Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I136. Rolling wheel. 27.-.29.32.


rolling wheel (which the character turns into) is a weapon.

Romanians, Slovaks, Russians (Tersky Bereg, Voronezh), Northern Ukrainians (Chernigov), Kabardian, Karachays and Balkarians, Ossetians, Svans, Komi.

The Balkans. Romanians [a gypsy blacksmith had a son of exceptional strength, Vacilica Brave; went on a journey; heard a whining, it was the dragon who attacked the horse and defeated it; V. tore off the dragon's head; the horse promised to be a faithful friend; he used to serve the son of the emperor; dragons kidnapped his sisters and then his bride, he himself died; the horse takes V. to the dragons of copper, silver, gold castles, in each kidnapped; V. killed the first two; the third turns into a red blazing wheel and V. into a green one; they fight; the red wheel asks the vulture to bring water and water its hub, promising as a reward dead body; green promises three bodies; vulture waters the hub of the green wheel, the red one explodes; both take their former shape, V. stabbed the dragon; it turned out that horse B took the form of a vulture ., to help him; the mother of dragons is more dangerous; to defeat her, her young daughter must be kidnapped; V. became a kitten; the girl took him and began to play; the dragon says that the kitten has human eyes; is going to throw it into the ice pond, the daughter begs not to do it; then into the oven; the kitten rushes out, the girl after him into the forest, the kitten became V., took the girl away; everything is fine {the end looks crumpled}]: Mawr 1881:38-51.

Central Europe. Slovaks [There is a dark country where the sun doesn't shine. The king has a horse with the sun on his forehead, from which light emanates. So that people can live, he takes him from one side of the country to another. Suddenly, the sun horse disappears. People are desperate. The king and his army are going to look for him. They find a lonely hut in the forest. In it, a tall man reads a big book. He tells the king that he has read about him and that it is useless to find a horse with an army, let him rely on him and find it. He asks him to keep a brave warrior as a servant. The soothsayer and servant travel through six countries, staying in the seventh, where three siblings, married to their sisters, rule, and their mother, a striga (witch). The soothsayer turns into a green bird and asks the queens that their husbands will appear in the evening, tomorrow and the day after tomorrow. A visionary waits at the bridge and kills the elder and middle brother king. The youngest comes on a sunny horse. The visionary comes into battle with him, their swords break, then the visionary offers to turn into wheels and roll down the mountain. Whose wheel breaks will give in. The king wants to be a cart wheel, but invites the seer to be lighter. The visionary wants the opposite, the king agrees. The cart wheel breaks the lung. Weven claims he won, and the king replies that he just broke his fingers. Then they turn into blue and red lights, trying to burn each other out. An old beggar walks by. The red fire promises him a kreutzar if he floods the enemy with water, and the blue fire promises him a penny. The beggar loves a penny more, floods the king's red fire. The blue fire turns into a visionary, thanks the beggar, calls the servant, and they leave on a sunny horse. The old haircut decides to take revenge, takes her three daughters in an armful, sits on the rake and flies. The seer, and especially the servant, is hungry; he sees an apple tree by the road. A seer cuts an apple tree with a sword - blood is shed. This is the elder queen. The seer forbids the servant to drink from the spring, cuts it - this is the middle queen; he does not let the rose pick, cuts the bush - this is the youngest. A little magician with a golden bridle selects a horse. The visionary becomes the boy's servant. The boy is eager to get a princess living in a poplar castle that grows out of the sea. The visionary takes the ship, buys ribbons and jewelry, and goes to the castle as a merchant. Kidnaps a princess who comes down to look at the merchandise. She tells her to ask what the magician's power is. He tells her that there is a tree, a deer grazes under it, a