Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I111. Reptile Earth. .24.-.

The land as a whole, or a mountain range, is the body of a crocodile, dragon, snake (eel).

Tetum, Tsow, Ancient China, Chinese (Liaoning, Henan), Khalha Mongols, Orochi, Horian Udege, Nivhi, Aztecs, Mayans of Guatemala and Yucatan.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Tetum (Timor) [the crocodile climbed ashore, was in the sun; the man carried it into the water; the grateful crocodile began to carry it, but then decided to eat it; the fish and the monkey shamed him; out of shame and out of gratitude, he turned into an island of Timor where people can live; central Timor is the belly of a crocodile]: Sá 196:16-20; Dos Santos 1967 [same]: 19-22; Pascoal 1967 [same]: 258-260 .

Taiwan - Philippines. Tsou [a huge eel blocked the river, caused a flood; people and animals escaped to the mountains; a huge crab descended the mountain, tore its belly with claws; the eel groaned and swallowed water; when the water descended, the eel's body turned into hills and mountains; (cf. The eel climbed to land, causing a flood, people fled to the mountains; the boar dived into the water, bit the eel to death; the waters descended; since then, wild boars have been allowed to ruin vegetable gardens)]: Yoshiyuki Kojima 1993 in Matsumura 2011; (cf. negrito (prov. Camaribes Norte) [earthquakes are caused by the crocodile-like monster lahua in the ground]: Garvan 1963:206).

China - Korea. Ancient China [the idea of China with its topographic features (main mountain ranges and rivers) as three dragons was developed in Minsk times (a book by the brothers Xu Shang-chi and Xu Shang-shu, 1584), citing sources from Tang and Sung times]: Unno 1983:87-90; Chinese (Liaoning) [there was a sea at the site of the Qianshan Ridge (on the Korean border); it was played by an evil dragon; when he swallowed, and then he released water, a terrible downpour fell on land; an unknown young man appeared; an old man approached him; gave him a pearl that spreads the waters and allows him to enter the sea, and a precious ax; the young man went down to bottom; told the turtle that his neighbor wanted to see the dragon; asked the dragon not to rage; he attacked him in response; they fought for a long time; in the end, the young man sat on the dragon and cut it off with an ax scales; the dragon died and became the Qianshan Ridge; the young man was a Maitreya Buddha]: Shen Tinghao 2000:4-7; Chinese (Henan, Wu. Tongbai, Erlanshan District, village (Huangjianhe, 1979) [After Pangu separated the sky from the ground, floods began everywhere. P. found that nine dragons were ugly. P.'s younger sister weaved ropes from the vine, and P. and his sister caught and tied the dragons. P. brought them to the Stone Lion Mountain, sat on top, and sat there, unable to move. The little sister hurried to pacify the waters so that all the water would flow into the ocean. Unaware that the waters had already been pacified, P. got up to go find out what had happened. There was an instant rumble, nine dragons tore their ropes and ran south to hide. Eight made it to Hankou, and one drilled the foothills of Mount Nanshan and hid inside the mountain. Previously, this mountain did not reach the height of Mount Stone Lion, but after the dragon expanded its foot, its top also rose higher, surpassing Stone Lion Mountain in height. Because the dragon expanded the base of that mountain, subsequent generations began to call it the "Fat Dog Mountain." That dragon, settling in the belly of the mountain, pushed the internal waters out and they flowed, merging into the Huaihe River. Stone Lion Mountain came to be called "Nine Dragon Mountain" and "Mount Pangu"]: Henan 2001, No. 5:5-6.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Khalkha-Mongols [V.A. Kazakevich's report on a trip to the Gobi in 1924; the Huge Serpent ("Avarga Mogoy") swallowed a whole camel; and when it died and began to decompose, its fat flowed down to form the slopes of the mountain range, and the vertebrae and ribs remained in the form of mountain peaks; this is how the Tostu-Yastu Mountains ("Fat and Bony") appeared]: Nosov 2014:221.

Amur-Sakhalin. Orochi: Aurora, Kozminsky 1949 [=Aurora, Lebedeva+ under moose ground is still the same - the afterlife (buni nani)]: 326-327; Aurora, Lebedeva 1978 [our continent is a moose with eight legs; when gets tired, changes from foot to foot, earthquakes occur; the spine is a mountain range that divides the earth into two equal parts; trees - wool, grass and shrubs - fluff, animals - parasites, birds - insects flying around; moose is subject to all natural phenomena related to land; around is the sea; on the sides of our continent there are two more in the shape of a fish (Sakhalin) and a dragon]: 28, 35; Bereznitsky 1999 [land - eight-legged hornless elk; mountains - dorsal ridge, skin - shrub and grass, lice - animals and birds; when it changes from foot to foot, earthquakes occur; America is the Mudur dragon, Sakhalin is a fish]: 20; Horian Udege [earth is a stretched dragon lying on a floating dragon]: Podmaskin 1991:55 (LOIE Archive, f. 5, op. 6, vol. 1); Ivanov 1954 [same as in Podmaskin, without reference]: 377-378; nivkhi: Kreinovich 1929:90; 1973 [Sakhalin is an animal, lying with its head north, feet south; it feeds on fish, there is more of it where its head is; the forest on it is wool, people are lice; when it moves, they occur earthquakes; mud is pouring on him - he shakes off like a dog]: 33-34; Sternberg 1933 [Sakhalin is a living creature lying on its side with its head north, feet south]: 49.

Mesoamerica The Aztecs, Mayans of Guatemala and the Yucatan [God D is connected to both heaven and earth; as God of Earth, he is named Itzam Kab Ain, i.e. "whale". Tzul Taq'a (God of the Earth in the Kekchi myth, see motif A3) has the same title, T'aktani, or Mat'aktani, which means "whale" or "swordfish" in kiche and kakchikel (Braakhuis n.d.). Vladyka Chichen in Verapaz from the B'atz line bore the title Mat'aktani, distorted in early colonial sources to Matal (Estrada Monroy 1979:172). Apparently, B'atz', as the former inhabitants of Rabinal, revered God D, i.e. the Old God of Earth, and the head of the line was his priest. Taube found it difficult to reconcile the translation of "whale" with Thompson's literal translation of Itzam Kab Ain as "Itzam Earth Caiman"; he concluded that the whale appeared on the basis of an archetypal Mesoamerican image land like a caiman floating in the world's oceans; in the case of the Maya, it's Itzamna caiman (Taube 1992:36-7). There are many images of Itsamna as a caiman or crocodile, a personification that became very popular during the Post-Classical period (1992: fig. 15, 16, 69). Zehler already assumed that God D had much in common with the Central Mexican old god Tonacatecuhtli, "Lord of our Sustenance", who, like Itsamen, sat on the upper tier of the sky, but was simultaneously connected to the land]: Van Akkeren 2000:235-236, 258 [Sipakna is apparently related to the Mexican monster Cipactli (Tedlock 1996:240); according to Historia de los Mexicanos por sus Pinturas, Cipactli has "a big fish called cipacuac that is like a caiman", which is reminiscent of the title Itsamna and God D, (Ma) T'aktani, whale, or swordfish; quoted in Seler 1963 (1): 114; Maya Yucatana [according to Chilam Balam of Mani's book, Bolon Ti'k'uh (The Nine Lords of the Night) swapped the earth and sky and then killed the (starry) crocodile; his blood flooded the earth with a flood ; B. placed the crocodile's body on a sea of blood and it formed land]: Cook 2019:75 (with references to sources).