom; The wolf ordered silt to be brought in, promising to revive the Duck if it lost consciousness; under the Duck's fingernails, the Wolf found grains of earth, revived the Duck, threw the earth around him, and a little land appeared; sent the Coyote to find out Is the earth big; Coyote returned saying it was small; telling Coyote to close his eyes, scattered the earth again; when he returned, the Coyote said that the land was great; sent the Coyote to bring the Moose, then the Mountain Ram; said where to live, first ordered mountains to be made in the west (Moose went north, Ram went south, then met); the wolf sent the Coyote to name all the elements of the landscape; called the Eagle, and went to rule the land of the dead; see further motif H34 (Eagle and Coyote argue about the fate of people)]: 39-40.