duck in a deer, a golden egg in a duck, and a magician's heart in the egg. A visionary kills a deer, a duck, drinks an egg. The princess gives the ship to return home, picks up a sun horse and flies it to his country. When they cross the border of a dark kingdom, the light from the horse's forehead illuminates the country, people rejoice. The seer renounces half of the kingdom, gives his horse to the king, and returns to his home to rest]: Němcová 1857:215-229 (=Wenzig 1857:156-157, 182-191; =Wratislaw 1890, No. 11:75-82; northern Ukrainians (Chernigov, Nezhinsky district) [The witch girl got angry with the boy and when he was walking home from the walk she attacked him like a wheel and started hitting him; he caught the wheel and "limped it on the peg"; in the morning people saw that instead of the wheel he was "lame" girl]: Malinka 1902, No. 8:271-272; Russians (Terek Bereg) [Ivan, a peasant son, went hunting; the bird Pavá is sitting on land, asking not to shoot, but to feed the year, collecting sheep from all over the world; A year later, Pavá sat on the oak tree, the oak did not sway: feed for another year; the oak swayed; three years later it shattered into chips; Pavá put I. on his back, they fly; the sun is not burning in front - my brother's house; ask rotten box; "Give me the rotten box, then I'll tell you about the PAVA bird. - Don't tell us surfactant birds, and we don't give us rotten boxes!" ; at my father's house: take it, take a rotten box, just tell me about the PAVA bird! Pavá turned out to be a red girl: do not open it until you come home, but if you come, go out into a big meadow; on the way, the bird does not tell you to open it, but I. could not stand it and opened it; there was a house and gardens, food and drink enough, but nowhere to go; three days later, outside the window: give me what you don't know at home, I'll collect a rotten box; at home my wife gave birth to a son; once she caught it, thundered - give it back, man, promised! on the way, 40 girls are swimming, the boy hid the belt alone; gave it when she went out to him; their father is Cosó Kolesó, let I. hire him; KK only has this daughter, others are stolen; KK: choose a bride from 40 sisters; girl: I'll brush a fly off my face; next time I'll wave my handkerchief; on the third, a fly again; wedding; my mother was Christian, tells me to run; three days later my father chased a braid wheel; the girl threw a lash: dark forests from earth to sky; father went for a shovel to make a road; kraebag: a stone mountain from earth to sky; the same; flint: a river of fire; KK could not cross; I. s wife reached home]: Balashov 1970, No. 44:146-151; Russians (Voronezh) [bylichki about a rolling wheel that a witch or sorcerer turns into, for example: No. 56. We were walking along the road. The wheel hoop is rolling in front. He was caught and tied to a tree. A woman is sitting there in the morning, with a rope threaded through her mouth. No. 58. When young people gathered in the evening, a wheel was rolling nearby. The boys threw it into the pond first. The next time they put a wattle fence on the stake. There's a naked dead woman there in the morning. She was quiet and lonely. No. 59. Young people were walking. A wheel rolled under the guys' feet. After knocking down four people, I tried to catch up with the others. This old sorcerer living on the edge of the village decided to frighten the young]: Pukhova 2009:35-37.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kabardian people [sledges strive to destroy too strong Sosruko; offer him to roll a wheel up the mountain; push him with his head; S. performs everything; the old woman says that when S. was taken out of the stone womb that gave birth to him, the blacksmith grabbed his thigh with forceps, it became covered with bone and became vulnerable; sledges offer to roll the wheel with his thigh; the wheel crushed his thigh, S. died]: Lopatinsky 1891a:46; Karachays, Balkarians [sledges know that Sosruk's knees are vulnerable; offer him to stop a wheel rolling down the mountain; he stops him with his forehead, arms, chest, but it crushed his knees; S. sends various birds to Satanai; the Eagle refuses (You did not leave me prey), the Hare is afraid that a wolf will catch up with him, the Dove is flying; Satanay heals Sosuruk]: Aliyeva 1994, No. 48:387-388; Karachays, Balkarians [sledges offer Sosruk to stop and shove back a huge wheel rolling down the mountain; he does it with his forehead, hand, chest; on the way home he picks up a golden ring; when S. was tempered, blacksmiths held him by the knees with ticks, they were not damask; his mother said that the wheel would cut off his legs; the ring was gone, it was a witch, she overheard Satanai's words; the wheel cut off S.'s legs; the Eagle refused The name to fly is Satanay (S. did not leave him the dead game), the Hare is afraid; the Dove brought Satanay, she cured S.; later S. became a granite rock]: Lipkin 1973:77-80; Ossetians (southern) [Gumir commits raid, hijacks sledges; Sozyrko frees prisoners, smashes the village of G., cuts off his head; G. manages to send him to Balsag with a request to send his wheel; S. asks Oak, Hazel, Lipa, Hops stop the wheel; Oak and Hazel refuse because S. broke their branches into arrows; S. tells pigs to eat acorns, and Hazel to be crooked, fit for axes; Lipa says she is powerless, S. tells her to be barren; Hops holds the wheel, S. rewards him - he will be an intoxicated wander; after knocking down the wheel, S. tells him to cut off B.'s legs; Syrdon, taking the form of an old man, an old woman, a girl, advises only to cut off B. ring finger; then B. sends the wheel to harden again to Kurdalagon, and then cut off S.'s legs, because he has a steel body, but his knees remain unhardened; the wheel cuts off S.'s legs; Syrdon begs S. for a horse to report the incident to the sledge, but he drives the horse himself, mocking S.; the Raven refuses to peck at S., because he always provided him with food; S. rewards the Raven, he will always be full; the same Wolf (will be brave), Fox (expensive skin), Hedgehog (gives his mustache for his stubble), Owl (will see at night); The swallow flies to the sledges with lime, Syrdon interprets her words as if S. will return from prey; says Sozyrko that sledges will bury him in a manure heap, cover him with snakes and frogs with skin; sledges solemnly bury S., Batradz promises revenge]: Abayev et al. 1957:331-347; Ossetians (Digorans) : Liberinsky 1978:143-150 [Soslan brings hungry cattle to the pastures of Tar's two sons; these are giants Mukara and Bibitz; S. pretends to be a simple shepherd, tells us what games S.; M. He subjects himself to the same tests; it is jumping on the edges of swords, crushing the head of a rock; dies when frozen in the ice and unable to stand up, S. cuts off his head with his razor; H. swallows without harm hot stones, raises the entire array of frozen water; wife S. Shatana greets H. as a guest, finds out where his soul is, puts sleeping pills; the bird brings a box with three pigeons, in which strength, hope, life H.; S. kills pigeons], 191-197 [little son the herd joins Soslan's army; turns out to be a hero; when Chelakhsartag wounds him with an arrow in the heel, S. must carry him across seven streams; Syrdon takes on a new look (old man, old woman), suggests S. to leave the corpse, or else C.'s daughter will be taken away. Leader; before the seventh stream, when the boy's heart has already beaten, S. puts him on the ground, hurries to the fortress, understands the deception, returns; the boy is dead; he pretends to be dead, covered with worms; C. believes, drives a red-hot spit into his heel; when he comes up again, S. cuts off half his head; C. asks the heavenly blacksmith to forge the copper cover of the skull; S. asks the sun to heat it, the brain melts, C. dies; V. kills himself with scissors in his father's crypt; S. cuts a snake; half crawls away, brings a bead, heals; S. kills a snake, revives V. with a bead, marries V.]; Libedinsky 1978 [on a sledge apple tree one golden apple ripened a day; rer healed people from diseases and healed wounds, although it did not save them from death; at night someone stole an apple; sledges took turns guarding, but to no avail; came Warhag's turn; he sent Ahsar and Ahsartag's sons to guard; if the apple is stolen, one of them will be beheaded by sledges, the other's hand will be put on stakes; Ahsartag guarded until midnight, but then told Akhsar that he could continue to sleep; at dawn a dove flew in; Akhsartag cut off half of her wing with an arrow, the apple fell to the ground; the brothers followed the bloody trail to the sea; Akhsartag goes down to sea; if the bloody foam immediately rises, he dies; if white, let Ahsar wait for him for a year; in the house at the bottom, 7 brothers say that they have 3 sisters; one of them Zerassa got used to in the appearance of a dove, steal sledge apples; if you put on a severed wing and let her eat an apple, she will recover; whoever cures her, she will marry; Ahsartag healed Dz.; a year later he remembered that we must go back to my brother; J. turned herself and her husband into fish and they surfaced; they came to Ahsar's tent, but he was just hunting; Ahsarsag went looking for him, they missed each other; J. mistook Ahsara for husband, they were so similar; Ahsar put his sword in bed for the night; Z. got up, was offended; Ahsarsag returned, thought that his wife had changed; Ahsar fired an arrow into the sky: let him hit me in the place with which touched Dz.; the arrow hit Ahsarsag in the little finger and he died; Ahsartag stabbed with a sword; Uastyrzhi descended from the sky with a three-legged horse, promised to bury his brothers if Z. went for him; when he did, Dz. said that she must wash herself first, went to the sea, went to her father; Uastyrji promised to find Dz. in the world of the dead; her mother sent Z. to give birth to sledges on earth, otherwise they would not recognize their children as their own; Dz. gave birth in the lower tier of the Warhaga ancestral tower; the twins Uryzmag and Khamyts were born; they grew up quickly; H. smashed the girl's jug out of mischief; she advised him to better find his grandfather Warhag, who herds sledges cattle; W. recognized them, brought them upstairs to the ancestral tower; married Dz.; died a year later, Dz died a year later; before her death she ordered her sons to guard her crypt for three nights; H. went to guard, but heard music and went to the wedding; at this time Uastyrji came in, revived Dz., got together with her, she gave birth to a girl, died again; Uryzmag heard crying, took out the girl, she was named Shatana; the same in Kaloev 1980:375; addition: On the third night, Uastyrji came to D.'s crypt, then let his horse and dog go. A year later, dead D. gave birth to Satan, the foal of Arfan, "the eldest of horses," and the puppy Silam, "the oldest of dogs." D. left offspring that formed the powerful Nart family of Akhsartagkat)]: 50-64; Swany [father brought Sosrukv to Straw (=Solomon as a divine blacksmith), who hardened his body, except knees; to kill Sosrukv, sledges offered him to put his head, shoulder blade, side under the millstone; Sosrukv was unharmed, killed many sledges with a millstone; asked him to kneel, the millstone interrupted them; Sosrukv consistently asks coming animals to drink his blood; the Wolf refuses (My power will go to your neck!) , Crow silt; Sosrukv consistently asks coming animals to drink his blood; The Wolf refuses (My power will go into your neck! drinks (You'll take the chicks out with your back and run so they don't tear you to pieces!) , Quail refuses (You'll take off noisily to make everyone scared!)] : Jidziguri 1973, No. 9:84-85.

Volga - Perm. Komi [the Steppe Khan went to war on Russian soil; he had an iron wheel; in it a man spun like a squirrel and drove a wheel; it crushed people; Antipas's vigilante told the prince that his brother Perya can stop the wheel; the wheel rolled to the city, the fire is throwing; Perya covered his face with his skin so as not to burn himself, threw the Horde, tore the wheel apart; refused to take gifts from the prince; said that his his father was a forest fire, his mother was a birch headboard; the prince gave Pere a certificate with the right to own Lupinsky larch forever; P. came across Wers (goblin) in the larch; he offered to pull the ends a stick; P. tied it to a birch tree; V. pulls, the birch is bursting, P. says that it is Wersa's back bursting; V. stepped back from the larch; asks which blow is fatal for P.; he replies that he is afraid of the red-hot silver-tipped spears; at night P. put a birch bark in its place, covered it with a cloak; V. hit him three times with a spear, thought he had killed P.; P. fired an arrow at him, chased him to his lair; V. no longer came]: Plesovsky 1975:139-142.